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EARLY CHURCH

Ambrose
Ambrose, Pseudo
Andreas
Arethas
Aphrahat
Athanasius
Augustine
Barnabus
BarSerapion
Baruch, Pseudo
Bede
Chrysostom
Chrysostom, Pseudo
Clement, Alexandria
Clement, Rome
Clement, Pseudo
Cyprian
Ephraem
Epiphanes
Eusebius
Gregory
Hegesippus
Hippolytus
Ignatius
Irenaeus
Isidore
James
Jerome
King Jesus
Apostle John
Lactantius
Luke
Mark
Justin Martyr
Mathetes
Matthew
Melito
Oecumenius
Origen
Apostle Paul
Apostle Peter
Maurus Rabanus
Remigius
"Solomon"
Severus
St. Symeon
Tertullian
Theophylact
Victorinus

HISTORICAL PRETERISM
(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Joseph Addison
Oswald T. Allis
Thomas Aquinas
Karl Auberlen
Augustine
Albert Barnes
Karl Barth
G.K. Beale
Beasley-Murray
John Bengel
Wilhelm Bousset
John A. Broadus

David Brown
"Haddington Brown"
F.F. Bruce

Augustin Calmut
John Calvin
B.H. Carroll
Johannes Cocceius
Vern Crisler
Thomas Dekker
Wilhelm De Wette
Philip Doddridge
Isaak Dorner
Dutch Annotators
Alfred Edersheim
Jonathan Edwards

E.B. Elliott
Heinrich Ewald
Patrick Fairbairn
Js. Farquharson
A.R. Fausset
Robert Fleming
Hermann Gebhardt
Geneva Bible
Charles Homer Giblin
John Gill
William Gilpin
W.B. Godbey
Ezra Gould
Hank Hanegraaff
Hengstenberg
Matthew Henry
G.A. Henty
George Holford
Johann von Hug
William Hurte
J, F, and Brown
B.W. Johnson
John Jortin
Benjamin Keach
K.F. Keil
Henry Kett
Richard Knatchbull
Johann Lange

Cornelius Lapide
Nathaniel Lardner
Jean Le Clerc
Peter Leithart
Jack P. Lewis
Abiel Livermore
John Locke
Martin Luther

James MacDonald
James MacKnight
Dave MacPherson
Keith Mathison
Philip Mauro
Thomas Manton
Heinrich Meyer
J.D. Michaelis
Johann Neander
Sir Isaac Newton
Thomas Newton
Stafford North
Dr. John Owen
 Blaise Pascal
William W. Patton
Arthur Pink

Thomas Pyle
Maurus Rabanus
St. Remigius

Anne Rice
Kim Riddlebarger
J.C. Robertson
Edward Robinson
Andrew Sandlin
Johann Schabalie
Philip Schaff
Thomas Scott
C.J. Seraiah
Daniel Smith
Dr. John Smith
C.H. Spurgeon

Rudolph E. Stier
A.H. Strong
St. Symeon
Theophylact
Friedrich Tholuck
George Townsend
James Ussher
Wm. Warburton
Benjamin Warfield

Noah Webster
John Wesley
B.F. Westcott
William Whiston
Herman Witsius
N.T. Wright

John Wycliffe
Richard Wynne
C.F.J. Zullig

MODERN PRETERISTS
(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Firmin Abauzit
Jay Adams
Luis Alcazar
Greg Bahnsen
Beausobre, L'Enfant
Jacques Bousset
John L. Bray
David Brewster
Dr. John Brown
Thomas Brown
Newcombe Cappe
David Chilton
Adam Clarke

Henry Cowles
Ephraim Currier
R.W. Dale
Gary DeMar
P.S. Desprez
Johann Eichhorn
Heneage Elsley
F.W. Farrar
Samuel Frost
Kenneth Gentry
Steve Gregg
Hugo Grotius
Francis X. Gumerlock
Henry Hammond
Hampden-Cook
Friedrich Hartwig
Adolph Hausrath
Thomas Hayne
J.G. Herder
Timothy Kenrick
J. Marcellus Kik
Samuel Lee
Peter Leithart
John Lightfoot
Benjamin Marshall
F.D. Maurice
Marion Morris
Ovid Need, Jr
Wm. Newcombe
N.A. Nisbett
Gary North
Randall Otto
Zachary Pearce
Andrew Perriman
Beilby Porteus
Ernst Renan
Gregory Sharpe
Fr. Spadafora
R.C. Sproul
Moses Stuart
Milton S. Terry
Herbert Thorndike
C. Vanderwaal
Foy Wallace
Israel P. Warren
Chas Wellbeloved
J.J. Wetstein
Richard Weymouth
Daniel Whitby
George Wilkins
E.P. Woodward
 

FUTURISTS
(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any Particular Eschatology)

Henry Alford
G.C. Berkower
Alan Patrick Boyd
John Bradford
Wm. Burkitt
George Caird
Conybeare/ Howson
John Crossan
John N. Darby
C.H. Dodd
E.B. Elliott
G.S. Faber
Jerry Falwell
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
Murray Harris
Thomas Ice

Benjamin Jowett
John N.D. Kelly

Hal Lindsey
John MacArthur
William Miller
Robert Mounce

Eduard Reuss

J.A.T. Robinson
George Rosenmuller
D.S. Russell
George Sandison
C.I. Scofield
Dr. John Smith

Norman Snaith
"Televangelists"
Thomas Torrance
Jack/Rex VanImpe
John Walvoord

Quakers : George Fox | Margaret Fell (Fox) | Isaac Penington


PRETERIST UNIVERSALISM | MODERN PRETERISM | PRETERIST IDEALISM

William Miller
(1782-1849)

"The Great Disappointment"

Evidence From Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ About the Year AD 1843

 “I am fully convinced that somewhere between March 21st, 1843 and March 21st, 1884, according to the Jewish mode of computation of time, Christ will come"

 “I am fully convinced that somewhere between March 21st, 1843 and March 21st, 1884, according to the Jewish mode of computation of time, Christ will come, and bring all His Saints with Him; and that then He will reward every man as his work shall be .” (1836, Evidence From Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ About the Year AD 1843)

“brethren, the Roman 1843 is past and our hopes are not realized.  Shall we give up the ship?  No, no… We do not believe our reckoning has run out.  It takes all of 457 and 1843 to make 2,300, and must of course run as far into ’44 as it began in the year 457 before Christ” (quoted in shaw , 65)

“I confess my error, and acknowledge my disappointment” (Quoted in Nichol, 170-171)

“I still believe that the day of the Lord is near, even at the door”


The Great Disappointment of 1844
by John de Patmos
Misketonic University Press, 2001
567 Pages, US$30
ISBN: 0-7388-2356-2

 

 

The Millerite Movement and its sequel are, for obvious reasons, the most studied manifestations of mass millennialism since the New Testament period itself. Indeed, so carefully has this grand finale of America's "Second Great Awakening" been examined that one may wonder whether there is anything new for historians to say. Certainly the author of the present study does not aspire to novelty. Rather, "The Great Disappointment of 1844" performs the invaluable service of sifting through the last generation of scholarship on the subject to provide a narrative that is both readable and current.

The optimism of America in the early decades of the 19th century was reflected in the "postmillennial" view of history that underlay the great outbreak of religious revival and social reform that we know as the Second Great Awakening. Postmillennialism, as all students of eschatology know, was the doctrine that the Second Coming of Christ would occur at the end of the thousand year reign of the Saints, the Millennium foretold by Chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation. The implication was that the Saints would themselves put the world in order in preparation for the great event.

The Second Great Awakening was in fact characterized by a high level of political and cultural engagement by Christians. The reform movements of the time, from Abolitionism to Women's Suffrage to the Prohibition of Alcohol, began as aspects of postmillennial religious revival. While some progress was made on these fronts, the failure of the reform movements to remake society as a whole caused many persons to despair of the possibility that the world could be perfected purely by human efforts. The time was ripe for a return of premillennialism, the doctrine that the Second Coming would inaugurate rather than conclude the Millennial kingdom, which would then develop under divine guidance.

The name that became inextricably linked with the triumph of premillennialism was William Miller, a respectable farmer and keen amateur student of scripture living in northern New York State. His reexamination of the dating of people and events in the Bible, set alongside certain familiar interpretations of the complex prophetic number systems of Daniel, Ezekiel and Revelation, convinced him that the Second Coming would occur around the year 1843. Though his analysis was multi-layered, a key feature of his logic was a demonstration that a proper calculation of the generations mentioned in the Old Testament showed that Bishop Ussher, who had famously announced that the world had been created in 4004 BC, had in fact underestimated the age of the world by a good 150 years. Thus, the six-thousandth year of the world would occur in the first half of the 19th century. Then would begin the "Seventh Day of Creation," a concept long associated with the Millennium.

William Miller was not the first student of scripture to set a near-term date for the Parousia. Still, he was a little unusual in the transparency of his argument and his willingness to engage critics. Miller was never the "prophet" of Millerism; his authority was arithmetic, not personal revelation. It was possible to disagree with his calculations, and many people did. Still, the argument was of such a nature that it could not be merely dismissed; it had to be refuted.

