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Christ struggles one final time to make Jerusalem relent, but in the end he turns away with the futile warning, "Save thy selfe as well as thou mayst, for I have forsaken thee; to desolation have I resigned thee". Christ cannot save his beloved; rather, he causes her destruction, since the city falls as punishment for the Crucifixion. He knows this. He is aware that, although he became man "to the end that Hell (not Jerusalem ) might perish," nevertheless his coming to Jerusalem has "opend & enwidened Hell mouth, to swallow thee and devoure thee".
CHRISTS TEARES OVER IERVSALEM
The work appears to contain no indication of the exact date of writing, for the allusions at 15. 3 and 157. 2-3 to the plague would have been to the point at any time between the autumn of 1592 and the date of publication, but it seems reasonable to suppose that Nashe was at work upon it during the summer months of 1593.
The first issue must have appeared at or immediately after the date of its entry in the Stationers' Register, Sept. 8, 1593, for Harvey's New Letter, dated on the 16th of the same month, contains numerous references to it.
The date of the second issue, with the new address to the reader and the cancel for X3, cannot. I think, be exactly determined, but it would be natural to place it early in 1594. Nashe is not likely to have waited long before replying to Harvey's attack in the New Letter.
3. General Plan of the Work.
Christ's Tears falls into two main divisions, the first dealing with the crimes of the Jews and their punishment by the destruction of Jerusalem, the second with the crimes of London, which may, if they continue unchecked, draw down a similar vengeance upon that city
The first of these great divisions itself falls into minor sections, as follows: A brief prayer for inspiration (15-16)—An account of God's mercies to the Jews and their refusal to hear Christ (16-21)—An oration in the person of Christ reproaching the Jews for their treatment of the prophets (21-59)—The siege and fall of Jerusalem (60-80).
The second part, intended to show that London has, through pride, offended in a similar way, is divided into a number of sections dealing with the ' sons' and 'daughters' of Pride, namely Ambition (81-92), with its branch, Avarice (92-108)—Vainglory (108-14)—Atheism (114-29)—Discontent (129-32)—Contention (132-4)—The daughters of Pride, and first, Disdain (134-6)—Gorgeous Attire (136-44)— Delicacy (144-7) including the branches of Gluttony (147-8), Lust (148-55), Sloth, with Security, or Carelessness (155-73)—A prayer against the plague (173-5).
The account of the siege and destruction of Jerusalem, for which alone we need look for a definite source, is taken from the work known as the Sefer Yosippon or more generally by the name under which it appeared in English, Joseph Ben Gorton's History of the Latter Times of the Jews' Commonweal. The authorship and date of this work cannot be accurately determined, but it is generally held that it was composed by a Jew living in southern Italy in the ninth or tenth century. Until the eighteenth century it was referred to as the smaller or Hebrew Josephus, and was, at least until the time of Scaliger, highly respected as an historical source. There are many versions of it, and these present considerable differences: the English translation by Peter Morvyn, published in 1558, is from an abstract made in 1161 by Abraham ibn Daud and published with Monster's Latin version at Worms in 1529 and at Basle in 1559. (From the Jewish Encyclopedia, vii. 260b, which see for particulars.) The English translation, which Nashe seems to have used, though he occasionally, after his manner, inserts a scrap of Latin (as at 61. 28-9), was very popular and went through at least six editions before the end of the century. In a few cases, referred to in the notes, it seems as if Nashe had followed Josephus rather than Ben Gorion, and we may perhaps suppose that he was familiar with both accounts, but the similarity of many passages to Morvyn's translation is so striking that it seems impossible not to regard this as the principal source. A few extracts from Morvyn are given for comparison, but considerations of space have made it necessary to give references alone for the majority of Nashe's borrowings.
