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EARLY CHURCH

Ambrose
Ambrose, Pseudo
Andreas
Arethas
Aphrahat
Athanasius
Augustine
Barnabus
BarSerapion
Baruch, Pseudo
Bede
Chrysostom
Chrysostom, Pseudo
Clement, Alexandria
Clement, Rome
Clement, Pseudo
Cyprian
Ephraem
Epiphanes
Eusebius
Gregory
Hegesippus
Hippolytus
Ignatius
Irenaeus
Isidore
James
Jerome
King Jesus
Apostle John
Lactantius
Luke
Mark
Justin Martyr
Mathetes
Matthew
Melito
Oecumenius
Origen
Apostle Paul
Apostle Peter
Maurus Rabanus
Remigius
"Solomon"
Severus
St. Symeon
Tertullian
Theophylact
Victorinus

HISTORICAL PRETERISM
(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Joseph Addison
Oswald T. Allis
Thomas Aquinas
Karl Auberlen
Augustine
Albert Barnes
Karl Barth
G.K. Beale
Beasley-Murray
John Bengel
Wilhelm Bousset
John A. Broadus

David Brown
"Haddington Brown"
F.F. Bruce

Augustin Calmut
John Calvin
B.H. Carroll
Johannes Cocceius
Vern Crisler
Thomas Dekker
Wilhelm De Wette
Philip Doddridge
Isaak Dorner
Dutch Annotators
Alfred Edersheim
Jonathan Edwards

E.B. Elliott
Heinrich Ewald
Patrick Fairbairn
Js. Farquharson
A.R. Fausset
Robert Fleming
Hermann Gebhardt
Geneva Bible
Charles Homer Giblin
John Gill
William Gilpin
W.B. Godbey
Ezra Gould
Hank Hanegraaff
Hengstenberg
Matthew Henry
G.A. Henty
George Holford
Johann von Hug
William Hurte
J, F, and Brown
B.W. Johnson
John Jortin
Benjamin Keach
K.F. Keil
Henry Kett
Richard Knatchbull
Johann Lange

Cornelius Lapide
Nathaniel Lardner
Jean Le Clerc
Peter Leithart
Jack P. Lewis
Abiel Livermore
John Locke
Martin Luther

James MacDonald
James MacKnight
Dave MacPherson
Keith Mathison
Philip Mauro
Thomas Manton
Heinrich Meyer
J.D. Michaelis
Johann Neander
Sir Isaac Newton
Thomas Newton
Stafford North
Dr. John Owen
 Blaise Pascal
William W. Patton
Arthur Pink

Thomas Pyle
Maurus Rabanus
St. Remigius

Anne Rice
Kim Riddlebarger
J.C. Robertson
Edward Robinson
Andrew Sandlin
Johann Schabalie
Philip Schaff
Thomas Scott
C.J. Seraiah
Daniel Smith
Dr. John Smith
C.H. Spurgeon

Rudolph E. Stier
A.H. Strong
St. Symeon
Theophylact
Friedrich Tholuck
George Townsend
James Ussher
Wm. Warburton
Benjamin Warfield

Noah Webster
John Wesley
B.F. Westcott
William Whiston
Herman Witsius
N.T. Wright

John Wycliffe
Richard Wynne
C.F.J. Zullig

MODERN PRETERISTS
(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Firmin Abauzit
Jay Adams
Luis Alcazar
Greg Bahnsen
Beausobre, L'Enfant
Jacques Bousset
John L. Bray
David Brewster
Dr. John Brown
Thomas Brown
Newcombe Cappe
David Chilton
Adam Clarke

Henry Cowles
Ephraim Currier
R.W. Dale
Gary DeMar
P.S. Desprez
Johann Eichhorn
Heneage Elsley
F.W. Farrar
Samuel Frost
Kenneth Gentry
Steve Gregg
Hugo Grotius
Francis X. Gumerlock
Henry Hammond
Hampden-Cook
Friedrich Hartwig
Adolph Hausrath
Thomas Hayne
J.G. Herder
Timothy Kenrick
J. Marcellus Kik
Samuel Lee
Peter Leithart
John Lightfoot
Benjamin Marshall
F.D. Maurice
Marion Morris
Ovid Need, Jr
Wm. Newcombe
N.A. Nisbett
Gary North
Randall Otto
Zachary Pearce
Andrew Perriman
Beilby Porteus
Ernst Renan
Gregory Sharpe
Fr. Spadafora
R.C. Sproul
Moses Stuart
Milton S. Terry
Herbert Thorndike
C. Vanderwaal
Foy Wallace
Israel P. Warren
Chas Wellbeloved
J.J. Wetstein
Richard Weymouth
Daniel Whitby
George Wilkins
E.P. Woodward
 

FUTURISTS
(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any Particular Eschatology)

Henry Alford
G.C. Berkower
Alan Patrick Boyd
John Bradford
Wm. Burkitt
George Caird
Conybeare/ Howson
John Crossan
John N. Darby
C.H. Dodd
E.B. Elliott
G.S. Faber
Jerry Falwell
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
Murray Harris
Thomas Ice

Benjamin Jowett
John N.D. Kelly

Hal Lindsey
John MacArthur
William Miller
Robert Mounce

Eduard Reuss

J.A.T. Robinson
George Rosenmuller
D.S. Russell
George Sandison
C.I. Scofield
Dr. John Smith

Norman Snaith
"Televangelists"
Thomas Torrance
Jack/Rex VanImpe
John Walvoord

Quakers : George Fox | Margaret Fell (Fox) | Isaac Penington


PRETERIST UNIVERSALISM | MODERN PRETERISM | PRETERIST IDEALISM

J.P. Dabney

 

THE Prospectus of the following' work announced it as intended 'for popular use' ; a description, to which, it is presumed, in a good degree, it has well conformed. This form of speech was deemed equivalent to, ' mere English readers.' The design was to serve hereby, the ends of those who were unable to seek for scripture-truth at its fountain-head, or to derive directly the light, which foreign critics have shed upon its pages. But to insure this result, somewhat of cooperation is necessary in the reader. By the word popular, was not meant, a work level to the lowest measure of understanding or attainments ; a book, which might, like any English volume, be read right onward, without interruption or delay ; read, not studied ; and in which, every thing was found prepared to the hands of the most indolent reader. This would certainly have been an egregious mistake. Those who cannot so far task their patience and industry, as to seek out and compare the scripture references with which this work abounds, will find it, not an unprofitable purchase, perhaps, wholly ; but certainly, abridged of half its value.