William Miller reached his conclusions about the dating of the Second Coming about 1830. He soon began to disseminate them in print and, more diffidently, on speaking tours. His message took on a life of its own, becoming the template for an interdenominational network of evangelists and publications. People abandoned their ordinary affairs to propagate the gospel of the last days, often giving away their property or neglecting to plant their fields. The precise date for the great event, October 22, 1844, did not come from Miller, or indeed from any of the leading figures of the movement. Rather, it appeared among the mass of believers, who overwhelmingly gave it immediate acceptance.

Of course, as we now know, the prediction was correct. The study of the Parousia Event of 1844 naturally overshadows the Millerite Movement (as it does the contemporary Taiping and Babist movements). However, the Days of the Presence required the creation of a new historiographical discipline, which the present study only briefly outlines. The Millerite story picks up when coherent documentation again begins to become available in January of 1845.

Against the unsettled economic and cultural landscape of the early Millennial world, Millerism presents the not unfamiliar spectacle of a movement destroyed by its own success. The ironic details are well known. Even historical survey courses devote some attention to accounts of the attempts by exasperated Millerites to regain control of property that they had given away, sometimes by arguing in court that they had been temporarily insane during the months leading up to the Advent. Far more important, however, was the fact that Millerism, and premillennial Christianity in general, had nothing to say to the Millennium.

The movement had come into existence as a reaction to the theory that Christians, as Christians, had a duty to leaven the world. Premillennialists had consciously recoiled from the labor of formulating a social philosophy, or even a coherent political program. The Millerite Movement had been entirely about chronology. Though the train left at the expected time, the premillennialists found that they had no idea where they were going.

This vacuum at the heart of post-Millerite evangelicalism had profound implications for the role of religion in the English-speaking world during the 19th and 20th centuries. It is a commonplace among historians that the great events of those years, the US Civil War and the First and Second World Wars, were to a greater or lesser extent "Wars of Armageddon," fought by societies for reasons that were essentially millenarian. All the great social movements of the period were also informed by the millennialist "Social Gospel." However, though evangelicals took part as individuals in the general historical process, they did not engage the great issues on a soteriological level. It was only in the last quarter of the 20th century that they began to emerge from the isolation of the denominational subcultures into which they had retreated. The end of the long alienation of a large a fraction of Christianity can only be applauded.

We will never cease to experience the influence of the events of 1844. Even the completion of the current Sabbatical Millennium will not nullify the process that began with the Parousia of that year. However, there are stories within that greater story, some of the saddest of which deal with the disappointment occasioned by the fulfillment of prophecy. Those stories can have an ending. Thus, though the historical debates may go on, we may hope that the long afterlife of Millerism is at last drawing to a close.



 

William Miller was a farmer from upstate New York who was a veteran of the War of 1812. He started telling people in 1831 that the Biblical prophecies described in Revelation had yet to transpire. And if that wasn't enough, he revealed that they were about to.

Basically, Miller singlehandedly revived the "End Is Near" mania. Lots of other religious figures began making similar apocalyptic claims. Miller drew a large following, and in 1840, he finally announced a specific range of dates for the second coming of Jesus Christ. He said it would occur sometime between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844.

When March 22, 1844 arrived without any perceptible return of Christ, it was kind of a problem for Miller. Thousands of followers had given away their possessions in anticipation of the big day. Not good. But then one of Miller's followers realized that his calculations had been off by one year, because he neglected to count the BC to AD rollover. So he revised the date to October 22 and tried again.

In October, of course, the same damn thing happened. Except this time, there weren't any arithmetic errors to blame. Upwards of 100,000 Millerites had expected to finally meet God Jr. Many of them dressed in white robes and climbed up on roofs and hilltops. But the chosen night came and went. The milestone would come to be known as the Great Disappointment of 1844.

According to one believer: "The world made merry over the old Prophet's predicament. The taunts and jeers of the 'scoffers' were well-nigh unbearable." Nevertheless, Miller hung tough. The following month, he expressed his never-say-die attitude in a letter:

 

Although I have been twice disappointed, I am not yet cast down or discouraged ... My hope in the coming of Christ is as strong as ever. I have done only what after years of sober consideration I felt a solemn duty to do ... I have fixed my mind upon another time, and here I mean to stand until God gives me more light. And that is Today, TODAY, and TODAY, until He comes, and I see HIM for whom my soul yearns.

William Miller finally did see "HIM" when he died on December 20, 1849. Almost overnight, the remnants of his church splintered over doctrinal differences. This fragmentation ultimately gave rise to a variety of denominations, including the Jehovah Witnesses and the Seventh-Day Adventists.

In the 20th century, an offshoot of the Seventh-Day Adventists updated Miller's prophecy by claiming a Biblical ETA of April 22, 1959.  This group, calling itself the Davidian Seventh-day Adventists, broke into two pieces in the resulting schism. One product of this fission decided to call themselves the Branch Davidians.

 

timeline

1 Jan 1843 William Miller commits to a range of dates for the Second Coming: "I am fully conviced that somewhere between March 21st, 1843 and March 21st, 1844, according to the Jewish mode of time computation, Christ will come."
21 Mar 1844 Contrary to William Miller's prediction, Jesus misses His deadline for returning to Earth. Shortly thereafter, Miller recalculates and comes up with October 22, 1844.
22 Oct 1844 The followers of William Miller experience the Great Disappointment when Jesus apparently fails to make His second scheduled appearance.
20 Dec 1849 William Miller dies.

 

VIEWS
 
OF THE
PROPHECIES
 
AND

 
PROPHETIC CHRONOLOGY,

SELECTED FROM
MANUSCRIPTS OF
 
WILLIAM MILLER
 
WITH A
 
MEMOIR OF HIS LIFE;
 
BY JOSHUA V. HIMES.
__________
 

 
BOSTON:
 

 
PUBLISHED BY MOSES A. DOW,
107 HANOVER STREET.
 

 
1841.

TO ALL THEM


 

WHO ARE LOOKING FOR THE BLESSED HOPE

AND GLORIOUS APPEARING OF THE

GREAT GOD, AND OUR SAVIOR

JESUS CHRIST AT HAND,


THIS WORK


IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED


 

             BY THE EDITOR.




 
THE EDITOR'S REMARKS.

 

        WE hold the doctrine of a man's responsibility for the sentiments which he publishes, whether they are his own or another's. He is accountable to the community, and will be held accountable at the great tribunal, for the good or the evil they produce. We have had this thought in view in all that we have done to give publicity to Mr. Miller's writings; both in the publication of the Boston edition of his Lectures, and of the numerous Essays and Letters from his pen which have appeared in the "Signs of the Times" during the past year.

        Notwithstanding the fears of many, esteemed wise and good, that the effect of this class of writings upon the community would be deleterious; we have, on the contrary, witnessed, as we expected, the most happy results. Their moral and religious influence upon all classes who have given them a candid examination has been most salutary.

        We are now induced to add a second volume on similar subjects, with a short memoir of Mr. Miller's life. We send it forth with the fullest assurance of its usefulness to the church and the world. It will be a valuable aid to an understanding of the chronology of his Lectures; as also the dictionary of prophetic figures, and principles of interpretation, will be of great service to the biblical student.

        As it respects the general views of Mr. Miller, we consider them in the main to be in accordance with the word of God. We do not, however, adopt the peculiarities of any man. We call no man master. Yet we frankly avow that there is much in his theory that we approve and embrace as gospel truth. For example: His views of the literal interpretation of the prophecies - The character and divinity of Christ, and his personal reign on the earth - The restoration of Israel according to the faith of Abraham, with the rejection of the "judaizing notion" of the return of the carnal Jew to Palestine - The true millennium of the saints in the resurrection state; and the utter rejection of the modern notion of a temporal millennium - The first and second resurrections and judgments - The final destiny of the righteous and the wicked: on all these points we fully agree with him.

        On the question of "prophetic periods," and of his laborious and learned chronology, we are not competent, with our limited erudition on the subject, to decide with such positiveness as on the other topics; having never given our attention to the critical study of the subject till within the last year. We, however, believe in the definiteness of prophetic periods, and feel satisfied that we live near the end of time. We have come to this conclusion by the prophetic times of Daniel and John, and not from the fact only that the kingdom has always been at hand. These "times," (to which we might refer, if it were proper in this place,) are nearly accomplished, as all who believe in prophetic periods agree. Some have fixed upon the year 1866, some 1847, while Mr. Miller fixes upon 1843 as the "time of the end." We think he has given the more satisfactory demonstration of the correctness of his calculation. The advent is near. It is possible that we may be mistaken in the chronology. It may vary a few years, but we are persuaded that the end cannot be far distant.

        With these views, we proclaim continually the gospel of the kingdom at hand. And not being able with the voice alone, and our limited abilities, to give the "midnight cry" the extent which we think the subject demands, we have availed ourself of the aid of the press. Accordingly, Mr. Miller's Lectures were put into the hands of a popular bookseller, who has in the last year circulated five thousand copies. In the mean time, fifty thousand numbers of the "Signs of the Times" have been sent abroad in the United States and in Europe; and two thousand copies of the full Report of the General Conference on the Second Advent have just been issued from the press, for distribution. We now send out this volume to bear the same message, and arouse a slumbering world to duty.

        Some repetitions may be noticed in this work, in consequence of many of the articles having been written at different times, without reference to publication in a connected series. But these the reader will find of advantage, on the whole, as they will present the subjects in various and new aspects.

        The work claims nothing of literary merit. It is given in a plain English dress, that will present to the reader the various subjects discussed in a distinct and intelligible style.

