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Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator

3/12/17: Entire website being upgraded during 2017.  Check out the progress at:

Changeover expected on April 17, 2017:










12/25/16: The eternity before Christmas - The preexistence of Christ before all created things reminds us of his priority above and beyond anything else not preexistent.

12/24/16: Fake news causes Pakistan to threaten Israel with nuclear war. Yes, this actually happened

12/24/16: Netanyahu: Italy's Arch of Titus in Rome Described A Jewish Tragedy in ... - @JewishPress

12/24/16: Netanyahu: 'Crazy' UN resolution labels Western Wall as occupied territory

12/24/16: Times of Israel: UNSC Resolution "Here's the full text of the UNSC resolution. One step closer to war and Armageddon"

12/23/16: NO U.S. VETO: UN Security Council adopts resolution against Israeli settlements

12/23/16: Israeli ambassador backs Trump pledge to move U.S. embassy to Jerusalem

12/23/16: Shakespeare, "Measure for Measure" - "allegorical logic suggests that the play is set during the Roman-Jewish War."


You've heard of postmillennialism, premillennialism and amillennialism. How about for the "ever-present now" as the "Today" of Christ's reign from before creation?

Christ's reign binds sin w/in the individual (Justification), cleanses with a rod (Sanctification), and ushers into the age (Glorification).


12/22/16: Retweeted Von Hash (@VonHash): 'Rebuilding the third Temple, would be your most ambitious project by far.' ~ Kenneth Cohen

12/21/16: Gary DeMar: Fake news is not as bad as fake theology - FXG: "of all Revelation commentaries that are extant from 200-700, not one of them states Antipas was martyred during the reign of Domitian"

12/21/16: Retweeted Byzantine Ambassador (@byzantinepower): The graph I used to learn about Islamic empires many moons ago.

12/21/16: Breaking Israel News: Third Temple on the Way as Priests Prepare Ritual Shabbat Showbreads

12/20/16: "Coin of Constantine depicting the Christian Labarum piercing the great dragon... in a motif recalling biblical apocalyptic prophecies"

12/20/16: Retweeted Byzantine Empire (@byzantinephil): Last Byzantine church in Ankara close to disappearing - #ARCHAEOLOGY

Constantine converted the world to Jesus, Eusebius declared the fulfillment of Rev. 20:2, and there was 1000 years of Christian rule. Boom.

  • The thousand year reign of Jesus is symbolic of the overwhelming militancy of the eternal gospel & was revealed in the Byzantine Millennium.

  • View endorsed by Catholic Alcasar, Protestant Grotius, English Hammond, Westminster Lightfoot, Postmillen'ist Whitby, Canturbury Farrar, etc

  • Greatest champion of Byzantine Millennium is Dr Samuel Lee of Cambridge. Discovered Eusebius, Translated, Explained: Eusebius "Theophania"

  • Church father Eusebius foresaw Byzantine Millennium "These words, predicted ages before have received in our own day a visible fulfillment."

Nebuchadnezzar's Statue in Daniel 2 portrays Jesus Christ (the Stone) toppling the combined forces of Paganism AND Judaism (iron and clay).

12/19/16: Rick Dolphin "Now that America is wrapped up let's continue the trend to other countries. Everyone knows it was better under the Byzantines"

  • Constantine's Chi-Rho, used to symbolize his prophetic fulfillment of Revelation 20:2, found in England.



  • The Second Passover season in AD 66 (3826) ran from April 25 to May 2nd. The vision was seen the final Sunday, twenty-first of Artemisium.

  • "when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies" = "chariots were seen in mid-air, wheeling through the clouds and encircling the cities" =AD66

12/19/16: "And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky... and they will see the son of man coming in the clouds of the sky" Matt. 24:30


  • Halley's Comet reached first magnitude over Jerusalem in March of 66. It disappeared from view on April 21st, moving in a westerly direction

  • The week after the comet disappeared, Jerusalem was encircled by armies in the sky (Josephus Wars 6:5:3)Vid:10/1/16

  • Visibility and path of Halley's Comet, as seen from Jerusalem ("The Star of Bethlehem and the Comet of 66", British Astronomical Assoc,2004)

  • For the Jerusalem Church the coming again was the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. Consequently, they fled to Pella / Eusebius tells of the earliest Christians’ escape to Pella from Jerusalem just before the latter city was destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.


  • Though preterists claim the "coming again" of Jesus was AD70, it was really in AD66 during the Second Passover. Indicates to us Heb. 9:27,28

  • Evidence and meaning of the "coming again" in AD66 intends to indicate to us our gathering into His kingdom at death

12/11/16: The Evil of Rapture Theology "Rapture theology is a lie intended to destroy Christ's assembly"

12/10/16: HR6421 fails in House; Unanimous consent in Senate. To be re-introduced in January | Text: /

12/8/16: Retweeted (@AnnotatedBible): My Preterist View of Matthew 24 and the "End Times":

12/6/16: Retweeted Reformed Collective (@RefCollect): Preterism, Idealism, & the Olivet Discourse

12/6/16: Retweeted Johnny Simmons (@johnnydrummr): "Savior of the World" #6. An easy to follow introduction to preterism by Doug Wilson.

12/6/16: Retweeted Preterist Conduit (@Preterismtruth): #Christian #Zionism is blasphemy.Christ will never dwell in a temple for he is the temple. Ephesians 2:19-22

12/1/16: Sanhedrin to Trump-Putin: Fulfill Cyrus-like role in Jerusalem - "With the two top world leaders supporting Jewish right to Jerusalem, Sanhedrin asks that they build Third Temple." / “We are poised to rebuild the Temple," Rabbi Weiss said.

12/1/16: 2017: THE YEAR OF REVELATION FOR OUR REIGNING KING "It is time to shatter the myth that Jesus wants a temple building constructed in Jerusalem so that He can then reign over Earth as a king. That message, taught by Christian leaders such as John MacArthur and David Jeremiah, is heretical and it is high time to set the record straight. Jesus is the King of Kings, and is ruling over the nations RIGHT NOW. Let 2017 be the year that the apostasy known as dispensationalism is finally laid to rest."