These last remarks may serve also in answer to a complaint which has been sometimes heard; to wit, the want of fulness in this compilation. The reply might suffice, That 'fulness' can only be gained by the sacrifice of something else ; and would have defeated the very end of this work, which was to afford a cheap and convenient manual of scripture commentary. Beside, what does this word import ? If it is not, that the reader's pains should be wholly spared, by quoting in full, the numerous passages, which are now briefly designated by chapter and verse, its meaning is not perceived : if it is, this would be a lost labor both to the compiler and his readers. Much further illustration or diversity of comment, than is given on a large proportion of the passages noticed, it might not have been easy to adduce.

The rule suggested in the Prospectus, of giving but one explication of a passage, has not been very closely observed. The instances, in truth, are very many, in which it is not easy to settle the claims of precedence, (either from good sense or true criticism) between two and sometimes three senses, which have been put upon a passage; and in such cases, common justice requires that neither should be suppressed. A few passages there are of peculiar perplexity, (chiefly in the Eps.) the interpretations of which have even doubled the above number. .All that is left to the Compiler, in such cases, has been to arrange in regular, and (of late) numerical scries, the several solutions of the difficulty, offered ; leaving them, often without indicating a preference, to the judgment of the reader.

The citation of authorities is not without its perplexity. Two or three names have sometimes been annexed to comments' when less would have sufficed ; and others again, resting on a single name, might have been confirmed, if necessary, by the aid of more. An annotation, in some instances, will not need the authority which any name could give ; being commended, by its own obvious good sense, to the judicious reader.

Where, however, the view given of a passage, is somewhat unusual or novel, a different course is called for; and the Compiler accordingly, has in such instances, been at some pains, (as far as convenience would permit) to sustain, by the weight of anthorities, the position he has taken, where the popular sense of a passage has been discarded as unsound and untenable. In such a body of commentary, it is not to be expected that every part will be equally satisfactory ; and it will be nothing strange, if opinions adduced, are, to the eye of many, new, singular, and even offensive. Candor and forbearance are, in respect to such, asked from the reader. He will do well, not angrily or hastily to reject what, for the moment, revolts him ; and the aspect of which is so often found to be sensibly changed by longer acquaintance. That simple rule for the study of the scriptures, hinted at in the Prospectus, may stand in lieu, to the English reader, of a learned system ' f interpretation ; — viz. that the scripture-use of terms and phrases is EVERY THING ; in the balance with which, modern associations and senses are of no account. What this use is, he can only learn by a long-, faithful, and attentive study of the sacred writings.

There is no fondness, it is hoped, manifest in the present work, for far-fetched or figurative interpretations. Where the literal or popular sense has been discarded, it has been not from vanity, but from conviction. There are few instances (as it is pleasant, in review, to see) of such explications, to which the above disadvantage (ifit can be so called) is not compensated by the respectable patrons, which are subjoined. There are few, which, so far as authorities can go, have not as good a title to adoption, as their opposiles ; or, to command respect, where they fail to secure assent. Those eminent lights of biblical learning, in the early period of the Reformation, who were critics of no party, and whose names give place to none, are found repeatedly on the side of what is, in our day, the obnoxious interpretation.

The preparation of a work, like this, for ' unlearned readers,' so called, is not unattended by difficulties, which even the intelligent and patient study of such readers will not always obviate.

This remark has respect to those notes, properly called critical ; i. e. having relation, in some way, to the original text in the N. T. ; and many of which are of too important a kind to be dispensed with, merely because they are critical. Many English readers have perhaps but an indistinct notion of what is meant by the different formation of a Greek verb or noun, a difference which is yet seen sensibly to affect the meaning of the passage ; or of those ' various readings' of the original, the claims of which, to be the genuine text, are formally settled by the array of MSS., Versions, and Fathers. This subject, however, admits of being made better understood than it is at present; as the reader will find in Tract No. xxvi. of the Unitarian Association, (lately issued), ' The History of the text of the N.T.' This tract, which has well condensed into narrow limits, a large amount of biblicalinformation, would make a useful appendix or preface to the present work.

The Compiler has known no impediment, in the prosecution of this work, like that growing out of the necessity , forced upon him, of taking, as the basis of his labors, the Received or Public Version. He was wholly unsuspicious, when he began, of the extent of the mistakes, which the negligence, prejudice, or ignorance of its authors, had created. Upon these, as they have multiplied, he has felt, here and there, constrained to animadvert. What comparative facility and abridgment of his task would have been found, (had the case permitted) in substituting for it, the versions of Newcome or Wakefield ; or of (on the Hist. Books) Pearce.or Campbell ! Whether any other European translation, so indifferent, has chanced to attain the same consequence and authority, may well admit of a doubt. The mention of the prejudices, which disfigure the C. V., brings to mind, the animadversions of Campbell upon Beza, in the same particular. What then must be the condemnation of our Trs. ?