        We are not insensible of the fact, that much obloquy will be cast upon us in consequence of our association with the author of this work. This, however, gives us no pain. We had rather be associated with such a man as William Miller, and stand with him in gloom or glory, in the cause of the living God, than to be associated with his enemies, and enjoy all the honors of this world.

        Finally, whatever may be the truth upon the subject treated in this volume, it is certainly one that commends itself to the serious and careful examination of all persons, whether saints or sinners. If, indeed, the grand drama of this world's wickedness and wrongs is about to close up - if, indeed, the Son of God is about to descend from heaven, to take vengeance on them who obey not the gospel, and to receive his saints to their final rest, - then how important is it that we should all know these facts - the wicked to tremble if they will not repent, and the righteous to wait with calm faith, and a certain hope of the coming of the Lord. Do not dream that all is well because you see no threatening signs of the great day. Did the inhabitants of the old world stand in fear of the flood? Yet the flood came and "took them all away." All great calamities which come upon the nations by special interposition of divine Providence have been sudden, and, by the mass, unexpected.


 
CONTENTS.

 

    Page.
I. Memoir of William Miller 7
II. Mr. Miller's Influence upon the People 15
III. Rules of Scriptural Interpretation 20
IV. Explanation of Prophetic Figures 25
V. Synopsis of Mr. Miller's Religious Views 32
VI. A Bible Chronology from Adam to Christ 36
VII. A Dissertation on Prophetic Chronology 40

 

PART SECOND.

 

  ADDRESS AND LECTURES.  
I. An Address to the Believers in the Second Advent near, 54
II. Lecture on the Battle of Gog-Ezek. xxxix. 1-11 67
III. Lecture on the Two Sticks-Ezek. xxxvii. 15-17 85
IV. Lecture on the Times and its Duties-Rom. xiii. 12 101
V. Lecture on What is Truth-John xviii. 38 111
VI. Lecture on the Visions of Ezekiel-Ezek. xii. 27 118
VII. Lecture on the Harvest of the World-Rev. xiv. 16 132
VIII. Lecture on the Final Judgment-Acts xvii. 31 145
IX. Lecture on the Great Sabbath-Ezek. xx. 12 157

 

PART THIRD.

 

  REVIEWS AND LETTERS.  
I. A Review of Ethan Smith's and David Cambell's Exposition of the "Little Horn" and Return of the Jews-Dan.viii. 9 172
II. Brief Review of Dowling's Reply to Miller, No. I. 182
III. Review of Dowling, No. II. 187
IV. Brief Review of S. Cobb's Lectures on the "Miller Mania" 192
V. Review of "A Bible Reader" on the Two Witnesses, Rev. xi. 8 199
VI. Remarkable Fulfilment of Prophecy relating to France and the "Two Witnesses." Quotations from eminent Expositors of Prophecy, with Remarks by Mr. Miller 203

 
  LETTERS.  
I. On the Second Advent 212
II. On the Return of the Jews 225
III. To Mr. Cambell, on the Little Horn, Evening and Morning Vision, Jews' Return, Millennium before the Resurrection 232
IV. Closing of the Door of Mercy-Millennium - The Chronology 236
V. Mr. Miller recovering - Disappointment in being deprived of meeting the Conference - His Resignation, &c., 241

 
  APPENDIX.  
I. Extract from Ferguson's Astronomy 244
II. Extract from the "Present Crisis" 249
III. Views of the closing of the Door of Mercy 251


 
MEMOIR OF
 

 
WILLIAM MILLER.
_________
 

        WILLIAM MILLER was born at Pittsfield, Mass., Feb. 15, 1782. When he was four years of age, his father removed to the town of Hampton, Washington County, New York, the present residence of Mr. Miller. The country was then new, and his means of education, till nine years of age, were very small. His mother, however, taught him to read, so that when he was sent to the common school, he could read in the Bible, Psalter, and an old Hymn Book, which at that time constituted the whole of his father's library. After his ninth year, he was sent to school three months in the year, till he was fourteen. During this time, he was noted by his companions as a prodigy for learning, as they called it, particularly in the branches of spelling, reading, and writing. At the age of fourteen, he became anxious to obtain books to read. The first history he obtained was Robinson Crusoe; and the first novel he ever saw was Robert Boyle. He read them with avidity, and being so much interested in them, he read them many times over. He then became still more anxious to obtain books, especially histories and journals of travellers. A number of gentlemen in the vicinity of his father's residence, on being made acquainted with his love of reading, kindly offered him the privilege of their private libraries, which he accepted with much gratitude. From this time till he was twenty-one years of age, he was a most devoted student of ancient and modern history. The names of his benefactors ought to be given in this place, as they deserve to be honored for their liberality and love of learning. One of them was the Hon. Matthew Lyon, Representative to Congress from Vermont, from 1794 to 1798. The others were Judge James Withcrell afterwards judge of Michigan Territory; and Alexander Cruikshanks, Esq., of Whitehall, formerly of Scotland. By the kindness of these gentlemen, he was enabled to store his mind with a vast collection of historical facts, which have since been of so much service to him in the illustration of the prophecies. Possessing a strong mind and a retentive memory, he appropriated the contents of those gentlemen's libraries to his own use; and even now, after a lapse of more than thirty years, it is astonishing to observe the correctness of his frequent references to these historical facts and dates in his extemporaneous lectures.

        At the age of twenty-two, he was married, and settled in Poultney, Vt. Here, he was still favored with the privilege of pursuing his favorite study; having free access to a large public library. Here also he became acquainted with the deistical writings of Voltaire, Hume, Paine, Ethan Allen, and others. He studied them closely, and at length professedly became a Deist. The principal men in the village were Deists; but, as a class, they were good citizens, and as a general thing were moral, and of serious deportment. With these he was associated about twelve years, in the defence of deistical sentiments.

        In the last war with Great Britain, he received a captain's commission in the United States' service, and served in the army until the 25th of June, 1815, after peace was declared. He then moved to his present residence, Low Hampton, where the year following, 1816, he was converted from Deism to the christian faith, and united with the regular Baptist church in that place, of which he is now a member in good standing.

        We gather the following facts relating to his past history and experience from his letters to us on this subject. The following connected account is made out from them, mostly in his own words:

        "In my youth, between the years of seven and ten, I was often concerned about the welfare of my soul; particularly in relation to its future destiny. I spent much time in trying to invent some plan, whereby I might please God, when brought into his immediate presence. Two ways suggested themselves to me, which I tried. One was, to be very good, to do nothing wrong, tell no lies, and obey my parents. But I found my resolutions were weak, and soon broken. The other was to sacrifice; by giving up the most cherished objects I possessed. But this also failed me; so that I was never settled and happy in mind, until I came to Jesus Christ. While I was a Deist, I believed in a God, but I could not, as I thought, believe the Bible was the word of God. The many contradictions, and inconsistencies, which I thought could be shown, made me suppose it to be a work of designing men, whose object was to enslave the mind of man; operate on their hopes and fears, with a view to aggrandize themselves. The history of religion as it had been presented to the world, and particularly by the historians of the eighteenth century, was but a history of blood, tyranny, and oppression; in which the common people were the greatest sufferers. I viewed it as a system of craft, rather than of truth. Besides, the advocates of Christianity admitted that the Bible was so dark and intricate that no man could understand it. This always was to me an inconsistent idea of God; and even made the Bible appear more like the oracles of the heathen gods, than like the wisdom of the just and righteous God: To give us the Scriptures to teach us the way of eternal life, and at the same time clothe them in a mantle of mysticism, so that no man could understand them! Reveal his will, which we cannot understand, and then punish us for disobedience! How can such a being be called either wise or good? These, and the like, were my arguments against the Bible. In the mean time, I continued my studies, storing my mind with historical knowledge. The more I read, the more dreadfully corrupt did the character of man appear. I could discern no bright spot in the history of the past. Those conquerors of the world, and heroes of history, were apparently but demons in human form. All the sorrow, suffering, and misery in the world, seemed to be increased in proportion to the power they obtained over their fellows. I began to feel very distrustful of all men. In this state of mind I entered the service of my country. I fondly cherished the idea, that I should find one bright spot at least in the human character, as a star of hope: a love of country - PATRIOTISM. But two years in the service was enough to convince me that I was in an error in this thing also. When I left the service I had become completely disgusted with man's public character. I retired from the busy scenes of public life, in which I had been engaged about ten years; and thought to seek for that happiness, which had always eluded my pursuit in my former occupations, in the domestic circle. For a little space, a care and burden was taken off from my mind; but after a while I felt the need of some more active employment. My life became too monotonous. I had lost all those pleasing prospects, which in youth I expected to enjoy in riper years. It appeared to me that there was nothing good on earth. Those things in which I expected to find some solid good had deceived me. I began to think man was no more than a brute, and the idea of here-after was a dream; annihilation was a cold and chilling thought; and accountability was sure destruction to all. The heavens were as brass over my head, and the earth as iron under my feet. ETERNITY! What was it? And death, why was it? The more I reasoned, the further I was from demonstration. The more I thought, the more scattered were my conclusions. I tried to stop thinking; but my thoughts would not be controlled. I was truly wretched; but did not understand the cause. I murmured and complained, but knew not of whom. I felt that there was a wrong, but knew not how, or where, to find the right. I mourned, but without hope. I continued in this state of mind for some months; at length, when brought almost to despair, God by his Holy Spirit opened my eyes. I saw Jesus as a friend, and my only help, and the word of God as the perfect rule of duty. Jesus Christ became to me the chiefest among ten thousand, and the Scriptures, which before were dark and contradictory, now became the lamp to my feet and light to my path. My mind became settled and satisfied. I found the Lord God to be a Rock in the midst of the ocean of life. The Bible now became my chief study; and I can truly say I searched it with great delight. I found the half was never told me. I wondered why I had not seen its beauty and glory before, and marvelled that I could ever have rejected it. I found everything revealed that my heart could desire, and a remedy for every disease of the soul. I lost all taste for other reading, and applied my heart to get wisdom from God.