11/27/16: Todd Dennis - Jerusalem is the Heart (Hebrews 12, AD70, and Our New Creation in Jesus Christ)

11/27/16: SImon Yap - So you want to know who the Beast is? (2015) "Nero’s persecution, which was initiated in A.D.64, was the first ever Roman assault on Christianity. Roman historian Tacitus (A.D. 56-117) spoke of Nero’s “cruel nature” that “put to death so many innocent men.”

11/24/16:  Andrew Perriman - Why I don’t like being labelled a “preterist” "I have to say, my effort over the years to distance myself from modern preterism has been a little tongue-in-cheek, but there is a serious point to it. Preterism frames our reading of the New Testament in a particular way, both historically and hermeneutically. My contention is that the evolving literary-historical methodologies of New Testament studies will provide, in the long run, a broader and more robust basis for constructing a properly “evangelical” theology for the age to come.  What follows is a quick review of my reasons for resisting the “preterist” label."


11/24/16:  Retweeted Jean-Baptiste Piggin (@JBPiggin): Vatican Library manuscripts arrive online Nov 24

11/23/16: Constantine the Great, Harbinger of the Millennial Reign of Christ Eusebius "This remarkable event (the Edict of Milan) was regarded by Christians of that time, and by Constantine himself, as the fulfillment of the very prophecy before us. (Revelation 20:2)""

Byzantine Millennium - "The fall of the Roman Empire is often seen as a major dividing line in European history, but its offshoot, the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, lived on from 330 to 1453, providing continuity as a fascinating cultural and political power. In fact, the Byzantines thought of themselves as Romans, while imposing a predominantly Greek culture and Eastern Orthodox religion over their multiethnic territories, dominating the eastern Mediterranean, Southern Italy, the Balkans, and North Africa. The Byzantine Empire bridged east and west, ancient and modern, until overwhelmed by the rising power of the Ottoman Turks."

11/23/16: Rabbi Shlomo Price: "Olam Hazeh vs. Olam Habo" / "In reference to Olam Hazeh and Olam Habo, (this world and the next world) people also think that one must come at the expense of the other. In order to get to the next world one must sacrifice and suffer in this world. The person then faces the predicament, is it worth it or not, to give up the temporary pleasures for eternal ones. As we will see, this is not so. Not only don't you have to give up This World, but amazingly, only those who strive for the Next World can really enjoy This World."

11/21/16: After some down time, is back online. Though completed in 2009, I still stand behind every point and have yet to see any of them reviewed critically. If anyone cares to look, there is some important stuff in there on the assumptions of what the "time texts" really mean. Please read it in the yearning spirit in which it was written. Twain: “Faith is believing what you know ain’t so”


11/21/16: Teaching the significance of the fall of Jerusalem to young people or non-readers? Below is a list of great and easy reads. Rare originals can be obtained on Ebay if you want to make the reading experience extra special. If you haven't read them, they are available online at the link to Henty's "For the Temple" (which is one of the all-time best books for boys).

  • 1805: George Peter Holford - The Destruction of Jerusalem: An Absolute and Irresistible Proof of the Divine Origin of Christianity, including a narrative of the calamities which befel the Jews, so far as they tend to verify our Lord's predictions relative to that event

  • 1823: C. Johnstone - Josephus' Wars of the Jews, Adapted to the capacities of young persons

  • 1827: Miss Grierson - Jerusalem Destroyed, The history of the siege of that city by Titus

  • 1840: Daniel Smith - The Destruction of Jerusalem, The whole being intended to illustrate the fulfillment of the predictions of moses and the Messiah

  • 1845: Charlotte Elizabeth - Judea Capta

  • 1867: James De Mille - Helena's Household, A tale of Rome in the first century

  • 1869: M.A. Hallock - Child's History of the Fall of Jerusalem

  • 1870: The Fall of Jerusalem and The Roman Conquest of Judea

  • 1876: William Patton - The Judgment of Jerusalem

  • 1884: William Shepard - Our Young Folks' Josephus

  • 1888: G.A. Henty - For the Temple

  • 1890: A.L.O.E. - Stories of the Wars of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity to the Destruction of Jerusalem

  • 1895: Lydia Hoyt Farmer - The Doom of the Holy City, Christ and Caesar

  • 1901: H. Rider Haggard - Pearl Maiden: A Tale of the Fall of Jerusalem

  • 1902: Alfred Church - The Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

  • 1908: Elizabeth Miller - City of Delight, A love drama of the siege and fall of Jerusalem

  • 1999: James D. Snyder - All God's Children The tumultuous story of A.D. 31—71: how the first Christians challenged the Roman world and shaped the next 2000 years

11/20/16: Jerusalem Post:  Complaints filed to police over Jerusalem chief rabbi's anti-LGBT remarks "Two counts of incitement have been filed to the police against Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem Shlomo Amar for comments he has made calling men and women from the LGBT community “a cult of abomination,” and stating that they are liable to the death penalty according to Jewish law." / "Following the publication of Amar’s comments, several politicians spoke out against him, including MKs Yael German (Yesh Atid) and Meirav Michaeli (Zionist Union) who wrote to Religious Services Minister David Azoulay of Shas and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu calling on them to fire Amar."

11/19/16: Robert Arakaki - Pentecost and the Promise of God Fulfilled (2016) "The prophet Ezekiel had a vision of the eschatological temple. In chapter 47, he tells of a stream of water issuing from the altar in the New Temple. As this stream of water gets longer, it grows deeper and wider. It then branches out in various directions and wherever it goes it brings renewal and healing. This prophetic vision was fulfilled on Pentecost."

11/17/16: Charles Guiteau: The truth, and the removal (1882) "Synopsis of my trial for removing James A. Garfield, with letters of commendation and other papers" (Follow-up on the Charles Guiteau post. Just found this reprinting of his preterist book which also includes an account and explanation of why he killed President Garfield!)

11/17/16: John H. Noyes - A treatise on the second coming of Christ (1840) "In the twenty fourth chapter of Matthew, after predicting the unexampled tribulations of the destruction of Jerusalem, Christ says, “Immediately after the tribulation of those days, shall the sun be darkened . . . . . and then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.” Mat. xxiv. 29, 30. The nature of the coming here described is fully determined, not only by the attendant “gathering of the elect,” but also by the parallel description in Rev. vi. The language of John concerning the “great day of the wrath of the Lamb,” ushered in by the opening of the sixth seal, is so perfectly identical with the language of Christ in the passage quoted, that we may reasonably believe he copied it, and we cannot doubt that he used it with reference to the same events."

