(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation
Oswald T. Allis
John A. Broadus
Wilhelm De Wette
Charles Homer Giblin
Johann von Hug
J, F, and Brown
Jean Le Clerc
Jack P. Lewis
Sir Isaac Newton
Dr. John Owen
William W. Patton
Rudolph E. Stier
(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation
John L. Bray
Dr. John Brown
Francis X. Gumerlock
J. Marcellus Kik
Ovid Need, Jr
Milton S. Terry
(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st
C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any
Alan Patrick Boyd
John N. Darby
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
John N.D. Kelly
Dr. John Smith
George Fox |
Margaret Fell (Fox) |
PRETERIST UNIVERSALISM |
MODERN PRETERISM |
WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID
— Euthymius Zigabenus was a Greek
monk of Constantinople, and commented on the Psalms, the four gospels,
the Pauline and Catholic epistles. His catena on the gospels is the
best. Matthsei, editor of the Greek Testament, has lavished many praises
upon it, and although it scarcely deserves so unqualified commendation,
it possesses real value. The meaning is briefly educed in the
grammatical method, and the connexion of the various narratives
carefully indicated. Obscure words are explained by such as are
unambiguous, and the discrepancies of the evangelists removed. A
considerable number of allegorical and mystic interpretations are
interspersed ; but this was the fashion of the age. Matthaei prefers
Euthymius to CEcumenius, for acuteness,
order, a knowledge of Greek, &c.; and his opinion seems to be just.
Chrysostom was the chief source of this excellent compilation.
Rosenmuller has given copious extracts from
Euthymius, in his Historia Interpret. part iv. pp. 328-352.
Francis X. Gumerlock
Zigabenus in the twelfth century adopted this solution. Euthymius Zigabenus,
Commentary on Matthew, On Matt 24:36: "But it is more fitting that it [Matt
24:36] be interpreted in this manner: Nor does the Son know unless the
Father should clearly know. Since the Father indeed knows, certainly also
the Son knows. 'For I,' he said, 'and the Father are one' (John 10:30)" (PG
129:623). More contemporary, the Greek scholar and archbishop of Dublin,
Richard Trench (d. 1886) (cited in John Ankerberg and John Weldon, One
World: Biblical Prophecy and the New World Order [Chicago: Moody, 1991],
127) and Sidney Collett (All About the Bible [New York: Fleming H. Revell,
1934]) held this view. "
"We possess no
historical record of any false Messiahs having appeared previous to
the destruction of Jerusalem (Barcochba did not make his appearance till
the time of Hadrian); for Simon Magus (Acts viii. 9), Theudas (Acts v. 36),
the Egyptian (Acts xxi. 38),Menander, Dositheus, who have been referred to
as cases in point (Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Grotius, Calovinus,
Bengel), did not pretend to be the Messiah. Comp. Joseph Antt.
Xx. 5. 1; 8. 6; Bell. Ii. 13. 5." (On
Euthymius Zigabenus. I.
Opera omnia, in Migne, Patrol. Gr., Tom.CXXVIII.-CXXXI.
II. See the Prolegomena in Migne.
(or Zigadenus) was a learned and able Greek monk of the order
of St. Basil in the convent of the Virgin Mary near Constantinople,
and enjoyed the marked favor of the emperor Alexius Comnenus
(1081-1118) and his wife Anna.1 Being
requested by Alexius to refute the Bogomiles, who had become
alarmingly numerous, he was led to prepare an extensive work upon
heresy, entitled The Panoply} Among the heretics he included
the Pantheists, Jews, the Pope and the Latins. His materials were
the decisions of councils and the Greek Fathers and other writers,
including some otherwise unknown.' In this important work and in
separate treatises4 he imparts much
valuable historical information respecting the Bogomiles, Massalians,
Armenians, Paulicians, and even about the Jews and Mohammedans,
although it is evident that he was not well informed about the last,
and was much prejudiced against them. Like other Greeks, he finds
the latter heretical upon the procession of the Holy Spirit and upon
the bread of the Eucharist. Besides the Panoply,
Euthymius wrote commentaries upon the
Psalms,8 much dependent upon
Chrysostom, and on the Gospels,* more independent and exhibiting
exegetical tact which in the judgment of some puts him next to
« In her Alexiad
(XV. 490, Migne, CXXXI. col. 1176) she extols his learning and
piety. 'Migne, CXXX.