They were (by general admission], the obsequious imitators of Beza in their own work, whose single authority sometimes outweighed in the scale, that of the learned world beside ; and engrafted on the stock of his doctrinal prejudices, which they partook, local and temporary ones of their own. In connexion with the charge of igtiorance, it is well to add the remark of a biblical orthodox friend, (than whom no one has for years been more assiduously occupied in these studies), — That the authors of our version seem often not to have looked into their grammar or lexicon, and (in despite of the professipns of their title-page), to be little else than the Translators from Translators. Even where they appear to be exempt from this censure, praise is not to be inferred, as a necessary consequence. The leading, characteristic fault (if any such) of this version, is its servility to the letter of the Greek. Doubtless, there is an opposite error; and into this, Wakefield not unfrequently falls. But the process of our Trs. would seem literally to have been, — (let not this he thought caricature) — duly to seek out, in the lexicon,each word of the original, and to place, after the manner of the type, the first meanings there found, side by side, till the sentence was complete. What result the aggregate might show, as to construction or sense, — this they left to those who came after them, as being no part of their province. That variety of meanings, which the most esteemed philologists and critics now sanction, as deducible from the same word, was clearly very foreign from their thoughts ; and perhaps (in their reverence for God's word) they might deem all exercise of the judgment on the literal result from a Greek passage, criminal ; even so much as was necessary to shape it into propriety and sense.*

The Compiler has not included the book of the 'Revelation of John,' in the following work. He has Whitby, for a precedent herein, as well as some other expositors, whose nominal title embraces the N. T.- The dubious and yet unsettled question, as to the subject and plan of this prophecy, well justifies its omission.

No one of the numerous theories in regard to it, so far prevails over the rest, as to be assumed for correct in a work of this sort ; nor could any one be even faintly understood by the commentary alone, without the extra aid of a copious introduction.

Scattered parts there may be, which do not depend upon the general theory, assumed ; hut these are too few, to make it worth while to give to the whole book, the same distinct and regular notice, as to the other books of the N. T. It may be remarked further, that in the view of many respectable writers, the Revelation (or, Apocalypse) is a series of yet unaccomplished prophecies ; a good reason surely, if this view be probable, for leaving ils solution to time. Those readers, whose curiosity prompts them to know more of this remarkable production, are referred to the works of Eichhorn, Newton, Lowrnan, Croly, and Woodhouse.

In an undertaking so novel, that the Compiler could not enjoy the benefit of any volume which could he called a model, there will, doubtless, be many imperfections. That which accounts for these, may (in another light) secure for them proportionate indulgence. Such a work will, it is presumed, be felt to have been a desideratum, though it should require much allowance for its execution. That even theologians, until the appearance of the connected works of Elsley and Slade, a few years since, and the more recent one of Bloomfield, possessed nothing of the kind, is singular enough, almost to create skepticism as to the fact.

To the community at large, that want has continued to this time.  Whether it is here supplied, is yet to be seen. The Compiler's wish and prayer is, that whatever information this book imparts, may not be such as needs to be unlearned ; but that it may have, at least, that conformity to the oracles of truth, as will ensure his blessing, on whom all its utility depends. HE, who only can decide, What is the chaff to the wheat, will, it is believed, so sift and separate the mixture, that the influence of the whole shall be, not for evil or error, but to the furtherance of knowledge and of truth.

Cambridge, August 10, 1829,



Matthew 5:"5. They shall inherit the earth : or, as Campbell and Wakefield, the land : i. e. the land of Judea. This phrase is supposed by Hammond and Whitby to allude to the language of the fifth commandment in the decalogue ; the general sense being the same, of temporal blessings. It implies a calm, placid enjoyment of life, to promote which, meekness greatly tends, and which anger obstructs." (p. 10)

Matthew 8:"32. They went into the herd of swine : " not into the bodies of the animals, for how with the natural sight could demons be seen to enter thus ? But the sense is this : these raving men rushed down the fields upon the swine, and drove them headlong into the sea. What the maniacs said and did, is ascribed indiscriminately to them or the supposed demons." Rosenmuller. Dr. Lardner favours also this view. The objection to it, which is most insisted upon, is, that it was impossible for two men, however fierce, to put so vast a herd of swine as two thousand into motion in an instant, and to cause them all to rush with violence down a precipice into the sea ; swine, contrary to the nature of most other animals, running different ways, when they are driven : further, that it was next to impossible, that these two men should overcome all those who tended the swine ; especially, as in order to compassthe herd, they must have separated from each other; and in fine, that had they under the influence of their disorder, driven the swine into the sea, it is strange that they did not follow them there.

The solution of Farmer, who exhibits these objections, supposes the madness with which the men wereaffected, to be transferred to the swine. His remarks are worthy of being given at length. " Possession and madness were supposed to bear to each other the relation of cause and effect, and accordingly to commence and cease together. When demons were supposed to enter any creature, he immediately grew mad ; whenthey departed, this disorder was removed. When therefore, it is said in the case under consideration, that the demons went out of the madmen, and entered the swine ; the evangelists, their language being interpreted agreeably to the popular opinion on which it is founded, must mean, that the madmen in consequence of the departureof the demons, were cured, and restored to their right mind ; and that the swine in consequence of the demons entering them, were infected with rage and madness ;the cure of the former, and the madness of thelatter, being the very ground on which it was concluded that the demons had quitted one and taken possession of the other. It is imported too in this, that the men were cured before the swine were disordered, otherwise the demons would not be spoken of, as passing out of the former into the latter." (pp. 14,15)

Matthew 10 "23. Till the Son of man be come : Le Clerc supposes that this coming, in the present instance, can only well be referred to the destruction of the Jewish state and of Jerusalem ; and so also Whitby. Grotius would understand it of the full effusion of the Holy Spirit at the day of Pentecost ; while Priestley, less naturally and probably than either, applies it to Christ's second coming, to raise the dead and judge the world. For this explication, he assigns no reasons." (p. 18)