11/16/16: Preterism made a matter of record in the Supreme Court of the United States / Book written by assassin of President Garfield: The Truth: A Companion to the Bible "Christ's second coming (in AD70) is the pivotal fact of history"

11/15/16: The Third Wall of Jerusalem: Where Romans and Jews Battled "According to Josephus, the Third Wall of Jerusalem began at Hippicus Tower (which some scholars believe is the structure known today as the Tower of David) and had 90 towers in all (War, V.144, 158). In front of the wall, the IAA team discovered more than 70 ballista and sling stones—what the archaeologists believe are the remains of Roman warfare in the First Jewish Revolt." (Click here to watch a video of Avner describing the finds on-site.)

11/9/16: Babylon Bee - ‘The True Election Was In Eternity Past,’ Annoying Calvinist Keeps Reminding Everyone

11/6/16: PDF: J.A. Herbert: Titus and Vespasian, or the destruction of Jerusalem in rhymed couplets / edited from the London and Oxford MSS | All manuscripts

Plot Summary

"The poem opens with an account of Christ’s ministry and his persecution by the Jews, culminating in the Crucifixion. While he is in the tomb, Joseph of Arimethea is miraculously released from prison, but is recaptured after he begins to preach. After the Resurrection, Christ gives Jerusalem’s citizens forty years to repent: otherwise the destruction of their city will complete the Israelites’ three-fold punishment, adding dispersion to pilgrimage and servitude. Despite many strange portents, however, the Jews remain impenitent, martyring St James the Less as God prepares his vengeance.

Vespasian, King of Gascony and vassal of the Emperor Nero, suffers from leprosy and has a bee-hive in his nose. One day his son, Titus, intercepts a ship carrying tribute from Pilate, Governor of Judea, to Rome. When he asks for a cure for his father, the captain describes the healing miracles of Christ and continues on Pilate’s errand. The poet recounts Pilate’s life, from his beginnings as the illegitimate son of a Spanish king to his friendship with the tyrannical Herod.

The steward Velocian travels to Jerusalem, seeking Christ and a cure for Vespasian’s disease. He lodges with the Christian Jacob and meets Veronica, who possesses a cloth imprinted with Christ’s image (the Vernicle). She returns to Gascony with Velocian and Pope Clement explains Christianity to Vespasian who professes his faith, kisses the cloth, and is healed. He refuses, however, to be christened until he has avenged Christ’s death. Leaving Clement in charge of his country, he and his men depart for Jerusalem.

As they approach, Pilate gathers his supporters, including Herod’s son, Archelaus. On Easter day AD 34 the Romans surround the city, erecting siege engines and ingeniously filling a valley with water. Five years into the siege, Vespasian briefly travels to Rome when he succeeds Nero as Emperor, but returns soon afterwards. Meanwhile within Jerusalem, Jacob is imprisoned for advising Pilate to surrender, but is transported out of the city by an angel and joins the Romans. The Jews attempt to fight, but are forced back into the city where famine sets in. When a woman roasts her child, Pilate orders the people to eat their treasure but cannibalism soon becomes rife. The secretly Christian Josephus reports conditions to Jacob, but refuses to support the un-baptised Vespasian. .

After seven years, the Jews and Pilate finally surrender. Josephus flees, but eventually joins Vespasian and cures the sickly Titus. Vespasian releases the Christians, including Joseph of Arimathea, but has no mercy on the Jews. He sells them thirty for a penny to his men, who extract their treasure by torture. Titus destroys Jerusalem, leaving the survivors homeless until Doomsday. Pilate refuses to repent and kills himself in prison: his body turns both water and land noxious until it is miraculously enclosed in rock. The poem describes the life of another famous suicide, Judas, who became a disciple after accidentally killing his father and marrying his mother.

After conquering the other towns in Judea, Vespasian returns to Rome where he and all his men are christened. Temples are converted into churches, and the Vernicle is enshrined in St Peter’s, where Clement anoints Vespasian as Emperor. He rules well, and when he dies miracles occur at his tomb. When the Jews attempt to rebuild their city, they are destroyed by miraculous fire."

11/4/16: Rome and Jerusalem at War - The destruction of the Jewish Temple (Video)

11/3/16: Josephus and the Book of Revelation Case Studies "The Wars of the Jews” by Josephus is (a) major source of evidence that Revelation was written before 70 AD. This work by Josephus was published in 75 AD, less than 15 years after Revelation was written. It contains seven books, most of which cover the Jewish-Roman War of 66-73 AD.

In this message I want to present nine case studies showing parallels between the book of Revelation and “The Wars of the Jews.” As we look at these parallels, consider what they mean for the popular idea that John wrote Revelation around 95 AD. Some of the parallels are so striking that a person would basically have to conclude that John borrowed from the earlier writings of Josephus, and then used the language of Josephus to prophesy of a much later war. We know, however, that John wrote his prophecies first, and Josephus wrote his works a decade or so later. John wrote before the Jewish-Roman War and Josephus wrote after the war."

10/22/16: Archaeologists find battle site where Romans breached Jerusalem's Wall "Discovery confirms Josephus’s account of the conflict that saw destruction of Second Temple nearly 2,000 years ago, says Israeli Antiquities Authority"

10/20/16: Ken Gentry: Have We Missed The Second Coming? (New Book)

"Perhaps the title of this book intrigues you: Have We Missed the Second Coming? But if you are in an evangelical church a real possibility exists that you might soon experience a new doctrine invading your church and disrupting its peace.

The hyper-preterist movement teaches that Jesus’ second coming occurred in the first century when the Jewish temple was destroyed in AD 70. And that the great resurrection occurred at the same time. And that the resurrection body is spiritual rather than physical. And that the judgment of men occurred in AD 70 as well. And many other errors are gradually developing as it "integrates downward into the void" (to use an apt Van Til phrase).