        "I laid by all commentaries, former views and prepossessions, and determined to read and try to understand for myself. I then began the reading of the Bible in a methodical manner; and by comparing scripture with scripture, and taking notice of the manner of prophesying, and how it was fulfilled, (so much as had received its accomplishment,) I found that prophecy had been literally fulfilled, after understanding the figures and metaphors by which God had more clearly illustrated the subjects conveyed in said prophecies. I found, on a close and careful examination of the Scriptures, that God had explained all the figures and metaphors in the Bible, or had given us rules for their explanation. And in so doing, I found, to my joy, and as I trust with everlasting gratitude to God, that the Bible contained a system of revealed truths, so clearly and simply given that the 'wayfaring man though a fool need not err therein.' And I discovered that God had in his word revealed 'times and seasons;' and in every case where time had been revealed, every event was accomplished as predicted, (except the case of Nineveh, in Jonah,) in the time and manner; therefore I believed all would be accomplished.

        "I found, in going through with the Bible, the end of all things was clearly and emphatically predicted, both as to time and manner. I believed; and immediately the duty to publish this doctrine, that the world might believe and get ready to meet the Judge and Bridegroom at his coming, was impressed upon my mind. I need not here go into a detailed account of my long and sore trials. Suffice it to say, that after a number of years, I was compelled by the Spirit of God, the power of truth and the love of souls, to take up my cross and proclaim these things to a dying and perishing world.

        "The first time I ever spake in public on this subject was in the year 1832. The Lord poured his grace on the congregation, and many believed to the salvation of their souls. From that day to this, doors have been opened to me, to proclaim this doctrine of the second coming of Christ, among almost all denominations, so that I have not been able to comply with but a small portion of the calls.

        "I have lectured in the states of New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania, and Canada. In every place, I think, two good effects have been produced. The church has been awakened, and the Bible has been read with more interest. In many, and I might say almost in every place, a revival of religion has followed, which has lasted for months. Infidelity in many cases has been made to yield her iron grasp on the mind of many an individual. Deism has yielded to the truth of God's word, and many men of strong minds have acknowledged that the Scriptures must be of divine origin. The sandy foundation of Universalism, has been shaken in every place where it could be reached by an attendance on the whole course of lectures. And hundreds of men of sound minds and strong powers, have had their spider's web broken, and have got a more sure hope in an experimental knowledge of the justice of God, and the forgiveness of sin, through the blood and sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

        "As proof of the truth of the above facts, I would refer you to the many false reports which Universalists and Infidels have industriously circulated in their periodicals and papers, concerning me and my views: the 'hundred years' mistake,' the 'refusal to sell my farm,' and the 'rail fence,' &c. &c. Stories too foolish for children to credit are promulgated as facts, sufficient to destroy the truth which is fairly proved by the word of God and history of ages past. Why use such false and weak arguments? Because the goddess Diana is in danger. It is evidence strong as holy writ, that when men use weak arguments and false productions, their cause is weak, and their foundation is trembling.

        "Furthermore. I have been fully convinced, that the effects of the promulgation of this doctrine on those who candidly hear, produce no little examination of the evidence of their hopes, founded upon the word of inspiration. The traditions of men too are brought before the public and tried by the unerring rule of God's word: such as a 'temporal millennium,' the 'Jews' return.' In one word, in a moral point of view, every effect is good; and if ever there is a 'midnight cry' made, the effect must be similar to the one now produced, or it cannot have a scriptural fulfilment. 'Then all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps.' If this doctrine does not make men search the Scriptures, (lamp,) I cannot conceive what would. One more effect I will mention. In every place where I have been, the most pious, devoted, and living members of the churches do most readily embrace the views thus proclaimed; while the worldling professor, the pharisee, the bigot, the proud, haughty, and selfish, scoff at and ridicule the doctrine of the Second Coming of Christ.

        "And if ever God's word, in his second Epistle of Peter, can be fulfilled, surely it is so now: 'Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the creation.' Every word of this sign is literally fulfilled. In every place where I have been, the Infidel, the Universalist, and many who would be called teachers in our several sects of limitarians, before they are convicted, can all meet on the broad ground of scoffing, ridicule, and falsehood, to put down the doctrine which they are not prepared to meet; and even meet the Universalists on the ground that the judgment day was past at Jerusalem, rather than believe this thrilling doctrine of immediate accountability. McKnight thinks these scoffers will be in the church; how true is it so fulfilled. I have often blushed to see the hardihood of our priests who take the ground of 'my Lord delayeth his coming,' and publicly advocate the doctrine that it is a long while yet to come. 'And shall begin to smite his fellow-servants.' Hear them, calling all manner of names, 'false prophet,' 'visionary fanatic,' 'crazy old man,' &c. 'And to eat and drink with the drunken.' Join any other doctrine, however repugnant to their creeds, rather than consent to this. 'Pilate and Herod can make friends' against this doctrine of the coming of Christ.

        "In conclusion, although I have received scoffs from the worldly and profane, ridicule from the proud and haughty, contempt from the bigot and pharisee, and insult from the pulpit and press; yet I have one great consolation: God has never forsaken me, and their weapons have fallen harmless at my feet. Thousands have been brought to read their Bibles with more pleasure; hundreds have found faith in that word they once despised; false theories have been made to pass through a fiery ordeal; and undisputed errors have been searched out and exposed, and the 'word of God has mightily grown and multiplied.'"


 
MR. MILLER'S INFLUENCE UPON THE
PEOPLE.
 

        MUCH has been said in the pulpit, and by the editors of public journals, about the evil tendency of Mr. Miller's lectures. An orthodox clergyman of Lynn, (Rev. Parsons Cook,) thinks they are more demoralizing than the theatre! A minister in Boston, of high standing, stated to one of his hearers, that he thought it as great a sin for church members to attend these lectures, as to visit the theatre! Indeed, most of the ministers and laity of different denominations, who have not heard Mr. Miller, have judged unfavorably of his labors. It is supposed that the people are frightened - excited by terrific scenes connected with the conflagration of the world. To place this matter in its true light, we shall give, as a general illustration of Mr. Miller as a speaker, and the influence of his labors on the community at large, the following account of his visit and labors in Portland, Me., in March last.

        "MR. MILLER IN PORTLAND. Mr. Miller has been in Portland, lecturing to crowded congregations in Casco-street church, on his favorite theme, the end of the world, or literal reign of Christ for 1000 years. As faithful chroniclers of passing events, it will be expected of us that we say something of the man, and his peculiar views.

        "Mr. Miller is about sixty years of age; a plain farmer from Hampton, in the state of New York. He is a member of the Baptist church in that place, from which he brings satisfactory testimonials of good standing, and a license to improve publicly. He has, we understand, numerous testimonials also from clergymen of different denominations favorable to his general character. We should think him a man of but common-school education; evidently possessing strong powers of mind, which for about fourteen years have been almost exclusively bent to the investigation of scripture prophecies. The last eight years of his life have been devoted to lecturing on this favorite subject.

        "In his public discourses he is self-possessed and ready; distinct in his utterance, and frequently quaint in his expressions. He succeeds in chaining the attention of his auditory for an hour and a half to two hours; and in the management of his subject discovers much tact, holding frequent colloquies with the objector and inquirer, supplying the questions and answers himself in a very natural manner; and although grave himself, sometimes producing a smile from a portion of his auditors.

        "Mr. Miller is a great stickler for literal interpretations; never admitting the figurative, unless absolutely required to make correct sense or meet the event which is intended to be pointed out. He doubtless believes, most unwaveringly, all he teaches to others. His lectures are interspersed with powerful admonitions to the wicked, and he handles Universalism with gloves of steel.

        "He is evidently disposed to make but little allowance for those who think differently from him on the millennium; dealing often in terrible denunciations against such as oppose his peculiar views on this point; as he fully believes they are crying peace and safety when sudden destruction cometh. Judging from what we see and hear, we should think his lectures are making a decided impression on many minds, favorable to his theory."

        This account of Mr. Miller is from the Rev. Mr. Springer, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and editor of the "Maine Wesleyan Journal," from which we copy it. Mr. Miller, on reading the account, exclaimed, "I have found one honest editor!" Mr. Springer, it will be observed, is not a partisan of Mr. Miller. We commend him for his candor.

        The following extracts of letters from Elder Fleming, the pastor of the Christian church in Casco St. where Mr. Miller delivered his lectures, will show the legitimate effects of his labors.

        Immediately after the lectures were closed, Mr. Fleming writes: "Things here are moving powerfully. Last evening about 200 requested prayers, and the interest seems constantly increasing. The whole city seems agitated. Br. Miller's lectures have not the least effect to affright; they are far from it. The great alarm is among those who did not come near. Many who stayed away and opposed seem excited, and perhaps alarmed. But those who candidly hear are far from excitement and alarm.