Matthew 10:"32. Either in this age or that which is to come : Wakefield's Tr. He adds, " though the Christian be a dispensation of mercy, this sin shall no more be forgiven by the law of the gospel, than it is by the law of Moses, under which the punishment was death. (Levit. xxiv. 16)."  By others, these phrases are considered as an expressive mode of affirming that it can never be forgiven ; as Kuinoel and Whitby." (p. 21)

Matthew 12:"45. When the unclean spirit &c. : Priestley thinks "that by this parable, our Lord describes changes in the state of the Jewish nation ; which, greatly corrupted before the Babylonish captivity, had been reformed by calamity, but afterwards sunk into greater depravity than ever, for which they were doomed to severer judgments, and of longer continuance." (p. 21)

Matthew 16: "28. Coming to his kingdom : so Wakefield. " Or, — coming to reign, meaning probably till they shall see the Christian religion established in the world." Mss. Notes. See Note on Ch. x. 7- This coming of Christ, however, is very variously understood. Hammond refers it to the great destruction of Jerusalem (as in Matt. xxiv. 3) ; Whitby, to the last day, from the similarity of the language used, to that of Matt. xxv. 31; 2 Thes. i. 7 ; Matt. xiii. 41. Grotius supposes it to signify the first manifestation of Christ's power, by his resurrection, ascension, and sending the Holy Spirit, which our Lord declares would speedily take place. It is the common opinion of critics, that in the minds of the disciples, the destruction of the Jewish state and the final judgment were frequently conjoined, from the near resemblance in the language used by our Saviour, in respect to both. " (p. 28) 

21:"18 Let no fruit grow on thee: " This was probably a fig- tree on the public road, and therefore no individual property ; and as with the prophets in the O. T., it was usual to teach by actions as well as by words, so our Saviour, who often chose to express himself by parables and symbols, took this opportunity to show in the case of a fig-tree, what fate the Jewish nation in general, who had been unfruitful under such cultivation, had to expect." Priestley." (p. 39)

22:"7. And he sent forth his armies: " This was accomplished by the Roman forces in the destruction of Jerusalem ; which may with propriety be called the army of God, as fulfilling his will, and as the Median army (Isa. xiii. 4, 5), is called." Le Clerc and Whitby. " The armies of God are his angels, by whose ministry he acts, (l Kings xxii. 19; Luke ii. 13), they distribute his judgments, and by the Romans, brought them, (that is, pestilence and famine,) on Jerusalem." Grotius." (p. 40)

23:"36. Shall come upon this generation : " That is, with every species of guilt which had been exemplified in former ages, they of that age would be found chargeable ; inasmuch as they permitted no kind of wickedness to be peculiar
to those who had preceded them. There is no hyperbole in the representation ; according to the account, given of them by Josephus, who was no christian, but one of their own people." Campbell. "As no more than forty years elapsed from the time these words were spoken, to the destruction of Jerusalem, it might, with little extravagance be said, that the calamities denounced should come upon that generation, many of whom would live to see them." Kenrick." (p. 46)

CHAP. XXIV.

24:"2. See ye not all these things ? C. V. Do ye gaze on all these things ? Wakefield's Tr. Most of the early Eastern
versions also omit the negative. Campbell renders, — All this ye see. One stone upon another: " Titus commanded the soldiers, according to Josephus, to dig up the foundations of the temple and city." Whitby. — " He that never saw the temple of Herod, say the Rabbins, never saw a fine building." Lightfoot — The strength and splendor of its buildings are celebrated by the Roman historian, Tacitus, by Josephus, and by Philo." (p. 46)

3. What shall be the sign of thy coming: "Our Lord here commences that most remarkable prophecy concerning the utter demolition of the temple and the dispersion of the Jews, as to be accomplished in that generation, when there was far from being any appearance of such an event. The Jews were then at peace with the Romans, with whom they could have no prospect of successfully contending ; or if they should have revolted and been subdued, there was no example in all the Roman conquests of so utter a devastation as that predicted. It is remarkable that almost every country flourished under the Roman government more than they had done under their own ; so that it was in general a blessing to the world. Least of all was it probable that any conqueror would wish to destroy so fine a building as the temple.  And history assures us, that Titus, the Roman general, did use his utmost efforts, but in vain, to preserve it." Priestley.

And of the end of the world: C. V. — or, of the age : Wakefield and Imp. Vers. ; and so also Kenrick. And of the conclusion of this state : Campbell's Tr. By the end of the age, the disciples understood to be meant the period, when the Messiah would as they thought, assume his temporal authority and subvert the political economy which then subsisted, under which they were governed by Roman procurators. This was a time of joyous anticipation to the Jews, and they were of course eager to know when it would begin. ''   The phrase which is here translated end of the world, is applied in other parts of S. S., to particular aeras, to the end of certain dispensations of religion ; such as the Antideluvian, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic.  It is as correctly applied to the end of a political period, or to the termination of the Roman dominion in Judea.  That Christ did not understand his disciples to mean literally the end of the present scene, is evident from his language, v. 34. This generation shall not pass &c.  See also Heb. ix. 26; 1 Cor. x. 11, where end of the world obviously means, as the connexion demands, the termination of the Mosaic economy." Kenrick.  According to the above view, the three questions in the text, viz. the coming of Christ, the destruction of Jerusalem, and the end of the age, are not distinct, but coincide in one. But the disciples, say the Rabbins, first inquired of the destruction of the temple, (when shall these things be ?) then of Christ's last advent, and next of the consummation of all things. Hammond remarks, " that as the words of their question are somewhat ambiguous, our Lord's answer may be so too ; so far, that part of if corresponds with the destruction of the temple, and part of it, more justly, to the end of the world. The destruction of Jerusalem may also, in some measure, prefigure the final destruction."  "The Rabbins taught that at the coming of the Messiah, there should be a resurrection of the just ; this world should be wasted or ended, and a new one introduced for a thousand years ; and after that, eternity should succeed. The disciples ask, when Christ will come, not finally to judgment, but in the demonstration of the Messiah to produce this change." Lightfoot. " (pp. 46-48)

24:"5. Shall come in my name : C. V. or, will assume my character : Campbell's Tr. He adds, " that to come in one's
name, signifies more properly, to come by one's authority or order, real or pretended ; as the Messiah came in the name of God, the apostles came in the name of the Messiah. But those here spoken of, would usurp the title, office, and character of Christ, and mislead their followers to their own destruction."