Hyper-preterism is a new theological construct in evangelical circles. It has developed a rather enthusiastic and combative body of followers. What they lack in numbers, they more than make up for in noise."

9/30/16: Origen on the "watchers" of Lam. 4:14 (AD 225) "Such beings, therefore, who were in attendance even in the divine temple itself, were tossed about and abandoned it. For Josephus in the account of the siege narrates how 'by night the priests entering the temple, as was their custom for the services, said that they had apprehended a movement and after that the voice of a crowd saying 'we are departing from here'." (cf. Jos. Wars 6-5-3)

9/28/16: Jordan Hardgrave: 3 Facts About The Pre-Trib Rapture You May Not Have Known "The pre-tribulation is all about waiting for Christ to set up an earthly physical Kingdom and finally restore the world in the “future Kingdom age.” In contrast the belief in a present spiritual Kingdom believes Jesus is currently present by His Spirit and is reigning through His Church, the new covenant temple, bringing righteousness, joy, peace, and restoration to the church and the world right now."

8/23/16: Beatrice Groves - The Destruction of Jerusalem in Early Modern English Literature (Cambridge Univ. Press, Sept. 2015)

8/9/16: Peter Leithart: First Covenant; First Tent "The key to grasping the argument of Hebrews 9:1-10 is to follow the use of the word “first” (Gr. protos). There is a first covenant with its regulations of worship (v. 1) and the parable (parabole, v. 9) of this first covenant is the erection of a “first” tent (translated “outer,” but Gr. protos, “first”). By hiding the ark, the altar of incense, the tablets of the law, the jar of manna and Aaron's budding rod in a second tent behind a second veil—that is, by putting a “first tent” as a buffer between Israel and God's treasures - the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the holy place is not yet disclose (v. 8).

The first tent symbolizes the first covenant, a covenant of relative distance and exclusion. The first tent makes it clear that the blood of bulls and goats cannot make a worshiper perfect in conscience (v. 9). If the regulations of the first covenant were adequate, there would be no need for the first tent.

The regulations of the first covenant, he concludes are regulations of flesh that apply only until the time of reformation. “Reformation” (diorthosis) is used only here in the New Testament, and refers to making something right. When that kairos of reformation comes, Hebrews implies, the first covenant will come to end and the first tent will be dismantled and we will be able to enter directly into the holy, where we can enjoy the gifts of God.

When the crooked world is put straight, the path into God's presence will be clear. This is the good news of the tabernacle, a parable for the now time of the gospel.

8/5/16: John Tancock: It's time to leave Tim LaHaye's Rapture theology behind "As we say goodbye to Tim LaHaye, we must be honest in admitting that we don't know for sure whether his Left Behind series bears any relation to what the future holds. I personally think that good biblical scholarship shows he was wrong. But until his ideas are either ultimately confirmed or denounced, let us ‘look forward to the day of God and speed its coming’ (2 Peter 3:12)."

6/9/16: Mel Gibson Planning 'Passion of the Christ' Sequel "Mel Gibson and writer Randall Wallace are working on a sequel to The Passion of the Christ "I always wanted to tell this story," (Wallace) said. "The Passion is the beginning and there's a lot more story to tell."

5/15/16: The Book of Revelation Was Written Before AD 70 "Evidence in support of the pre-AD 70 date includes a quote from Clement of Alexandria (AD 150-AD 220), who plainly stated it was Nero who banished John to Patmos, not Emperor Domitian."

5/9/16: Scott Clark: Covenant Theology Is Not Replacement Theology "It has been widely held by Reformed theologians that there will be a great conversion of Jews. Some call this “anti-Semitism.” This isn’t anti-Semitism, it is Christianity. Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6). The alternative to Jesus’ exclusivist claim is universalism, which is nothing less than an assault on the person and finished work of Christ. Other Reformed writers understand the promises in Rom. 11 to refer only to the salvation of all the elect (Rom. 2:28) rather than to a future conversion of Jews. In any event, Reformed theology is not anti-semitic. We have always hoped and prayed for the salvation, in Christ, sola gratia et sola fide, of all of God’s elect, Jew and Gentile alike."

5/6/16: AR # 167 – Eschatogetics & Delicious End-times Gravy (Audio) Want to learn about how proper eschatology can actually be used as an apologetic argument for Jesus’ Messianic identity? Want to have fun and a few laughs while you do it?

4/30/16: UK Independent: Sir Winston Churchill: Zionist hero “It’s always important to give history a bit of time to bed down,” says Randolph Churchill"

4/26/16: Christianity Today: Only One-Third of Pastors Share 'Left Behind' End Times Theology Here's how 1,000 Protestant clergy disagree on the rapture, the Antichrist, and other points of eschatology.

4/15/16: Interested in what it's like to study the Bible at WTS? Read this free book by Poythress, Duguid, Beale, and Gaffin:

4/14/16: Dr. Joel McDurmon Why Jesus cleansed the temple twice (a long-standing mystery solved) "Jesus’ second cleansing of the temple was His final judgment-inspection of the house of Jerusalem. It was indeed “the time of your visitation” for the city. Jesus had, from the day of His baptism, focused His mission on that city, and the message of destruction He would one day bring to it. Here in Luke 19:41–46, we see that judgment made and that message delivered. From here on out, it was merely a matter of fulfilling that which was determined."

4/9/16: Syriac Peshito - Apocalypse of John Notice the heading. "The Revelation, which was made by God to John the Evangelist, in the Island of Patmos, To which He was banished by Nero the Emperor" (Thank you, Robert Statzer)

3/20/16: Maidhc Ó Cathail: The Scofield Bible—The Book That Made Zionists of America’s Evangelical Christians "Central to Christian Zionist belief is Scofield’s commentary (italicized below) on Genesis 12:3: “‘I will bless them that bless thee.’ In fulfillment closely related to the next clause, ‘And curse him that curseth thee.’ Wonderfully fulfilled in the history of the dispersion. It has invariably fared ill with the people who have persecuted the Jew—well with those who have protected him. The future will still more remarkably prove this principle.”

Drawing on Scofield’s rather tendentious interpretation, Hagee claims, “The man or nation that lifts a voice or hand against Israel invites the wrath of God.”