It is possible, or probable, that the general idea of the book was taken from A very fruitfull and necessarye Sermon of the moste lamemtable (sic) destruction of Ierusalem, and the heauy iudgementes of God, executed vppon that people for their sinne and dissobedience: published at this time to the wakening and stirring vp of all such, as bee lulled a sleepe in the cradle of securitie or carelesnesse, that they maye at length repente them of their harde hartednes, and contempt of God his word, least they taste of the like plagues for their rebellion and vnrepentance, not knowing with the wilfull inhabitants of Ierusalem, the daye of their visitation. By Iohn Stockwood, Schoolemaister of Tunbridge. Luke 13.3 ... 1584. In its general plan and the line of its arguments this sermon very closely resembles Christ's Tears. For example, Stockwood begins by quoting Luke 19. 41-4, 'And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, Saying, If thou hadst known,' &c., and proceeds,' Three things to be noted.out of this text. Firste, of Christes weeping ouer Ierusalem, and what mooued them (sic) thereunto. Secondlye, of the destruction thre[te]ned vnto Ierusalem, and the causes of the same. Thirdly, what wee may learne by this GOD his heauye iudgemente shewed vppon Ierusalem.' He then discusses the cause of Christ's tears over the city, precisely as Nashe does, and proceeds to a description of its siege and fall similarly based on the account of Ben Gorion. The general resemblance between the two works is so strong that it can, I think, hardly be accidental, though Nashe's treatment is considerably fuller and the account of the siege takes much from Ben Gorion which Stockwood omits. I cannot, however, say that I have detected any such close parallels in language as to make it seem likely that Nashe actually had Stockwood's book before him when he wrote; but cf. notes on 57. 19; 61. 26-30. The last part, the application to London, is Nashe's own, Stockwood merely drawing a general moral.
4. After History.
The work does not seem to have attracted any great amount of notice at the time of its publication, and references to it are by no means numerous. Mr. W. W. Greg has, however, pointed out to me an interesting allusion in A most straunge and true Discourse of the wonderfull Judgment of God, of a monstrous deformed Infant, 1600, by one J. R., who, praising certain moral works, says 'Read, I pray you, Thomas Nashe's book, entitled, "The Tears of Christ over Jerusalem ": which book, if you have any grace in you, will make you to shed tears for your sins.' (See HarL Misc., ed. Park, 1808-13, x. 417, from which I quote.) Attention is called in the notes to several borrowings from Christ's Tears in Vaughan's Golden Grove.
The poem called Canaan's Calamity, published in 1598 and attributed to Thomas Dekker, contains certain passages which strongly suggest borrowing from the present work (cp. especially 76. 3-4 and Dekker, Wks., ed. Grosart, i. 42. 33—43. 2), but this is, I think, due merely to the use of the same source.
P. 3. Modern Editions] It should have been stated that Collier printed the Epistle of 1594 in the introduction to his reprint of Harvey's New Letter, in Miscellaneous Tracts Temp. Eliz. &" Jac. 1.
P. 4, 12. dated Sept. 16, 1592] The reader is requested at once to correct the date to Sept. 16, 1593.
16. a cancel] The existence of this cancel was, I believe, first noticed by J. P. Earwaker, who called attention to it in a letter dated Dec. 1889, offering a copy of the 1594 edition to the Bodleian Library for £3 y. The letter has been preserved in the copy in question (now 1. b. 190). The cancel was afterwards independently noticed in the British Museum copies by Mr. H. R. Plomer, who very obligingly communicated his discovery to me, and by myself.
note 1] The first paragraph is not as clear as it might be. I mean that the cancel leaf is joined to (on the same piece of paper as) 2* 1, forming with it a double leaf.
P. 0, 3-4. the Ladie Elizabeth Carey] She was the second daughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe and wife of Sir George Carey. Nashe refers to her in the dedication to The Terrors of the Night, i. 342. 1228, which work was dedicated to her daughter of the same name.
13. mummianizd] The word, which appears to have provoked criticism, is explained at ii. 185. 2-4, as equivalent to 'earth manured with mans flesh'.
18. Text-penne] See note on i. 99. 27.
20-1. Tares ... Teares] Same pun at 183. 19-20.