        "The interest awakened by his lectures is of the most deliberate and dispassionate kind, and though it is the greatest revival I ever saw, yet there is the least passionate excitement. It seems to take the greatest hold on the male part of community. What produces the effect is this - Brother Miller simply takes the sword of the Spirit, unsheathed and naked, and lays its sharp edge on the naked heart, and it cuts! that is all. Before the edge of this mighty weapon, infidelity falls, and Universalism withers. False foundations vanish, and Babel's merchants wonder. It seems to me that this must be a little the nearest like apostolic revivals of anything modern times have witnessed."

        A short time after, he wrote again, as follows: "There has probably never been so much religious interest among the inhabitants of this place generally as at present; and Mr. Miller must be regarded, directly or indirectly, as the instrument, although many, no doubt, will deny it; as some are very unwilling to admit that a good work of God can follow his labors; and yet we have the most indubitable evidence that this is the work of the Lord. It is worthy of note, that in the present interest there has been comparatively nothing like mechanical effort. There has been nothing like passionate excitement. If there has been excitement, it has been out of doors, among such as did not attend Br. Miller's lectures.

        "At some of our meetings since Br. Miller left, as many as 250, it has been estimated, have expressed a desire for religion, by coming forward for prayers; and probably between one and two hundred have professed conversion at our meeting; and now the fire is being kindled through this whole city, and all the adjacent country. A number of rum-sellers have turned their shops into meeting-rooms, and those places that were once devoted to intemperance and revelry, are now devoted to prayer and praise. Others have abandoned the traffic entirely, and are become converted to God. One or two gambling establishments, I am informed, are entirely broken up. Infidels, Deists, Universalists, and the most abandoned profligates, have been converted; some who had not been to the house of worship for years. Prayer-meetings have been established in every part of the city by the different denominations, or by individuals, and at almost every hour. Being down in the business part of our city, I was conducted into a room over one of the banks, where I found about thirty or forty men, of different denominations, engaged with one accord in prayer, at about eleven o'clock in the day-time! In short, it would be almost impossible to give an adequate idea of the interest now felt in this city. There is nothing like extravagant excitement, but an almost universal solemnity on the minds of all the people. One of the principal booksellers informed me that he had sold more Bibles in one month, since Br. Miller came here, than he had in any four months previous. A member of an orthodox church informed me that if Mr. Miller could now return, he could probably be admitted into any of the orthodox houses of worship, and he expressed a strong desire for his return to our city."

        Similar accounts might be given from most of the places where he has given a full course of lectures, to a society; the minister and church co-operating with him. We could name Boston, Cambridgeport, Watertown, and numerous places; but we will refer to one more, viz. Portsmouth, N. H. The same glorious effects followed his labors in this place, as at Portland. We simply wish to give the testimony of the Unitarian minister of that town, relating to the character of the revival. We are the more particular on this point, because the advocates of revivals have charged Mr. Miller with getting up "fanatical excitements." Now we have an impartial witness on this point. Hear him; he says:

        "If I am rightly informed, the present season of religious excitement has been to a great degree free from what, I confess, has always made me dread such times, I mean those excesses and extravagances, which wound religion in the house of its friends, and cause its enemies to blaspheme. I most cheerfully express my opinion, that there will be in the fruits of the present excitement far less to regret, and much more for the friends of God to rejoice in, much more to be recorded in the book of eternal life, than in any similar series of religious exercises, which I have ever had the opportunity of watching."*

        Will the Rev. Parsons Cooke join with the editor of the "Trumpet" in ridiculing such revivals as these? Will he now pronounce these lectures "more demoralizing than the theatre?" These are the legitimate fruits of Mr. Miller's labors. Let his accusers beware, lest they be found fighting against God.

* Sermon on Revivals, by Rev. A. P. Peabody.
The above testimony to the salutary influence of Mr. Miller's labors must suffice. If it were necessary, we could add a volume of similar testimony from ministers of almost all denominations.


 
RULES OF INTERPRETATION.
________
 

        In studying the Bible, I have found the following rules to be of great service to myself, and now give them to the public by special request. Every rule should be well studied, in connexion with the scripture references, if the Bible student would be at all benefitted by them.

 
  RULES. PROOFS.
I. Every word must have its proper bearing on the subject presented in the Bible. Matt. v. 18.
II. All scripture is necessary, and may be understood by a diligent application and study. 2Tim. iii. 15,16,17.
III. Nothing revealed in the scripture can or will be hid from those who ask in faith, not wavering. Deut. xxix. 29. Matt. x. 26,27. 1Cor. ii. 10. Phil. iii. 15. Isa. xiv. 11. Matt. xxi. 22. John xiv. 13,14. xv. 7. James i. 5,6. 1John v. 13,14,15.
IV. To understand doctrine, bring all the scriptures together on the subject you wish to know; then let every word have its proper influence, and if you can form your theory without a contradiction, you cannot be in an error. Isa. xxviii. 7-29. xxxv. 8. Prov. xix. 27. Luke xxiv. 27,44,45. Rom. xvi. 26. James v. 19. 2Pet. i. 19,20.
V. Scripture must be its own expositor, since it is a rule of itself. If I depend on a teacher to expound it to me, and he should guess at its meaning, or desire to have it so on account of his sectarian creed, or to be thought wise, then his guessing, desire, creed,or wisdom is my rule, not the Bible. Ps. xix. 7,8,9,10,11. cxix. 97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105. Matt. xxiii. 8,9,10. 1Cor. ii. 12,13,14,15,16. Eze. xxxiv. 18,19. Luke xi. 52. Mal. ii. 7,8.
VI. God has revealed things to come, by visions, in figures and parables, and in this way the same things are oftentime revealed again and again, by different visions, or in different figures, and parables. If you wish to understand them, you must combine them all in one. Ps. lxxxix. 19. Hos. xii. 10. Hab. ii. 2. Acts ii. 17. 1Cor. x. 6. Heb. ix. 9,24. Ps. lxxviii. 2. Matt. xiii. 13,34. Gen. xli. 1-32. Dan. ii. vii. and viii. Acts x. 9-16.
VII. Visions are always mentioned as such. 2Cor. xii. 1.
VIII. Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy, to represent future things, times and events; such as mountains, meaning governments; beasts, meaning kingdoms. Waters, meaning people. Lamp, meaning Word of God. Day, meaning year. Dan. ii. 35,44. vii. 8,17. Rev. xvii. 1,15. Ps. cxix. 105. Ezek. iv. 6.
IX. Parables are used as comparisons to illustrate subjects, and must be explained in the same way as figures by the subject and Bible. Mark iv. 13. See explanation of the ten virgins, Miller's Lectures, No. xvi.  
X. Figures sometimes have two or more different significations, as day is used in a figurative sense to represent three diferent periods of time. 1. Indefinite. 2. Definite, a day for a year. 3. Day for a thousand years. If you put on the right construction it will harmonize with the Bible and make good sense, otherwise it will not. Eccles. vii. 14. Ezek. iv. 6. 2Pet. iii. 8.
XI. How to know when a word is used figuratively. If it makes good sense as it stands, and does no violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively. Rev. xii. 1,2. xvii. 3-7.
XII. To learn the true meaning of figures, trace your figurative word through your Bible, and where you find it explained, put it on your figure, and if it makes good sense you need look no further, if not, look again.  
XIII. To know whether we have the true historical event for the fulfilment of a prophecy. If you find every word of the prophecy (after the figures are understood) is literally fulfilled, then you may know that your history is the true event. But if one word lacks a fulfilment, then you must look for another event, or wait its future development. For God takes care that history and prophecy doth agree, so that the true believing children of God may never be ashamed. Ps. xxii. 5. Isa. xiv. 17,18,19. 1Pet. ii. 6. Rev. xvii. 17. Acts iii. 18.
XIV. The most important rule of all is, that you must have faith. It must be a faith that requires a sacrifice, and if tried, would give up the dearest object on earth, the world and all its desires, character, living, occupation, friends, home, comforts, and worldly honors. If any of these should hinder our believing any part of God's word, it would show our faith to be vain. Nor can we ever believe so long as one of these motives lies lurking in our hearts. We must believe that God will never forfeit his word. And we can have confidence that he that takes notice of the sparrow, and numbers the hairs of our head, will guard the translation of his own word, and throw a barrier around it, and prevent those who sincerely trust in God, and put implicit confidence in his word, from erring far from the truth, though they may not understand Hebrew or Greek. These are some of the most important rules which I find the word of God warrants me to adopt and follow, in order for system and regularity. And if I am not greatly deceived, in so doing, I have found the Bible, as a whole, one of the most simple, plain, and intelligible books ever written, containing proof in itself of its divine origin, and full of all knowledge that our hearts could wish to know or enjoy. I have found it a treasure which the world cannot purchase. It gives a calm peace in believing, and a firm hope in the future. It sustains the mind in adversity, and teaches us to be humble in prosperity. It prepares us to love and do good to others, and to realize the value of the soul. It makes us bold and valiant for the truth, and nerves the arm to oppose error. It gives us a powerful weapon to break down Infidelity, and makes known the only antidote for sin. It instructs us how death will be conquered, and how the bonds of death will be conquered, and how the bonds of the tomb must be broken. It tells us of future events, and shows the preparation necessary to meet them. It gives us an opportunity to hold conversation with the King of kings, and reveals the best code of laws ever enacted. This is but a faint view of its value; yet how many perishing souls treat it with neglect, or, what is equally as bad, treat it as a hidden mystery which cannot be known. Oh, my dear reader, make it your chief study. Try it well, and you will find it to be all I have said. Yes, like the Queen of Sheba, you will say the half was not told you. The divinity taught in our schools is always founded on some sectarian creed. It may do to take a blank mind and impress it with this kind, but it will always end in bigotry. A free mind will never be satisfied with the views of others. Were I a teacher of youth in divinity, I would first learn their capacity and mind. If these were good, I would make them study the Bible for themselves, and send them out free to do the world good. But if they had no mind, I would stamp them with another's mind, write bigot on their forehead, and send them out as slaves!