3/19/16: Christopher Hays: When the Son of Man Didn't Come: A Constructive Proposal on the Delay of the Parousia "The delay of the Parousia—the second coming of Christ—has vexed Christians since the final decades of the first century. This volume offers a critical, constructive, and interdisciplinary solution to that dilemma. The argument is grounded in Christian tradition while remaining fully engaged with the critical insights and methodological approaches of twenty-first-century scholars. The authors argue that the deferral of Christ’s prophesied return follows logically from the conditional nature of ancient predictive prophecy: Jesus has not come again because God’s people have not yet responded sufficiently to Christ’s call for holy and godly action. God, in patient mercy, remains committed to cooperating with humans to bring about the consummation of history with Jesus’ return."

3/16/16: Babylon Bee: Thrift Stores, Landfills No Longer Accepting Rapture Fiction "Items being considered for next year’s ban list, according to an anonymous source within a top ecological agency, include heaven-tourism books, WWJD bracelets, and Steven Curtis Chapman cassettes."

3/12/16: Corey Shultz: Hyper and Full Preterism "The adjective "full" is often used in conjunction with the word Preterism. This use of the word with Preterism is meant to describe a more complete version of Preterism. The definition of the word Preterist, means to believe the apocalypse is fulfilled. However, there exists a battle (supposedly) for the ownership of the word Preterism."

3/9/16: Dr. Michael Brown: Christians Must Reject This Dangerous End Times Mentality / You must read this article by Dr. Michael Brown. Dr. Brown and I debated last year on the topic of "Replacement Theology." One of the points I made was how certain prophetic systems discount the future based on the premise held by many that we are living near the end of prophetic history so why bother working for change. If I can't get people to wake up over this issue, maybe Dr. Brown can. "Christians Must Reject This Dangerous End Times Mentality":

3/5/16: 15 Preterist Views The Facebook group “Genuine Preterism” would like to put out this follow up letter to all of the Facebook Preterist groups regarding our recent project. To date we have 15 views submitted to this project resulting in the following views:

  1. Charismatic Preterism
  2. Comprehensive Grace/Pantelism
  3. Covenant Eschatology
  4. Essential Body View
  5. Evangelical Preterism
  6. Fulfilled Revelation Theology
  7. Full Revelation Bible View
  8. Israel Only View
  9. Literal Millennial Reign Preterism
  10. Narrative-Critical Fulfilled View
  11. Natural 2 Spiritual View
  12. Post-Apocalyptic View
  13. Preterist Idealism
  14. Synthesis Eschatology/Preterist Idealist View
  15. Temporary Ekklesia Theory

This project has demonstrated how diverse Preterism is. This project has also shown that no single view owns Preterism. All of these views own Preterism. The common denominator between all of these views is the following five points (with the exception of Preterist-Idealism):

  1. All scriptures have been fulfilled.
  2. The coming has already happened.
  3. The resurrection has already taken place.
  4. The gathering has already taken place.
  5. The millennial reign has already taken place.

As there is great division in beliefs among those claiming to be Preterist, there is also a great opportunity to open up dialogue between these views and discuss these differences. We would like to encourage email debates and discussions inside of groups instead of banning certain views people do not like. As long as Preterism is in development, dialogue should be open to all views. Anything else is a betrayal to the movement.

3/1/16: Gary DeMar: Should We be Concerned About the World if it’s All about to End? "I know that Bible prophecy is popular today (as it’s been popular any time there’s been a war, an earthquake, or some dictator claims he wants to rule the world), but most of it is fabricated."

2/27/16: David Dean: Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible: A Critical Evaluation of Dispensational Theology

"The author has purposed in the writing of Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible to provide an objective analysis of the multiple doctrinal as well as prophetic issues raised in the extensive notes and commentaries included with the scripture text of the various and changing printings of the Scofield Reference Bible. Through an objective examination of this work of Cyrus Scofield and his editorial committee, many obvious conflicts and contradictions are revealed"

1/25/16: UK Independent: Doomsday Clock: Scientists prepare to announce whether humanity is closer to apocalypse than ever before

1/22/16: Jerry White: "This concept of "idealism" has be a genuine comfort to me. There are really only two other ways of looking at the so-called prophecy/end times doctrine (at least within Christian circles): historical/preterism or futurism - or some hybrid of all of these. But the only one that does justice to the message of the Gospel is the one that points to Christ alone and his eternal kingdom. Any other perspective is deficient inasmuch as its focus belongs to things that are perishing. Once again, I appreciate these great charts Todd Dennis has put together!"

1/19/16: Jack Kelley: Idealists, Preterists, And Futurists "In essence then, while futurists look forward to the ultimate fulfillment of Biblical prophecy, preterists look back and find its fulfillment in history. As you can imagine, while people are looking in opposite directions it’s almost impossible for them to have the same view. So which one is more consistent with God’s word?"

1/19/16: Titus Flavius Josephus and the Prophet Jeremiah "The prophet Jeremiah also urged total surrender to a militarily superior foe, the Babylonians. He tried to escape Jerusalem, and, much like Titus Flavius Josephus, was accused of trying to defect. Avishai Margalit asks: how is it that the Biblical prophet Jeremiah is revered while Josephus is criticized?"

1/18/16: Rushdoony Interviews Dr. John Weaver (1997) On Dominion, Dispensationalism, and the Door of Hope in the Valley of Achor | Audio Archives

1/18/16: Infowars: The Rapture is a Lie! (Video) Alex Jones breaks down why the rapture is a big lie and total mind control by the religious establishment that are with the NWO.

1/14/16: Dr. Joel McDurmon: “All Israel will be Saved”: What it really means "But the question that arises from modern Zionists, dispensationalists, and others who wish to see some form of restored physical Israel and temple, is whether God intends to save the whole physical nation of Israelites in the future. Does Paul’s argument that “all Israel will be saved” pertain to physical, ethnic Israel?"

1/13/16: Best of BAM: Q&A: Pleading the Blood, Deathbed Conversions, and Full Preterism / Hank Hanegraaff on Full Preterism at 45:00 "I am a full preterist and churches I attend want to break fellowship with me over this. Should this be a test of fellowship?" | BAM Preterist Archive

1/12/16: Maurice Perry: Restoring Sanity in the Western Church: Cessationalism (PDF) "There have been questions raised and ongoing (great) discussions as to what the meaning is of 'perfect' in 1 Corinthians 13."