Saying, I am Christ: Theudas, Simon Magus, and others mentioned in the Acts or by Josephus, are supposed to be here alluded to. The last historian mentions, " that the time of the advent of their King Messiah prevailed with many to set up for kings." Some are specified by name. (pp. 48)

6. Shall hear of wars, and rumors of wars: " There were great convulsions in the Roman Empire previous to the revolt of the Jews. But the reference more probably is to insurrections in Palestine." Priestley. Kenrick, who accords with the above, mentions, that when the Emperor Caligula 'ordered his statue to be placed in the temple of Jerusalem, six years after the death of Christ, the Jews furiously resisted it, and the command to carry it into effect, created so strong an expectation of hostilities, that the inhabitants left their lands uncultivated. The seasonable death of the Emperor prevented matters from coming to extremity." (pp. 48)

24:"7. There shall be famines and earthquakes in divers places : See the prophecy of Agabus, Acts xi. 28. — " There
were many earthquakes in Asia, and the islands of the Egean sea, described by the historians of Claudius and the following emperors." Le Clerc."  (pp. 49)

24:"8. The beginnings of sorrows : " the first calamities of the Jews under Caligula and Claudius, were not comparable
to those from Nero to Adrian." Le Clerc. "  (pp. 49)

24:"12. The love of many shall wax cold : C. V. Wakefield supplies alter many — of my disciples."  (pp. 49)

14. Shall be preached in all the world : " That is, in all the Roman empire." Priestley ; and so Kenrick. — " The original word does not by any means denote the whole inhabited globe, but sometimes the Roman empire (as Luke ii. 1), and sometimes a large part of that empire, and primarily, Judea (as Acts xi. 28)." Ros. This limitation of the sense is required too by the obvious truth of history ; and thus the language of Paul is to be understood, (Rom. i. 8, x. 13 ; Col. i. 6, 23)."  (p. 49)

15. The abomination of desolation : C. V. or, the abomination which desolateth, according to our common idiom, as Campbell observes. On the Roman ensigns which are, thus denoted, were sculptured the images of the Gods and the Caesars, which as they were objects of adoration to the soldiers, were detestable in the eyes of the Jews. Comp. Dan. ix. 27; Luke xxi. 20, where the same terms are employed. Thus Tertullian, Grotius, and most critics. In the holy place : " Not in the temple ; for that could not happen by the presence of armies, till the immediate destruction of it ; but in the circuit ofthe holy city." Grotius and Whitby. Campbell renders, — on holy ground. (Whoso readeth &c. : Campbell gives this parenthesis, as an insertion of Matthew, who wrote about the time when these things began to be realized and wished to quicken the attention of the reader to this prophecy, — (Reader, attend) So also Kenrick and Priestley consider it."   (p. 49)

24:"17- Let him which is upon the house-top: "The houses in Judea were flat roofed, and the roof used for walking and retirement. Some persons think that ' the sparrow on the house-top ' in the Psalms, alludes to this solitary exercise." Hammond."   (p. 49)

24:18. "Neither let him which is in the field: C. V. And let not him that is at his farm, (or, country residence), turn back (i. e. to the city) even to take his clothes: So Wakefield translates."   (p. 50)

20. "That your flight be not in the winter, nor on the Sabbath-day : C. V. Be not in rainy weather, nor on a sabbatical year : Wakefield's Tr. Josephus, he thinks, represents that event as happening on a sabbatical year. Hammond accords with this translation. — Assuming the C. V. as correct, the first difficulty (that from the winter) arose from the impassable roads, the shortness of the days, and the severity of the weather ; the last, from the superstitious regard of the Jews for the Sabbath-day ; the allowed journey on which, did not exceed two miles. So Grotius, Kenrick, and others."   (p. 50)

"21. As was not from the beginning of the world to this time &c. : " This is an hyperbolical expression to denote any thing extreme, rather than strictly importing that no future calamity should compare with it. Similar force of language is found, Joel ii. 2 ; Exod. x, 14." Whitby. — " This is best restricted to the history of that people; among whom these
calamities were unparalleled, and would so remain. Josephus, whose account of the siege is minute, speaks of the animosity of the opposite factions within the city as such, that they filled all places, even the temple itself with carnage ; and to such a height did their madness rise, that they destroyed the very granaries of corn that should have sustained them, and burnt the magazine of arms which was their defence. Hence at the lapse of not more than two months from the opening of the siege, a famine began to rage, which brought them to such extremities that mothers ate their own children. The number of those destroyed in Jerusalem, down to the taking of the city, by faction, by famine, by pestilence, and by the enemy, is computed at 1,100,000. Besides these, 237,000 are supposed to have been destroyed in other places ; not to speak of numbers, who are not within the sphere of calculation, swept away by the nameless and numberless casualties of a state of war. The number of captives throughout the whole war, was 97,000." Kenrick. " (pp. 50-51)

"22. But for the elect's sake: By the elect here may be meant either the Jewish nation styled so commonly, God's chosen people (Isa. xlv. 4), for whose sake those calamitous days were brought to a close, that so a remnant might be left to fulfil the future purposes of God's providence : or, on the other hand, the term may refer to the christians, as Le Clerc, and Whitby suppose, who are thus designated in the N. T. as the Jews were in the O. T. In this last sense the word seems to be used a little below, v. 24.