* Migne gives the
Matsalianos; Contra Bogrmilo*; Disputatio de fide earn phUotopho
Saraceno; Dialogus Chrittiani cum Ismaelua (all in Migne,
CXXXI. coL 4048; 48-57; 20-37; 37-40).
» Migne, CXXVIII.
* Migne, CXXIX. coL
§ 151. Eu8ta.thius
Eustathius: Opera omnia in Migne, Patrol. Gr.
Tom. CXXXV. col. 517; CXXXVI. col. 764 (reprint of L. F. Tafel's ed.
of the Opuscula. Frankfort, 1832, and appendix to De
Thessalonica. Berlin, 1839. Tafel published a translation of
Eustathius' "En-loKe\i»; fiiov jiovaxizov, Betrachtungen iiber
den Monchstand. Berlin, 1847. The valuable De capta
Thessalonica narratio was reprinted from Tafel in a vol. of the
"Corpus scriptorum historioe Byzantinse" (Bonn, 1842, pp. 365512),
accompanied with a Latin translation.
IL The funeral orations by
Euthymius of Neopatria and
Michael Choniates in
Migne, Patrol. Gr. CXXXVI. col. 756-764, and CXL. col.
Bibliotheca Greeca, ed. Harless, XI. 282-84.
Neandek, IV. 530-533,
and his essay, Characteristic des Eustathius von Thessalonich in
seiner reformatorischen Richtung, 1841, reprinted in his "Wisaenschaftliche
Abhandlungen," Berlin, 1851, pp. 6-21, trans, in Kitto's " Journal
of Sacred Literature," vol. IV., pp. 101 sqq.
Euthymius Zigabenus or Zigadenus or Zygadenus (d.
after 1118) was a 12th century monk and commentator on the
Bible. He was
a friend of the Byzantine emperor
Alexius I Comnenus, for whom he wrote a lengthy work on heresies,
Panoplia Dogmatica or Panoply. This began in the apostolic era
and continued down to the
Bogomils, some of whom he personally examined. The entry on the Bogomils
is our main source of information about them. Nothing is known about his
He belonged to the order of St. Basil and lived in the monastery of the
Virgin Mary near Constantinople. He was favoured by both the emperor and his
Anna Comnena, who extols his learning and piety in her Alexiad.
He also wrote a commentary on the Psalms, one on the four gospels, and
one on the letters of St. Paul. These are based mainly on patristic sources.
Spurious works under his name include "The Exposition of the
Nicene-Constantinople Creed" and "Dialogue with a Muslim".
Pericope Adulterae in John
Bruce Metzger argued that "No Greek Church Father prior to Euthymius
Zigabenus (twelfth century) comments on
this passage, and Euthymius declares that the accurate copies of the
Gospel do not contain it".
But this is somewhat misleading, in that Didymus the Blind discusses it,
albeit not in John's gospel, and Jerome also refers to it, among others.
- But it is necessary to know that the things which are found from
this place to that where it is said: Therefore Jesus again spoke of
these things saying, I am the light of the world: in the more exact
copies, these are either not found, or marked with an obelus,
because they seem illegitimate and added. And the argument for this is
because Chrysostom makes no mention anywhere of this; but for us we must
also declare that this, because it is not without usefulness, is the
chapter on the woman taken in adultery, which is placed between these.
- J.-P. Migne,
Patrologia Graeca, vols. 128-131.
History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D.
590-1073. section 150. Erroneously calls Anna the emperor's wife
rather than daughter.
German Kirchenlexicon entry with bibliography
E. A. LIVINGSTONE. "Euthymius Zigabenus." The Concise Oxford
Dictionary of the Christian Church. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 29
^ Alexiad XV. 490, Migne, CXXXI. col. 1176.
^ Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New
Testament (Stuttgart, 1971), pages 219-221); from Daniel B.
My Favorite Passage that’s Not in the Bible
Patrologia Graeca vol. 129, col. 1280 C-D, via Roger Pearse,
Euthymius Zigabenus and the Pericope Adulterae, 2009.