 
EXPLANATION OF
PROPHETIC FIGURES.
_______
 

ADULTERY. Idolatry. Jer. iii. 9. Eze. xxiii. 37.
AIR. Spirit of piety - false theories. Eph. ii. 2.
ALTAR. Christ. Ps. xliii. 4. Heb. xiii. 10.
AMON. A people, or son of my people.
ANCIENT OF DAYS. God. Dan. vii. 9.
ANGEL. Christ, or messenger of God. Ex. xxiii. 20. Rev. i, 1. xx. 1.
ARK. Christ. Ps. cxxxii. 8. Num. x. 33.
ASCENSION INTO HEAVEN. Dignity and honor. John vi. 62. Isa. xiv. 13,14. Rev. xi. 12.
ASLEEP. Death. Acts vii. 60. 2Pet. iii. 4. 1Cor. xv. 18.
AWAKE. Resurrection. Job xiv. 12. Ps. xvii. 15. John xi. 11. Dan. xii. 2.
BABYLON. Confusion, mixture, worldly.
BALAAM. Their destruction without the prophet.
BALANCE. Justice. Daniel v. 27. Worldly mind. Rev. vi. 5.
BANNER. Gospel ensign, love. Cant. ii. 4.
BEASTS. Kingdoms, or powers. Dan. vii. 3,17. Rev. iv. 6-8. v. 8,9.
BEHELD or BEHOLDING. Joy, or grief, according to the circumstances. Ps. cxix. 158. Rev. xi. 12.
BED. A place of confinement. Rev. ii. 22. Isa. xxviii. 20.
BELLY. Practical part. Rom. xvi. 18. Job xv. 35. Rev. x. 9,10. Luke xv. 16. John vii. 38.
BIND. To judge and condemn. Matt. xii. 30. xxii. 13.
BIRD or FOWL. Warriors and conquerors. Isa. xlvi. 11. Jer. xii. 9. Rev. xviii. 2.
BIRTH. Deliverance from heavy judgments. Isa. xxxvii. 3-20. lxvi. 9.
BLACK. Error, cruelty, death. Jer. iv. 28. Rev. vi. 5-12.
BLASPHEMY. Idolatry. Isa. lxv. 7. Eze. xx. 24-27.
BLESS or BLESSED. Saved from sin and from death. Ps. xxviii. 9. xxxvii. 22. Isa. lxi. 9. Rev. xiv. 13.
BLIND. Self-righteousness. Matt. xv. 14. xxiii. 16 to 26.
BLOOD. Death, war and slaughter. Matt. xxvii. 24. Isa. xv. 9. xxxiv. 3. Rev. vi. 10. viii. 8. xi. 6. xiv. 20.
BLOWING OF THE WIND. The Holy Spirit doing its office in regeneration. Cant. iv. 16. John iii. 8. Rev. vii. 1.
BOOK. God's designs, knowledge and counsel. Ps. cxxxix. 16. Is. xxxiv. 16. Reading, is to make his designs known. To Seal, is to shut up, or make sure.
BOW AND ARROWS. Victory over enemies. Isa. xli. 2. Rev. vi. 2.
BRASS, is used for impudence and sin, warlike. Isa. xlviii. 4. Jer. vi. 28. Mic. iv. 13.
BRANCH. A descendant, or offspring. Isa. xi. 1. Jer. xxiii. 5. Dan. xi. 7.
BREAD. Doctrine of life. Amos viii. 11. Matt. iv. 4.
BREAST-PLATE. Defence, or armor. Isa. lix. 17. Rev. ix. 9.
BREASTS. Consolation, word of God. Isa. lxvi. 11.
BRIDLE. The restraining power of God. Isa. xxx. 28.
BRIMSTONE. Curse of God. Isa. xxx. 33. xi. 4.
BURNING WITH FIRE, is to destroy, or change their state completely. Mal. iv. 1-3. 2Pet. iii. 10,11. Rev. xx. 9.
BUY, or BUYING, is used as an act of giving or receiving religious instruction. Isa. lv. 1. Rev. iii. 18. xiii. 17.
CANDLE, is light. Jer. xxv. 10. Matt. v. 15. Luke xi. 36. xv. 8.
CANDLESTICKS. The means of light; as the kingdom of Christ, the two witnesses, and seven churches, are called candlesticks. Dan. v. 5. Zech. iv. 2, 11. Rev. ii. 5. xi. 4.
CARMEL. The vineyard of God. Mich. vii. 14.
CHAIN, signifies the laws of God; or man, in prophecy. Ps. cxlix. 8. Acts xxviii. 20. Jude 6.
CHITTEM. Those that bruise. Dan. xi. 30.
CITY OF GOD. New Jerusalem. Heb. xii. 22. Rev. iii. 12.
CITY OF NATIONS. Antichrist, or Babylon. Rev. xvi. 19. xvii. 18. The streets of the great city are the ten kings. Rev. xi. 8, 13.
CLOUD, or TO RIDE ON A CLOUD, is an emblem of power and great glory. Matt. xxiv. 30. Sometimes it means heavy judgments, as in Joel ii. 2. Zeph. i. 15.
CROWN. Dignity and honor. Prov. xvi. 31. Isa. xxviii. 1-5. lxii. 3.
CRY or CRIED. To be sensible of want. Prayers and petitions for relief; or forerunner of war. 2Kings iv. 40. Ps. xxx. 2-8. Rev. xiv. 18.
DARKNESS. Ignorance, unbelief, and every evil work, confusion, and horror. Prov. iv. 19. Isa. lx. 2. Eph. v. 11.
DAY, is one year - revolution of the earth in its orbit. Num. xiv. 34. Eze. iv. 5,6. Dan. ix. 24.
DAY OF THE LORD. Judgment day, or 1000 years. 1Thes. v. 2. 2Pet. iii. 8-10. Rev. xx. 4-7.
DEATH. Separation from body, from holiness, from God; inactive, separate from former state. This is the proper sense.
DESERT or WILDERNESS. paganism, or away from the force of the laws of the Romish Church. Isa. xl. 3. Eze. xlvii. 8. Rev. xii. 6.
DEVIL. Roman government; pagan and papal, when used as a symbol. Rev. ii. 10. xii. 9. xx. 2.
DEW AND RAIN, signify the pouring out of the Spirit and heavenly blessing. Ps. cxxxiii. 3. Prov. xix. 12. Hosea xiv. 5.
DOGS. Wicked men and teachers. Isa. lvi. 10. Rev. xxii. 15. Phil. iii. 2. Ps. lix. 6-14.
DRAGON. Rome pagan. Rev. xvii. 8. Afterwards papal. Persecuting governments.
DRUNKENNESS. Intoxicated with worldly riches, pleasures and honors. Isa. xxix. 9. Matt. xxiv. 49. Luke xxi. 34.
EAGLE, denotes a people hid, or out of sight. Rev. xii. 14. iv. 7. Matt. xxiv. 28.
EARTH. The Roman kingdom. Rev. xiii. 12, and xix. 2.
EARTHQUAKE. Revolutions. Hag. ii. 21,22. Rev. vi. 12. xvi. 18.
EAT. To consume or destroy. Rev. xvii. 16. James v. 3. Rev. xix. 18.
ELDERS, TWENTY-FOUR, denote the whole priesthood, taken from twenty-four courses. 1Chron. xxiv.
FIRE, is used to denote destruction, and justice of God. Ps. lxviii. 2. Heb. xii. 29. Word of God. Jer. v. 14.
FLESH. Riches and honors of the world. 2Pet. ii. 10-18. 1John ii. 15,16. Rev. xix. 18.
FLOOD. Great numbers. Isa. lix. 19. Dan. ix. 26. Rev. xii. 15,16.
FOREHEAD. Public profession, or character. Jer. iii. 3. Eze. ix. 4. Rev. vii. 3. xiii. 16.
FROGS. The symbolic meaning of frogs (say some) is flatterers or impostors. See Rev. xvi. 13.
GARMENTS, denote the character, as white denotes purity or righteousness; rags, filthy; sackcloth, mourning. Dan. vii. 9. Zec. iii. 3,4. Rev. xvi. 15.
GOD, when used as a symbol, denotes a prince, ruler, or magistrate. 1Cor. viii. 5. Gal. iv. 8.
GRAVE. To hide in secret; put out of memory. Job xiv. 13.
GRASS, means people, as green the righteous, dry or stubble the wicked. Isa. xl. 6,7,8. 1Pet. i. 24. Rev. viii. 7. ix. 4.
HAIL, denotes wars, slaughter and desolation, by some Northern government. Isa. xxviii. 2,17. xxx. 30,32. Rev. viii. 7.
HAND. Symbol of action and labor. Isa. x. 13. xlviii. 13. Rev. xx. 1. Dan. viii. 25.
HARLOT. An idolatrous community, or church. Isa. i. 21. Jer. iii. 1-8. Rev. xvii. 5.
HARVEST. The gathering of men to their final destiny. Matt. xiii. 39. Jer. li. 33. Joel iii. 13.
HEAD. The supreme power of the object. Dan. ii. 38. Eph. i. 22. Rev. xix. 12.
HEAT. Anger, calamity. Deut. xxix. 24. Ezek. iii. 14. Rev. xvi. 9.
HEAVEN. Government of God with his people. Deut. xi. 21. Isa. xlix. 13. Matt. xvi. 19. xxv. 1,14. Dan. vii. 18, 22.
HILL. Kingdoms. Isa. ii. 2. v. 25. Mic. vi. 1,2.
HORN. Kings. Dan. vii. 24. viii. 20, 21. Rev. xvii. 12,16.
HORSE. War and conquest. prov. xxi. 31. Jer. viii. 6.
        White,victory. Rev. vi. 2. xix. 11.
        Black, distress and calamity. Rev. vi. 5.
        Red, war and hostility. Rev. vi. 4.
        Pale, death and destruction. Rev. vi. 8.
IRON. Strength. Dan. ii. 33-41. Rev. ii. 27.
ISRAEL. Christian church. Isa. xlv. 4-25. Gal. vi. 16.
ISLANDS. Small governments in Roman states. Ezek. xxvi. 15,16. Zeph. ii. 11. Rev. x. 20. vi. 14.
JERUSALEM. The church of God. Isa. lii. 9. Gal. iv. 26.
JEZEBEL. Antichrist. 1Kings xviii. 19. Rev. ii. 20. viii. 36. Rev. vi. 4. xi. 7.
KILLING. Depriving of power. Ps. xliv. 22. Rom. viii. 36. Rev. vi. 4. xi. 7.
KING. Forms of government or power. Dan. viii. 23. Rev. ix. 11. xvii. 10.
LAMB. Messiah. Isa. xvi. 1. John i. 29. Rev. v. 12.
LAMP. Word of God or Mahometan Bible. Ps. cxix. 105. Rev. viii. 10.
LEOPARD. A cruel, fierce, and quick conqueror. Hosea xiii. 7. Hab. i. 8. Rev. xiii. 2.
LION. Valiant, strong, courageous. Prov. xxviii. i. xxx. 30. Rev. x. 3. xiii. 2.
LOCUSTS. Great armies. Isa. xxxiii. 4. Nah. iii. 15,17. Rev. ix. 3-7.
MARK. To profess allegiance. The Roman soldiers had marked foreheads and hands. Ezek. ix. 4. Rev. xiii. 16,17. xiv. 9,11.
MEASURE. Completed, finished. Ps. xxix. 4. Jer. li. 13. Matt. xxiii. 32. Rev. xi. 1.
MERCHANTS. Professed ministers of Christ. Isa. xxiii. 8,18. Jer. xiv. 18. Rev. xviii. 11,12,23.
MOON. Gospel. Isa. xxx. 26. Rev. xii. 1. or church. Cant. vi. 10.
MOUNTAIN. Governments. Isa. ii. 2. Dan. ii. 35.
MOUNTAIN, HOLY. The gospel kingdom. Isa. xi. 9. The seat of Antichrist. Ezek. xxviii. 14. Dan. xi. 45.
MORNING. Resurrection of the just. Ps. xlix. 14.
MOUTH. Commands, or laws. Dan. vii. 8. Rev. xiii. 5. xvi. 13. 1Thes. ii. 8.
NAKED. Shame and disgrace. Mic. i. 8,11. Rev. iii. 18. xvi. 15. xvii. 16.
NIGHT. Moral darkness or wickedness. Isa. xxi. 8. Rom. xiii. 12. 1Thes. v. 5. Rev. xxi. 25.
NUMBER or NUMBERED. Finished - end. Ps. xc. 12. Dan. v. 26. Ezek. iv. 4-6. Rev. xiii. 17,18.
OIL. Faith. Matt. xxv. 8. Cant. i. 3. Heb. iv. 2.
OX, denotes a people for slaughter. Prov. vii. 22. Jer. xi. 19. Num. xxiii. 1.
RAIN. Reformation, grace, refreshing. Deut. xxxii. 2. Hosea vi. 3. James v. 7.
RED. Persecuting, bloody. Rev. vi. 4. xii. 3.
RIVERS. People living on the rivers, mentioned Isa. viii. 7. Rev. viii. 10. xvi. 4.
ROD OF IRON. Power of Christ. Ps. ii. 9. Isa. xi. 1. Rev. ii. 27.
SCARLET. Bloody, cruel. Rev. xvii. 3,4.
SEA. A large body of people. Isa. lvii. 20. Dan. vii. 3. Rev. vii. 2,3.
SHIELD AND BUCKLER. Ps. xci. 4.
STARS. Ministers in the church, or rulers in the world. Rev. xii. 1. Dan. viii. 10. xii. 3. Jude 13.
SUN. As in the natural, so in the moral world, source of all light, Christ or his word. Gen. xxxvii. 9. Ps. lxxxiv. 11. Mal. iv. 2.
SWORD. Slaughter. Jer. xv. 3. Ezek. xxi. 28.
SWORD, TWO-EDGED. Word of God. Ps. cxlix. 6. Heb. iv. 12. Rev. i. 16. ii. 12.
TAIL. Subordinate officers or provinces. Isa. ix. 14,15. Rev. xii. 4.
TEETH, LARGE IRON. Strong devouring enemy. Dan. vii. 7,19. Rev. ix. 8.
TEMPLE. The church professedly of Christ or Antichrist. Mal. iii. 1. 2Cor. vi. 16. Rev. vii. 15.
THUNDER. Sudden dispersion of armies or kingdoms. 1Sam. ii. 10. Isa. xxix. 5,6. Ps. xviii. 13.
TREE OF LIFE. Jesus Christ. Rev. ii. 7. xxii. 2.
VINE. A class of people, as wicked or righteous. Hosea x. 1. Rev. xiv. 18.
VOICES. Many people engaged in the same cry to be eased of burdens, or rejoicing. Luke xxiii. 23. Rev. viii. 5. xi. 15,19.
WALK WITH GOD, is to live with and be in communion with him. 2Cor. vi. 16. Rev. iii. 4.
WATERS. Flesh, or people. Num. xxiv. 7. Isa. xlviii. 1. viii. 7. John v. 8. Rev. xvii. 15.
WHIRLWIND. Heavy judgments of God. Ps. lviii. 9. Prov. i. 27. Isa. lxvi. 15.
WILDERNESS. Outlawed from the great city. Deut. xxxii. 10. Jer. xii. 10. Rev. xii. 6.
WIND. Doctrine, good and bad. Cant. iv. 16. Isa. xxvi. 18. Eph. iv. 14.
WINE, is consolation, and anger, and justice. Cant. v. 1. Isa. lv. 1. Rev. xvi. 19. xvii. 2.
WINGS. Protection, defence. Exod. xix. 4. Ps. xvii. 8. xxxvi. 7. Rev. ix. 9. xii. 14.
WITNESS. Christ, prophets and apostles. Isa. xliii. 10. Acts i. 8,22. Rev. i. 5. iii. 14. xx. 4.
WITNESSES, TWO. Two testaments, scriptures, figured by the two cherubims. Rev. xi. 3, 4. Zach. iv. 3-6. John v. 39. 1John v. 9. Exod. xxxi. 18.
WOMAN. The true church and anti-christian church. Isa. liv. 6. Jer. vi. 2. Rev. xii. 1. xvii. 3,7.
WOOD. People. Jer. v. 14.
WORDS OF GOD. Fire. Jer. v. 14.
WRATH, DAY OF. Judgment day. Job xxi. 30. Ps. cx. 5. Zeph. i. 15. Rom. ii. 5. Rev. vi. 17.