Those days shall be shortend; " The Sicarii, or bands of assassins, and afterwards the Zealots, committed such devastations that Vespasian hastened the preparations of the siege to save the remnant of the people." Grotius."  (p. 51)

24:28. "Wheresoever the carcase is &c. : i. e. " the Roman armies will detect and subdue all opposition, as easy as the eagle finds and seizes its prey. Here may also be another allusion to the figure of eagles in the Roman standards." Priestley."  (pp. 50-51)

29. Shall the sun be darkened and the moon &c. : By these expressive images, the prophets were wont to depict the subversion of cities and states, as well as of the Jewish state, civil and ecclesiastical. See Isa. xiii. 10, xxiv. 23. So Ezekiel of the destruction of Egypt. Joy and prosperity are prefigured, on the other hand, by an increase of light in the sun and moon (Isa. xxx. 26). The origin of this use of language is obvious enough ; for as the sun and moon are the highest sources of physical benefit to mankind, the darkness of these luminaries is a fit emblem of any signal calamity. Kenrick, Le Clerc &c"  (p. 51)

30. The sign of the son of man who is in heaven : That is, the evidences that he is in heaven, or in his exalted state of glory and power ; such as are these signal retributions on his enemies. So Hammond, and Le Clerc. Both these writers however, suppose with Priestly, that vvs. 29, 30, 31, in a sublimer and figurative sense, relate to the final advent.

Then shall all the tribes of the earth : C. V. or, of the land, i. e. of Judea : Campbell. So Wakefield, Kenrick, and Le Clerc." (p. 52)

34. "This generation shall not pass : Kenrick, with others, considers this text as decisive evidence that the preceding prophecy, in its literal application solely referred to the destruction of Jerusalem."  (p. 52)

36,37 "But as the days of Noah were, so shall also &c. : " That is, there will be the same security and unconcern about the coming of the Son of man among the Jews, as there was in the antideluvian world about the deluge." Keurick. "  (p. 52)

Matthew 26: "64. The Son of man sitting on the right hand of power : This language' very nearly corresponds to that, Ch. xxiv.30, and like that, describes the approaching doom of Jerusalem." (p. 56)

Matthew 28:"20. Unto the end of the world : C. V. To the conclusion of this state : Campbell's Tr., or, nf the age : as Wakefleldand Imp. Vers. i. e. to the end of the Jewish economy, the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple ; soon after which miraculous powers were withdrawn, and no personal appearances of J.C. are recorded." So Bp. Pearce.  At the present time, into is known to be preferred in the performance of this rite by many pastors, without distinction of doctrinal belief." (p. 60)

Luke 3:7 - "From the wrath to come : C. V. or, from the impending vengeance : Campbell's Tr. — from the wrath that is approaching : Wakefield's Tr. So Matt. iii. 7-, " i- e. the vengeance about to be taken on the Jewish nation." Bp. Pearce and Priestley interpret the phrases which follow, viz. the axe laid unto the root (v. 9.) — baptizing with fire (v. 16.) — the fan in his hand (v. 17-), as bearing the same allusive application. Comp. Matt. iii. 7-12,  and Note on ver. 11." (p. 91)

Luke 17:22. "One of the days of the Son of man: Hammond applies this to the Pharisees, in the destruction of Jerusalem, as wishing for one of the opportunities of mercy they now rejected. Le Clerc, taking the phrase in this last sense, contrasts it however with the display of visible power and splendor, just alluded to; and in their anxiety to witness and enjoy which, they did not value the other." (p. 123)

Luke 17:26, 27. As it was in the days of Noah : See Notes on Matt. xxiv. 36, 38. 31. Which shall be upon the house top : See Notes on Matt. xxiv. 17, 18. 34-36. The one shall be taken and the other left : " That is, meaning a signal interposition for the preservation of the christians, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem." Pearce." (p. 123)

Luke 23:31. "If they do these things in a green tree, &c. : " This was a Hebrew proverb, in which the worthy and the pious answered to the green flourishing tree ; and corrupt men to the dry. See Ezek. xvii. 24 ; Ps. i. 3. The sense, therefore, is, — if I, an innocent man, encounter such indignities and cruelties, with how much heavier evils' will those who are reprobate, as the Jews, be visited." Kuinoel ; and also, Hammond and Priestley. Wakefield applies the two states of the tree, to the Jewish nation. " If there be such lamentation now, while your condition is green and flourishing, what will it be when it withers, and is brought to ruin." With this, the general notion of Le Clerc coincides, — '' The condition of the Jews is bad at present ; what will it be, when they take up arms."  (p. 134)

John 12: 31. "Now is the judgment of this world: C. V., or, must this world be judged: Campbell, i. e. the time is near when the unbelieving Jews will incur punishment." Imp. V., and Pearce. Newcome also cites, to show that the world is often used of the Jewish state and dispensation in Gal. iv. 3 ; Eph. ii. 2 ; Col. ii. 8, 20. See Ns. on Luke ii. 2 ; Matt. xxiv. 14, 30.