1/12/16: Simeon Edigbe: The parable of the vineyard "It speaks on events that border on eschatological events, relating to arrival of the Messiah in his kingdom and describes the vindication of the martyrs in the first century leading to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD70. 

"Jesus is that cornerstone. He becomes the foundation upon which the kingdom is built. The events of the parable were literally fulfilled in their rejection and crucifixion of Christ"

1/12/16: JL Packer's Rare Puritan Library Free Online / All Resources

1/11/16: Charles Meek and Bruce Thevenot: The Preterist-Idealist View of Eschatology:  Some Threshold Reflections (.doc file) :"We are sympathetic to the preterist-idealist model as an experiment in progress. We simply see little benefit that is added by the label “idealist.” Certainly, while the visible fabric of the Old Covenant was washed away in AD 70 with the events surrounding the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, the initiation of the New Covenant by Jesus in the 1st century was just a beginning, not an end. For example, while eschatology was completely fulfilled in AD 70 soteriological application has no end. Man’s sinful nature did not end in AD 70, thus our ongoing need for salvation, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness. Indeed, God continues to judge nations and individuals (Psalm 2:8-12; 110; Daniel 7:27; Acts 10:42-43; Romans 1:18; 2:2-16; 14:12; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Hebrews 9:27; 13:4; Revelation 2:10; 11:15; 14:13; etc.). Todd has noticed, no doubt, that there is a strain of preterist adherents who reject what we have just written. However, in our judgment, he is mistaken to conclude so broadly that “the differences between Preterism and Idealism are actually quite fundamental.”

1/8/16: Chuck Cisco: Yes there were gifts of the spirit after AD70 Don't stick your head in the sand, silly! Of course there were miracles and gifts of the Spirit after AD 70. The scripture, history and personal experience all testify to that truth. 

1/8/16: Gary DeMar: Why bother if the end is near?

  • “This world is not going to get any easier to live in. Almost unbelievably hard times lie ahead. Indeed, Jesus said that these coming days will be uniquely terrible. Nothing in all the previous history of the world can compare with what lies in store for mankind.”

  • “What a way to live! With optimism, with anticipation, with excitement. We should be living like persons who don’t expect to be around much longer.”

  • “I don’t like cliches but I’ve heard it said, ‘God didn’t send me to clean the fish bowl, he sent me to fish.’ In a way there’s a truth in that.” If you don’t clean the fish bowl, the fish die.

  • “The premillennial position sees no obligation to make distinctly Christian laws."

  • Ted Peters writes that dispensationalism “functions to justify social irresponsibility,” and many “find this doctrine a comfort in their lethargy.

12/31/15: William Finck, Methods of Interpreting Prophecy - "There are a lot of hare-brained preterist websites on the internet." (Audio, 1:40:22)


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Corey Shultz Interview Series (2015) Shultz interviews various present and former members of the Preterist community:

  1. Tina Rae Collins – Agnostic

  2. Todd Dennis – Preterist Idealism

  3. Roderick Edwards – Former Preterist

  4. Larry Siegle - Covenant Eschatology

  5. Rivers of Eden - Preterism

  6. Mark Mountjoy - Atavist Bible Eschatology

James Murray of Torquay (1868) The Force of the Chronological Interpretation of Prophecy, Viewed in the Light of Apostolic Facts, and of the True Genius of Christianity, Relating to the End of the World, and the Coming of the Son of Man. An Answer to the Chronological Weakness of Prophetic Interpretation, by a Beneficed Clergyman of the Church of England "It is manifest that these warnings and encouragements had reference to the same events, to the consolations and deliverance to be experienced by the then living saints, from those that "troubled them" at the period of the destruction of Jerusalem, in James' day so near at hand, as that he could say, "the Judge standeth before the door." The limit of all this was the destruction of Jerusalem. What did the destruction of Jerusalem mean? What does it still teach?" (ibid, 21)

Exhaustive List of Mt. 27:25 in Patristic Writers: "the most interesting reference is one in ps.Cyprian, which reveals that, rather than Christians taunting Jews as Christ-killers, some Jewish polemicists were not above taunting the Christians with the fact that the Jews had put the god of the Christians to death! No doubt while Christianity was illegal, and Judaism was not, such incidents did take place. Once Christianity was legal, and favoured by emperor after emperor, the boot was on the other foot."

Origen, Commentary on Matthew. "And what was more unseemly than the fact, that they all said in His case, “Crucify Him, crucify Him,” and “Away with such a fellow from the earth”? And can this be freed from the charge of unseemliness, “His blood be upon us, and upon our children”? Wherefore, when He was avenged, Jerusalem was compassed with armies, and its desolation was near, and their house was taken away from it, and “the daughter of Zion was left as a booth in a vineyard, and as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, and as a besieged city.” (Book 14, ch. 19)

Chrysostom on Hebrews 9:11 Of good things to come (τῶν γενομένων ἀγαθῶν)

F.F. Bruce "But now Christ has appeared as high priest of the good things which have come to pass (The majority reading is "the good things that are to come", but the weight of the evidence favors "the good things that have come" (so P.46 B D* 1611 1739 2005 with the Syriac versions, Chrysostom, and Cyril of Jerusalem).

Vincent's "According to this reading the A.V. is wrong. It should be "of the good things realized," or that have come to pass. The A.V. follows the reading μελλόντων about to be. So Tischendorf and Rev. T. Weiss with Westcott and Hort read γενομένων. Blessings not merely prophetic or objects of hope, but actually attained; free approach to God, the better covenant, personal communion with God, the purging of the conscience."

Chrysostom: "Christ foretold many things. If those former things did not come to pass, then do not believe them; but if they all came to pass, why doubt concerning those that remain? And indeed, it were very unreasonable, nothing having come to pass, to believe the one, or when all has come to pass, to disbelieve the others.