 
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SYNOPSIS OF MR. MILLER'S VIEWS.
 

        MY DEAR BROTHER, - You have requested a synopsis of my views of the christian faith. The following sketch will give you some idea of the religious opinions I have formed by a careful study of the word of God.

        I believe all men, coming to years of discretion, do and will disobey God, and this is, in some measure, owing to corrupted nature by the sin of our parent. I believe God will not condemn us for any pollution in our father, but the soul that sinneth shall die. All pollution of which we may be partakers from the sins of our ancestors, in which we could have no agency, can and will be washed away in the blood and sacrifice of Jesus Christ, without our agency. But all sins committed by us as rational, intelligent agents, can only be cleansed by the blood of Jesus Christ, through our repentance and faith. I believe in the salvation of all men who receive the grace of God by repentance and faith in the mediation of Jesus Christ. I believe in the condemnation of all men who reject the gospel and mediation of Christ, and thereby lose the efficacy of the blood and righteousness of our Redeemer, as proffered to us in the gospel. I believe in practical godliness as commanded us in the Scriptures, (which are our only rule of faith and practice,) and that they only will be entitled to heaven and future blessedness, who obey and keep the commandments of God as given us in the Bible, which is the word of God. I believe in God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is a Spirit, omnipresent, omniscient, having all power, creator, preserver, and self-existent. As being holy, just and beneficent, I believe in Jesus Christ, the Son of God, having a body in fashion and form like man, divine in his nature, human in his person, godlike in his character and power. He is a Savior for sinners, a priest to God, a mediator between God and man, and King in Zion. He will be all to his people, God with us forever. The spirit of the Most High is in him, the power of the Most High is given him, the people of the Most High are purchased by him, the glory of the Most High shall be with him, and the kingdom of the Most High is his on earth.