The prince of this world : " i. e. the Jewish magistracy and dispensation will be abolished, and the political existence of the Jews, as a nation, will be destroyed.' If the first clause of the vs. is to be taken of the Jewish nation, the last is to be so, of course, of its rulers." Imp. V. Kenrick's par., however, gives a larger scope to the above ; — ' Now is sentence of condemnation to be passed on the heathen world, by the preaching of my G. among them ; now is Satan, the supposed patron of idolatry and darkness, and head of the heathen world, (see N. on Luke x. 18,) to be cast out from his authority, &c.' (pp. 199,200)

"John 16:9-11. He will convince the world, i. e. numbers of the Jews ; making them to see, as they did not before, their sin in rejecting me. He will make my righteousness or innocence clearly to appear, through these miraculous powers, the effusion of which follows my ascension. He will cause it to be owned, that there is a just judge of the world, who will punish those who oppose his designs ; exemplified in the ruin of the Jewish state, for their crime, in my crucifixion. So, Kenrick, Priestley, Pearce and others." (p. 207)

John 21:22, 23. "Tarry till I come : " By which coming of Christ, is clearly meant, the destruction of Jerusalem. (See N. on Matt. xxiv. 3.) This event took place A. D. 70, and John survived it about thirty years." Hammond ; and so, Lightfoot, Le Clerc, Kenrick, &c. Many of the early Christians understood by Christ's coming, the final judgment ; and from this error, derived another ; viz. that of supposing, most strangely, that John was to live till this event." (p. 220)

Acts 3:19 "Times of refreshing shall come: "These are thought to refer to the ease and security which the Jewish converts to the faith of J. would enjoy, when the persecution of their countrymen was checked by the destruction of the Jewish state and city." Kenrick ; and so, Hammond. Comp. Luke xxi. 28. Whitby, with the ancients, inclines to refer it to the second advent of J., and to the rest of heaven, which would follow, 2 Thess. i. 6-8. Ros. says, " that it may be applied not only to this, but to spiritual blessings of all sorts, enjoyed by christians in this or a future life."

Acts 3:21. "Times of restitution of all things : "C. V. or, of the completion of all things, which God had spoken, &c. : Kenrick ; " i. e. in the subversion of the Jewish city and polity. The phrase coming of Christ, is, in the N. T., applied not only to his personal appearance, but to any special display of divine power in his favor, or on his account ; and eminently, to this event." See N's. on Matt. xxiv. Pearce also considers this phrase, and that just noticed, (vs. 19,) to mean the same thing ; though what this is, he does not very precisely define. Newcome's comment, which is very similar to that of P., seems to give the sense of both, — " when all things shall be disposed, ordered, settled in a perfect state ; from their present imperfect one." Priestley and Whitby, on the other hand, apply this to the general resurrection, or the end of time. Since the world began: or, from the beginning : or, the most ancient times : Ros., VVakefield, Kenrick. See N's. on Luke i. 70 ; Matt. xxiv. 3."  (pp. 227, 228)

Acts 6:14. "Shall destroy this place, &c. : " He had probably spoken of the destruction of the temple ; which J. had foretold to his disciples ; involving with it, the cessation of the ceremonial law." Pearce." (p. 223)

Romans 13:11. Now is our salvation nearer, &c. : " i. e. the second coming of J., to raise the dead, and reward the just; which the primitive Chs., and perhaps the Aps. themselves, expected to take place in a very few years, and before the generation then living, became extinct." Grotius. Locke. Taylor repels this explanation, * and remarks, "that Paul had no such belief, is almost put beyond dispute, from 2 Thess. ii. 1. He there rectifies the mistake of the Thessalonians, who had been led by his former Ep. (v. 2-4) into the same error with Mr. Locke. Those expressions which represent our L.'s coming as at hand, as drawing nigh, &c., are otherwise to be interpreted, viz. This coming coincides, to each man, with the time of his death : for then certainly, our Cn. course of duties, sufferings, watchings, &c. ends." Hammond and Whitby understand this salvation to mean, deliverance from the persecution of hostile Jews, by the fall of Jerusalem. McKnight's comment is less natural than any : " We ought the rather, to lay aside all indolence in the discharge of Cn. duty, as the G. is so much better understood by us than at first."

* The opinion that Paul, and the aps. generally, cherished the belief above-mentioned, as supposed by Grotius, Locke, and other critics indeed, does not at all affect their inspiration; which secured them from error, only on what belonged to the system of Cn. doctrine. The precise lime, when the consummation of all things should happen, it is well urged, were no parts of that doctrine; but open, like any common subject, to misapprehension. The passages in the Eps., in which the above persuasion is thought to be expressed, are, — Rom. xiii. 11, 12; Phil. iv.5 ; 1 Thess. V. 2; Heb. ix. 37 ; James v.7-9 ; 1 Pet. iv. 7 ; 2 Pet. iii. 10-12." (p. 322)

"Romans 16:20. Shall bruise Satan : " i. e. bad man ; the persecuting Jews and Judaizers being here meant." Newcome. So, Whitby. Grotius, &c. &c., who add, " that the bruising under their feet, must then designate the fall of Jerusalem and the entire dispersion of the Jews ; this Ep. being written within eight years of the breaking out of the Jewish war." (Annotation, p. 328)

I Corinthians 2:6. "Howebeit, we speak wisdom, &c. : " Howbeit, that which we preach is wisdom, and known to be so, among those that are thoroughly instructed in the Cn. religion." Locke's par. — Of this world: or, of this age: Locke. Pearce. Whitby. L. observes, " that this phrase seems to him, to signify commonly, if nnt always, in the N. T., that state which men, whether Jews or Gentiles, were in during the Mosaic economy, as contra-distinguished to the G. economy or state, which is commonly called the world [age] to come — that come to nought : i. e. who are vanishing. The Jewish rulers (comp. vs. 8) and their very constitution itself, were upon the poinT of being abolished and swept away." Locke's par." (p. 331)

Phil. 4:5. The Lord is at hand: "Coming for the subversion of Jerusalem, and your deliverance from persecution. See 1 Pet. iv. 7 ; James iv. 9." Whitby, Harwood, &c. Grotius refers it, however, to " the final coming of our S., to judge the world ; believed by them to be just at hand.'' See N., Rom. xiii. 11. (p. 446)