22. Ospray eyes] Pliny treats the 'ossifraga' as a variety of the 'haliaetus' of which he says that the sight is especially good, H. N. x. 3. The only one of the hawk family which, according to him, has not good sight seems to be the night-hawk ' cymindiswhich cannot see well in the day-time (x. 10). Greene also speaks of 'the blind Osyphrage', Wks., ed. Grosart ix. 33. 6.
P. 10, 10-11] I hardly understand these lines. Presumably ' dead' in the second is equivalent to 'slay', as 'deaded ' at ii. 275. 17.
19-21. Diuerswel-deseruingPoets... praise] Excepting Spencer, I cannot find any poet who had dedicated works to Lady Carey at this date.
21. Maister Spencer] His Muiopotmos is dedicated to her, and there is a sonnet to her among those prefixed to the Faery Queen.
22-4. To the eternizing of the heroycall familie of the Careys ... tasked] This at first suggests that Nashe had written some history of the Carey family or some work especially devoted to their praise. Nothing of the kind, however, is known, and perhaps Nashe means no more than that Christ's Tears represents his 'choisest studies'.
24. high allied] Alluding to the fact that Lord Hunsdon, Sir George Carey's father, was cousin to Elizabeth; see note on i. 375. 34.
P. 11, 1-2. Doues .. . glasse] Doves seem to have been supposed to delight in mirrors. Thus in an extraordinary recipe for alluring pigeons to a dove-house, given in Lupton's Thousand Notable Things (ed. n. d. [? 1595], Z 3) it is stated that we should have 'three or fowre lytle looking glasses within ye Dooue-house'.
3. Barbarie purses] I cannot learn of what kind these were; cf. Lodge, Wifs Misery, 1596, NiT, 'his [Slovenry's] mouth is like a Barbary purse full of wrinkles.'
18-19. Varro saith .. .felicitie] Probably from C. Agrippa, De Incert. et Van., cap. 54, trans. 1569, fol. 75, ' It should be too tediouse to recompte the opinions of all men touchinge felicitie, ... for Marcus Varro gathered togeather of these twoo hundreth eightie and eight opinions, as Augustine saithe.' See De Civ. Dei, xix. 1. § 1, Migne, Patr. Curs. 41 (August. 7), col. 621.
P. 12, 2. Nil nisiflere libet] Ovid, Tristia, iii. 2. 19.
11-12] We might equally well punctuate' suppliant for... pardon, doe I ...'
14-15] Read perhaps ' reputation, though (through ...'.
22-3. mildegentle moderation] According to Nashe, overtures of peace had been made by Harvey; cf. 179. 27, &c., and iii. 92. 33, &c.; cf. also i. 325. 34-5.
P. 13, 1. Retractations] i.e. the Retractationes, written in 428, when Augustine was in his seventy-fourth year. He reviews and explains his former works, withdrawing certain statements which he had come to consider erroneous.
3- 4. some spleanatiue vaines of wantonnesse . . . to supply my priuate wants] This may refer to such productions as The Choice of
Valentines, but it must be remembered that' wantonness ' had a wide meaning.
7. Two or three triuiall Volumes] We may conjecture The Terrors of the Night and The Unfortunate Traveller to have been among these.
P. 15, 3. the dayes of dolor and heauinesse] Referring to the prevalence of the plague at the time.
4- 5. The Lord is knowne by executing iudgmenl] Nashe's Biblical quotations are often inexact, and consequently it is difficult to determine which version of the Bible he used. The present quotation is, however, certainly from the Geneva version, the 'Bishops" (ed. 1588) reading, 'The Lord is knowen to execute iudgement.' On the other hand, in the quotation from St. Matthew which immediately follows, the word 'purge' is only found in B.V., which has 'will throughly purge the fioore', while G. V. (ed. 1382) reads 'wil make cleane his rloore'.