But I will make the matter more plain by an example. Christ said, that Jerusalem should be taken, and should be so taken as no city ever was before, and that it should never be raised up: and in fact this prediction came to pass. He said, that there should be "great tribulation" (Matthew 24:21), and it came to pass. He said that a grain of mustard seed is sown, so should the preaching [of the Gospel] be extended: and every day we see this running over the world. He said, that they who left father or mother, or brethren, or sisters, should have both fathers and mothers; And this we see fulfilled by facts. He said, "in the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world" (John 16:33), that is, no man shall get the better of you. And this we see by the events has come to pass."

Francis X. Gummerlock: Revelation and the First Century - Among the many new insights gained in this book, you will read from many early and medieval Christians who believed:

John wrote Revelation before A.D. 70
“The hour of testing” (Rev 3:10) occurred immediately after the death of Nero
The Emperor Titus was one of the horsemen of the Apocalypse
The seal and trumpet judgments were fulfilled in the Roman-Judean war
The Roman Emperor Nero was the beast of Revelation 13
Nero’s name was used in calculation of the number of the beast, 666

Perhaps even more impressive, Dr. Gumerlock has combed through dozens of ancient manuscripts that have never before been translated into English. Revelation and the First Century will lead to a number of historical reassessments of Bible prophecy.

Was Josephus familiar with the Apocalypse of John?
 Or John with Wars?

John's Revelation - “And there were noises and thundering and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth.” (16:18)

Josephus - “for there broke out a prodigious storm in the night, with the utmost violence, and very strong winds, with the largest showers of rain, with continued lightnings, terrible thunderings, and amazing concussions and bellowings of the earth, that was in an earthquake. These things were a manifest indication that some destruction was coming upon men, when the system of the world was put into this disorder; and any one would guess that these wonders foreshowed some grand calamities that were coming” (“Wars of the Jews” 4:4:5)
John's Revelation - "Now the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.” (16:19)

Josephus - “it so happened that the sedition at Jerusalem was revived, and parted into three factions, and that one faction fought against the other; which partition in such evil cases may be said to be a good thing, and the effect of divine justice.” (5:1:1)

John's Revelation - “And great hail from heaven fell upon men, each hailstone about the weight of a talent.” (16:21)

Josephus -  “Now the stones that were cast were of the weight of a talent, and were carried two furlongs and further. The blow they gave was no way to be sustained, not only by those that stood first in the way, but by those that were beyond them for a great space. As for the Jews, they at first watched the coming of the stone, for it was of a white color, and could therefore not only be perceived by the great noise it made, but could be seen also before it came by its brightness;” (5:6:3)

David Chilton: Rare David Chilton Lecture Series “The Days of Vengeance” The Days of Vengeance is an extraordinary exposition of the book of Revelation and has undoubtedly been welcomed as a cool drenching rain upon a dry, thirsty ground. Long parched and impoverished by speculative spectacularization, the evangelical scholastic wilderness can do naught but soak in Chilton’s careful and literate commentary.  The Days of Vengeance is phenomenal. It is big (nearly 750 pages big, going where no commentary has dared to go before). It is brash (marshalling mountains of long forgotten evidence to the cause). It is a brazen bravura, a delight, a tour de force.

Rare David Chilton Lecture Series “The Days of Vengeance”

David Chilton
M.Div. PhD.

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Charles Schultz Says:

"Don't worry about the world coming to an end today. It's already tomorrow in Australia."

"the only real apocalypse is the personal one."
Echo's Answer

“There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.”
Hamlet: Act 1, Scene 5, Page 8

All PDF Files

Administrative: Simple Classification and Color Schemes Given to Distinguish Between Forms of Fulfillment Eschatology: 

Futurism (F) - (No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st C. - Types of Future Events Only)
Historical Preterism (HP) - (Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)
Modern Preterism (MP) - (Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Hyper Preterism (HyP) - (Absolute Fulfillment of all Bible prophecy - Full Preterism and "Resurrection Past" Teachings; Full Preterism is systematized Hyper Preterism - All Full Preterism is Hyper Preterism, but not all Hyper Preterism is Full Preterism.) 

AD70 is awesome!  ..when used as a template of how Jesus has worked, is working, and will work.  When seen as a single working 2,000 years ago... not so much.

AD30/33 VS. AD68/70

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones "Christ is fulfilling the law on the cross, and unless you interpret the cross, and Christ's death upon it, in strict terms of the fulfilling of the law you have not the scriptural view of the death upon the cross."  (Studies in the Sermon on the Mount, p. 168)

Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
By Todd Dennis, Curator

"The work of James Stuart Russell in his book The Parousia is a great labor from a man of the experience of facing the system of the political and church combined operation. This political and church agreement is one of the main subjects of the book of Revelation and the whole gospel. The first century christian were facing the great Babylon. The 21 century christians are fighting with the same matter in a different situation. The new great Babylon is modern and systematic. They have the history as a mirror to look back and to avoid to make the same mistakes of the past. But in effect, as Christ confronted the system in his days the christians must fight the same. In this way the Apocalypse is repeated each time." Juan C. Peña Marrero - Bayamón, Puerto Rico.

The 20-year archive project has no sponsors and sells no advertising.  If you have been blessed, please consider a donation to help its upkeep.  Prayers sought above donations.

Fulfilled Prophecy Bibliography | A Dictionary of the Writers on the Prophecies (PDF) | Works Relating to Jews in the New York Library (PDF) citation in
Holman's Student Bible: The HCSB Bible

The Philip Mauro Library - 60 titles on one CD // The 27 Sieges of Jerusalem // Theology Explained | Google Books | Bibliography of Judaism and Christianity | Rare Books at DTS | Book Search : Apocalypse | Turpin Library (DTS) Rare Online Books Collection

Recanting Full Preterism: Abauzit  Townley  Desprez - "(Full) Preterism has a long history of adherents who recanted. Here are examined the works of three prominent men who embraced preterist or hyperpreterist views, but later recanted." (Abauzit, Townley, Desprez)

Preterism in A.D. 611 : Andrew of Caesarea - On Revelation 6:14b-17: "Our Lord foretold the future events to the apostles who were asking about the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and about the end of time, as much as they were able to receive. These things already happened, in the siege of Vespasian and Titus, to the Judeans who killed Christ, just as Josephus the Hebrew narrates."