II Thess. 2:  "A falling away first : i.e. a great defection or aposta- cy. Benson, Priestley, Harwood, &c., with Bp. Newton, Bp. Kurd, and the majority of protestant critics, apply this noted passage to the rise and power of the Romish church, which was a monstrous defection from pure Ctny. " Man of sin and man of perdition are Hebraisms," says Benson, " to denote an eminently notorious and wicked man, who shall perish with a great and signal destruction.' " * The Papists seek to evade this application of the passage by urging, that the epithets being in the singular number, only one person can be meant by them. This, however, is easily disproved from the scripture-use in many other examples ; as the adversary, the deceiver, the antichrist, &c. ; terms which describe a number, and therefore may here denote a spiritual tyranny exercised by a succession of men. Thus, Benson and McKnight. Eminent critics there are, however, who resolve and apply this prophecy wholly otherwise : — some of them, curiously enough. Hammond takes Gnosticism (see marg.N., page 269) to be the grand 'apostacy,' and Simon Magus, the ' man of sin' ; Grotius refers the latter term to Caligula, explaining the ' apostacy,' of the wickedness and impiety of his reign ; and Wetstein found a key to it, in another point of the Roman history. Lastly, — Le Clerc, Whitby, and Ros. refer ' the day of the Lord' to the destruction of Jerusalem ; the ' apostacy' to the revolt of the Jews; the 'man of sin' to the false prophets and Messiahs who urged them on to revolt, and to the zealots in particular (see N., Luke vi. 15). He who ' restrained the apostacy' may have been the emperor Claudius, during whose reign, the Jews remained quiet." (p. 466)

James 5:3. "Ye have heaped treasure : The Syriac Tr., which Wakefield follows, connects as it were fire with this sentence, —Ye have laid up treasures to be as fire unto you, in the last day 1st ; Whitby, and McKnight render, — Ye have treasured up (viz. misery) for the last days, i. e. against the destruction of your country, which is at hand. 4. The Lord of sabaoth : or, of hosts : as most Trs. So, Rom. ix. 29. 5. In a day of slaughter : or, u As on a festival-day r, i. e. when animals were liberally sacrificed.'' Grotius. Beza. Benson. 6. The just: By which term, most critics understand Jesus Christ to be meant, of whom the same is used, Acts iii. 14, vii. 52, xxii. 14. McKnight, Wakefield, and Imp. V., tr. accordingly, — The just one. Le Clerc, Benson, and Ros. interpret the just or righteous man, as a general expression ; meaning, those Cns. who were the subjects of Jewish persecution." (p. 530)

8. The coming of the Lord : Priestley is perhaps alone, in referring this to the final judgment. (See N. Rom. xiii. 11.) Ros. seems to understand it of 'the time of death' ; but interpreters, most generally, of the destruction of Jerusalem. "" (p. 530)

9. Grudge not one against another : Doddridge, Benson, and Beza, tr. this, — Groan not secretly against each other, " i. e. as expressing hereby, a suppressed impatience." Schleusner explains it, — ' to spread unfavorable reports.' Newcome trs., — Grieve not for one another, i. e. the afflictions you mutually suffer." Lest ye be condemned : i. e. Lest God punish you. "' (p. 530)

I Peter 4:7 "The end of all things : " Of the temple, of the law, of the Jewish state." McKnight, Benson, Pyle, &c. Watch unto prayer : C. V. Watchful in prayer : Wakefield." (p. 539)

II Peter 3:7- "The heavens and the earth reserved unto fire : This is commonly interpreted of the consummation of all things ; Benson refers to the Stoics and other heathen philosophers, and also to some of the Greek and Roman poets, to show that an opinion existed among them, that the world was to be destroyed by fire. Yet there are those, who take this figuratively, (l.) Priestley says, " As the world was once destroyed by a flood, there is no reason to believe that it will always retain its present state. It may therefore be destroyed by fire, or any other means. But the ap.'s language in this place, is probably figurative, and only descriptive of those great changes which will precede the second coming of Christ, and the commencement of his proper kingdom." (2) Hammond, Wetstein, Cave, and Lightfoot, also take it figuratively ; but refer it to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish state. In the prophetical language of the Old Testament, future events are prefigured in a similar manner, by convulsions in the whole system of nature. [These critics apply, of course, the coming, spoken of, vs. 4, to the subversion of the Jewish state, [as does Harwood] ; this phrase and the day of the Lord having generally in the IS". T., as H. thinks, this application.] (Comp. Isa. xxxiv. 4; Ezek. xxxii. 7 ; Joel ii. 10, 30, 31 ; Haggai ii. 6 ; also Matt. ch. xxiv.) See Ns., Heb. xii. 26 ; Luke xxi. 25.

II Peter 3:9. As a thousand years: Benson, contending against the opinion of Hammond and others, just noticed, says, " Peter, if he had been speaking of the impending destruction of Jerusalem, would hardly have talked of a thousand years."

II Peter 3:10. The elements shall melt, &c. : Those who interpret the language of this Ch. as having a literal reference to the end of the world, do not agree as to what these comprehend ; McKnight and Benson say, only the earth and the surrounding atmosphere. Mede, Wolf, and Whitby make it to include the whole planetary system."

II Peter 3:13. New heavens and a new earth : The commentators spoken of, vs. 7, interpret this, of the flourishing, happy, and peaceful state of the Cn. church, after the destruction of Jerusalem. Whitby concurs with them in this, though opposed to them on the preceding passage. (pp. 545,546)

I John 2:18 "The last time: " viz. of the Jewish commonwealth." Grotius and critics generally. Antichrist : This word strictly signifies, ' in place of Christ,' i. e. a false Christ. " We may infer that hereby were meant those false teachers who were foretold by our L. (Matt. xxiv.) to arise about the time of the fall of Jerusalem, and who were now gone abroad. When John mentions these teachers collectively, he calls them, Antichrist, (singular uum- ber,) as Paul in a like manner, uses the expression, The man of sin. (See N., 2 Thes. ii. 3.) But when John speaks of these teachers as individuals, he calls them, many." Benson. Doddridge takes them to have been apostates from Ctny. (See vs. 19.) (p. 550)

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