        I believe the Bible is the revealed will of God to man, and all therein is necessary to be understood by Christians in the several ages and circumstances to which they may refer; - for instance, what may be understood to-day might not have been necessary to have been understood 1000 years ago. For its object is to reveal things new and old, that the man of God may be thoroughly furnished for, and perfected in, every good word and work, for the age in which he lives. I believe it is revealed in the best possible manner for all people in every age and under every circumstance to understand, and that it is to be understood as literal as it can be and make good sense; - and that in ever case where the language is figurative, we must let the Bible explain its own figures. We are in no case allowed to speculate on the Scriptures, and suppose things which are not clearly expressed, nor reject things which are plainly taught. I believe all of the prophecies are revealed to try our faith, and to give us hope, without which we could have no reasonable hope. I believe that the Scriptures do reveal unto us, in plain language, that Jesus Christ will appear again on this earth, that he will come in the glory of God, in the clouds of heaven, with all his saints and angels; that he will raise the dead bodies of all his saints who have slept, change the bodies of all that are alive on the earth that are his, and both these living and raised saints will be caught up to meet the Lord in the air. There the saints will be judged and presented to the Father, without spot or wrinkle. Then the gospel kingdom will be given up to God the Father. Then will the Father give the bride to the Son Jesus Christ; and when the marriage takes place, the church will become the "New Jerusalem," the "beloved city." And while this is being done in the air, the earth will be cleansed by fire, the elements will melt with fervent heat, the works of men will be destroyed, the bodies of the wicked will be burned to ashes, the devil and all evil spirits, with the souls and spirits of those who have rejected the gospel, will be banished from the earth, shut up in the pit or place prepared for the devil and his angels, and will not be permitted to visit the earth again until 1000 years. This is the first resurrection, and first judgment. Then Christ and his people will come down from the heavens, or middle air, and live with his saints on the new earth in a new heaven, or dispensation, forever, even forever and ever. This will be the restitution of the right owners to the earth.

        Then will the promise of God, to his Son, be accomplished: "I will give him the heathen for his inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for his possession." Then "the whole earth shall be full of his glory." And then, will the holy people take possession of their joint heirship with Christ, and his promise be verified, "the meek shall inherit the earth," and the kingdom of God will have come, and "his will done in earth as in heaven." After 1000 years shall have passed away, the saints will all be gathered and encamped in the beloved city. The sea, death and hell will give up their dead, which will rise up on the breadths of the earth, out of the city, a great company like the sand of the sea-shore. The devil will be let loose, to go out and deceive this wicked host. He will tell them of a battle against the saints, the beloved city; he will gather them in the battle around the camp of the saints. But there is no battle; the devil has deceived them. The saints will judge them, the justice of God will drive them from the earth into the lake of fire and brimstone, where they will be tormented day and night, forever and ever. "This is the second death." After the second resurrection, second judgment, the righteous will then possess the earth forever.

        I understand that the judgment day will be a thousand years long. The righteous are raised and judged in the commencement of that day, the wicked in the end of that day. I believe that the saints will be raised and judged about the year 1843; according to Moses' prophecy, Lev. xxvi. Ezek. xxxix. Daniel ii., vii., viii-xii. Hos. v. 1-3. Rev. the whole book; and many other prophets have spoken of these things. Time will soon tell if I am right, and soon he that is righteous will be righteous still, and he that is filthy will be filthy still. I do most solemnly entreat man-kind to make their peace with God, be ready for these things. "The end of all things is at hand." I do ask my brethren in the gospel ministry to consider well what they say before they oppose these things. Say not in your hearts, "my Lord delayeth his coming." Let all do as they would wish they had if it does come, and none will say they have not done right if it does not come. I believe it will come; but if it should not come, then I will wait and look until it does come. Yet I must pray, "Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly."

        This is a synopsis of my views. I give it as a matter of faith. I know of no scripture to contradict any view given in the above sketch. Men's theories may oppose. The ancients believed in a temporal and personal reign of Christ on earth. The moderns believe in a temporal, spiritual reign as a millennium. Both views are wrong - both are too gross and carnal. I believe in a glorious, immortal and personal reign of Jesus Christ with all his people on the purified earth forever. I believe the millennium is between the two resurrections and two judgments: the righteous and the wicked, the just and the unjust. I hope the dear friends of Christ will lay by all prejudice, and look at and examine these three views by the only rule and standard, the BIBLE.

 

THE GREAT CONTROVERSY CHAPTER 22

William Miller

I saw that God sent his angel to move upon the heart of a farmer who had not believed the Bible, and led him to search the prophecies. Angels of God repeatedly visited that chosen one, and guided his mind, and opened his understanding to prophecies which had ever been dark to God's people. The commencement of the chain of truth was given to him, and he was led on to search for link after link, until he looked with wonder and admiration upon the word of God. He saw there a perfect chain of truth. That Word which he had regarded as uninspired, now opened before his vision with beauty and glory. He saw that one portion of scripture explained another, and when one portion was closed to his understanding, he found in another portion of the Word that which explained it. He regarded the sacred word of God with joy, and with the deepest respect and awe.

As he followed down the prophecies, he saw that the inhabitants of earth were living in the closing scenes of this world's history, and they knew it not. He looked at the corruptions of the churches, and saw that their love was taken from Jesus, and placed on the world, and that they were seeking for worldly honor instead of that honor which cometh from above; ambitious for worldly riches, instead of laying up their treasure in heaven. Hypocrisy, darkness and death he could see everywhere. His spirit was stirred within him. God called him to leave his farm, as Elisha was called to leave his oxen and the field of his labor to follow Elijah. With trembling, William Miller began to unfold the mysteries of the kingdom of God to the people. He gained strength with every effort. He carried the people down through the prophecies to the second advent of Christ. As John the Baptist heralded the first advent of Jesus, and prepared the way for his coming, so also, Wm. Miller and those who joined with him, proclaimed the second advent of the Son of God.

I was carried back to the days of the disciples, and was shown the beloved John, that God had a special work for him to accomplish. Satan was determined to hinder this work, and he led on his servants to destroy John. But God sent his angel and wonderfully preserved him. All who witnessed the great power of God manifested in the deliverance of John, were astonished, and many were convinced that God was with him, and that the testimony which he bore concerning Jesus was correct. Those who sought to destroy him were afraid to again attempt to take his life, and he was permitted to suffer on for Jesus. He was falsely accused by his enemies, and was shortly banished to a lonely island, where the Lord sent his angel to reveal to him things which were to take place upon the earth, and the state of the church down through to the end; her backslidings, and the position the church should occupy if she would please God, and finally overcome. The angel from heaven came to John in majesty. His countenance beamed with the excellent glory of heaven. He revealed to John scenes of deep and thrilling interest concerning the church of God, and brought before him the perilous conflicts they were to endure. John saw them pass through fiery trials, and made white and tried, and, finally, victorious overcomers, gloriously saved in the kingdom of God. The countenance of the angel grew radiant with joy, and was exceeding glorious, as he showed to John the final triumph of the church of God. John was enraptured as he beheld the final deliverance of the church, and as he was carried away with the glory of the scene, with deep reverence and awe he fell at the feet of the angel to worship him. The angel instantly raised him up, and gently reproved him, saying, See thou do it not; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus; worship God; for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. The angel then showed John the heavenly city with all its splendor and dazzling glory. John was enraptured and overwhelmed with the glory of the city. He did not bear in mind his former reproof from the angel, but again fell to worship before the feet of the angel, who again gave the gentle reproof, See thou do it not; for I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them that keep the sayings of this book; worship God.

Preachers and people have looked upon the book of Revelation as mysterious, and of less importance than other portions of the sacred Scriptures. But I saw that this book is indeed a revelation given for the especial benefit of those who should live in the last days, to guide them in ascertaining their true position, and their duty. God led the mind of Wm. Miller into the prophecies, and gave him great light upon the book of Revelation.

If Daniel's visions had been understood, the people could better have understood the visions of John. But at the right time, God moved upon his chosen servant, who with clearness and in the power of the Holy Spirit, opened the prophecies, and showed the harmony of the visions of Daniel and John, and other portions of the Bible, and pressed home upon the hearts of the people the sacred, fearful warnings of the Word, to prepare for the coming of the Son of man. Deep and solemn convictions rested upon the minds of those who heard him, and ministers and people, sinners and infidels, turned to the Lord, to seek a preparation to stand in the judgment.

Angels of God accompanied Wm. Miller in his mission. He was firm and undaunted. He fearlessly proclaimed the message committed to his trust. A world lying in wickedness, and a cold, worldly church were enough to call into action his energy, and lead him to willingly endure toil, privation and suffering. Although opposed by professed Christians and the world, and buffeted by Satan and his angels, he ceased not to preach the everlasting gospel to crowds wherever he was invited, and sound the cry, Fear God and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come.

 

See Daniel 8:14; Revelation 19:10.

 

 

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