P. 16, 28. Mount Silo] The passage referred to here is Gen. 49. 10, 'The sceptre shall not depart from Iudah, nor a lawgiuer from betweene his feete, unto Shiloh come' (G.V.), where 'Shiloh' is explained as 'Christ the Messiah'. There was no Mount Silo or Shiloh, though there was a place called Shiloh near Mount Ephraim, where 'the house of God' was; cf. Judges 18. 31. In both cases B.V. spells • Silo'.
P. 18, 4-5. natural Sonne] N.E.D. has one instance in 1586 of 'natural son' in the modern sense, but until about 1650 the normal sense of the term seems to have been, as here,' not adopted.'
P. 19, 11. exception] i. e. excuse, counter-plea. 23-4. the 11. of Mathew] The passage is in Matt. 11. 21 ; probably a mere misprint, which should have been corrected.
P. 20, 14. Tamburlaine] See 1 Tomb. IV. i. 49-63, or perhaps rather IV ii. 111-22, for in the earlier case there is no precise reference to the camp being pitched before a town. References to the story, which was well known, are frequent in the later scenes of the play.
23- 4. the obiect of their objuration] I can only suppose that this means ' for their obdurate selves to behold'.
32. S. Augustine] See Migne, Patr. Curs. 39 (August. 5), col. 1698. One of the numerous passages where St. Augustine speaks of the word as an ' adversary'; see note on 32. 16-17. P. 21, 7. cloddred] i. e. coagulated, clotted.
P. 22, 13. Eheu, quantus equis ...] Horace, Od. i. 15. 9-10 ' Eheu, quantus equis, quantus adest viris Sudor.'
30 . Improbe tolle manus . . .] Ovid, Heroid. xx (Acontius Cydippae), 147.
P. 24, 14. the 6. of Genesis] Really Gen. 9. 6.
24- 5. Who stabbeth or defaceth the picture of a King] An allusion to the idea that injury done to an image would cause similar harm to the person represented—one of the most ordinary forms of witchcraft It was pretty generally believed in at the time. Cf. Scot, Disc. of Witchcraft, 1584, pp. 257-8. The melting of images of wax is referred to by Holinshed, Chron. ed. 1807-8, v. 233-4 and Stow, Annals, 1615, 767' (an image of the Earl of Derby). For 'picture' cf. i. 379. 30-1.
P. 27, 1-2. made no conscience to] i. e. did not scruple to.
P. 28, 25. saith the Wise-man] See Ecclesiasticus, 3. 33.
P. 32, 16-17. it1s thy Aduersarie in the way] Cf. Matt. 5. 25, and St. Augustine's exposition of the passage in Sermo 9, cap. 3, Migne, Patr. Curs. 38 (August. 5), col. 76, &c., also col. 1698. The image is frequent with St. Augustine; see under' Sermo Dei' and ' Adversarius' in Migne's index in vol. xi of his works.
P. 34, 5. / altogether lothe] i. e. it pains me exceedingly.
P. 35, 24-5. Ignorantia, si non excusat a toto, saltem excusat a tanto] I have not traced this quotation, which was perhaps from some manual of theology. The point is discussed at length, and a conclusion, with certain reservations, accordant to this arrived at, by Aquinas, Summa Theol. Quaest. 76, art. 3, 4 (Migne, Patr. Curs. Ser. Sec., 2*, col. 593-5).
32-3. Ieremy . . . Wildernes] Jerem. 9. 2.
P. 36, 21. Smithes-water] I suppose that the water in which a smith cools his implements is meant; cf. ii. 316. 7.
34-5. Consuetudo est altera natura] More common in the form in which it is given by Erasmus, Adagia, chil. iv, cent. 9. 25 ' usus est altera natura,'but it stands as here in the Adagiaoi Gilbertus Cognatus, no. 1080 (in Erasmus, Adagia, 1574, ii. 500 b.), who refers it to Galen, De Tuenda Valetudine, lib. 1 (cf. De San. Tuenda, ed. 1541, fol. 14 foot,
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