Scholars differ on what the Bible says about the End Times (2009) "The only views that qualify as unorthodox are those that deny a future coming of Christ" - Russell D. Moore, senior vice president for academic administration and dean of the theology school at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Ky. ['s classification for "Hyper Preterism" includes (quite reasonably) this doctrine of "The Second and Only Coming of Jesus in AD70"]

The (New) History of Full Preterism (.WMV)


ARTchive Churban

James Edson White - The Coming King (1911)

Vespasian Hearing from One of His Generals of the Taking of Jerusalem by Titus
By Lawrence Alma-Tadema

King James I (1588) "Of all the Scriptures, the buik of the Reuelatioun is maist meit for this our last age..  Iudge yif this be not ye tyme quhairof this place that I have maide chois of doeth meane, and sa ye dew tyme for the reueiling of this prophecie." (Ane fuitfull Meditatioun contening ane plane and facill exposition of ye 7,8,9 and 10 versis of the 20 Chap. of the Reuelatioun - Edinburgh)

"Near" / "close" / "at hand" in the Old Testament

My righteousness is near; My salvation went out; and My arms shall judge peoples; coastlands shall wait on Me, and they shall hope on My arm. (Isa 51:5 LITV)

Vengeance and retribution belong to Me; in due time their foot will slip; for the day of their calamity is near, and the things prepared are hurrying for them. (Deu 32:35 LITV)

Alas for the day! For the day of Jehovah is at hand. And it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty. (Joe 1:15 LITV)

Blow a ram's horn in Zion, and shout an alarm in My holy mountain. Let all those living in the land tremble. For the day of Jehovah approaches; it is near, (Joe 2:1 LITV)

For the day of Jehovah is near on all the nations: As you have done, it shall be done to you; your reward shall return on your head! (Oba 1:15 LITV)

The Philip Mauro Library - 60 titles on one CD // The 27 Sieges of Jerusalem // Theology Explained

King James I (1588) "Of all the Scriptures, the buik of the Reuelatioun is maist meit for this our last age..  Iudge yif this be not ye tyme quhairof this place that I have maide chois of doeth meane, and sa ye dew tyme for the reueiling of this prophecie." (Ane fuitfull Meditatioun contening ane plane and facill exposition of ye 7,8,9 and 10 versis of the 20 Chap. of the Reuelatioun - Edinburgh)

Emperor Titus "God co-operates with us. -- Their miseries, by your valor and God's assistance, are multiplied. Their factions, famine, siege, and the falling of their walls without a battery, do they not manifest that God is angry with them, and assists us?" (Jewish Wars, l. vi. c. 1. 5.)


New 18th Century Modern Preterist: The Hugely Influential Gregory Sharpe, Chaplain to King George III and "Master" of the famed Temple Church

ARTchive Churban

James Edson White - The Coming King (1911)

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The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16-18 - Chapter Five : 1649-1660 - Henry Hammond and the Preterist School of Interpretation "This volume contained a brave but lonely attempt to introduce the preterist interpretation of the Book of Revelation to English soil.  Hammond laid great stress on the opening words of the Apocalypse in which  the book is said to contain 'things which must shortly come to pass.'  .. But those who argued for the preterist interpretation of the Book of Revelation.. were playing to empty galleries, until at least the fourth decade of the nineteenth century.  Their views were anything but popular and those who followed them could soon find themselves branded with the infamous mark of the papal beast."  Others who followed: Herbert Thorndike / "author of an anonymous tract on the Millennium published in 1693 ("Millennianism : or, Christ's Thousand Years Reign upon Earth, considered, in a Familiar Letter to a Friend")"  / Daniel Mace


James Stuart Russell

  • The Parousia (1878) Full Preterist Millennium "violent and unnatural" "Some interpreters indeed attempt to get over the difficulty by supposing that the thousand years, being a symbolic number, may represent a period of very short duration, and so bring the whole within the prescribed apocalyptic limits; but this method of interpretation appears to us so violent and unnatural that we cannot hesitate to reject it. " (p. 514)

    Revelation 20:5-10 Still Unfulfilled "We must consequently regard this prediction of the loosing of Satan, and the events that follow, as still future, and therefore unfulfilled." (p. 523)



The Syriac Version of the Apocalypse

Murdock Syriac (5th Century)

"The Revelation, which was made by God to John the Evangelist, in the island of Patmos, to which he was banished by Nero the Emperor."

Etheridge Syriac (5th Century)


The Annotated Parousia for Kindle: The Classic Study of New Testament Doctrine Regarding Christ's Second Coming

No Stone Upon Another: Studies in the Significance of the Fall of Jerusalem in the Synoptic Gospels

The Destruction of Jerusalem According to Luke's Gospel:
A Historical-typological Moral

 All this proves to be relevant, parabolically, to Luke's readership, a man of affluence and influence, educated, who is expected to perceive in "a history" what should be done and what should be avoided, to discern models of good and of evil, with their consequences for society as he knows it. In effect, Luke's lesson apropos of his account of Jerusalem's destruction is to be construed as a question prompted in the typed reader's mind: If this is what happened to Jerusalem because of the way Jesus and those who represent him, his disciples, were treated, what will happen to my city/nation/society if he (and his followers, who stand for him) are treated similarly? What am I, as a respected man with some influence, expected to do?" (viii)


Foto de la librería


DAN. IX. ver. 20. to the end, usually called,


See Also David Chilton, Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hayne, Benjamin Marshall, Origen, Gregory Sharpe, Herbert Thorndike // Daniel's Seventy Weeks Study Archive

Origen: "The weeks of years, also, which the prophet Daniel had predicted, extending to the leadership of Christ, have been fulfilled" (Principles, 4:1:5).

Six Sermons on the Study of the Holy Scriptures

(AND DON'T FORGET AD 312 or 135 or 79)

Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones "Christ is fulfilling the law on the cross, and unless you interpret the cross, and Christ's death upon it, in strict terms of the fulfilling of the law you have not the scriptural view of the death upon the cross."  (Studies in the Sermon on the Mount, p. 168)

AD70 Storyline Fundamentally Different

Constantine the.. Preterist!

: "I am filled with wonder at the intellectual greatness of the emperor, who as if by divine inspiration thus expressed what the prophets had foretold concerning this monster"


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