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Not One Stone Left Upon Another : The catastrophic fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 forever changed the face of Judaism—and the fate of Christians

"Jesus predicted it 37 years before it happened. Herod Agrippa II and his sister Bernice, who heard Paul's testimony at Caesarea (Acts 26), tried hard to prevent it, as did the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (our main source of first-century information). But the fall of Jerusalem and the burning of the Temple in A.D. 70 happened nevertheless, and it was a catastrophe with almost unparalleled consequences for Jews, Christians, and, indeed, all of subsequent history."


 

Church History's "Preterist Assumption"
SCHOLARS IN PRETERIST HISTORY


"It has been a standard feature of Christian preaching through the ages that the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 was really God's decisive punishment of the Jewish people for their rejection of Jesus, who had died around the year 30."
Steve Mason

Preterist Kerygma
"The fall of Jerusalem was the vengeance of God upon the Jewish Nation for their rejection of the Gospel."

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"The Preterists hold that the larger part of the prophecy of this book was fulfilled in the overthrow of Jerusalem and pagan Rome." Milton S. Terry

See Also: Scholarly Definitions and Explanations

HISTORY OF THE TERM "PRETERISM" IN THEOLOGY
EARLIEST USAGES OF PRETERIST / PRETERITE / PRAETERIST


1618: "PRETERPERFECT" TO DISTINGUISH PAST FULFILLMENT

 "The Angell saith.. is come, for, shall certainly come, by an usuall Enallage of the preterperfect tense instead of the future."

"What Pareus refers to as "preterperfect" is in a modern grammar the second aorist active indicative. The "dramatic" aorist states a result "on the point of being accomplished" with the emphatic "certitude of a past event," although the aorist has "no essential temporal significance" (John Charles Hawley ; Dana and Mantey 1955: 198, 193)


G.S. FABER - CREDITED AS COINING THEOLOGY TERM

G.S. Faber (1843) "To consider certain vituperative prophecies...as already accomplished in the course of the first and second centuries; whence, to commentators of this School, we may fitly apply the name of Preterists."  (The Sacred Calendar of Prophecy) ; "I was fully aware of the difference in our views on Prophecy. You, I know, are a Preterist" (G.S. Faber to Samuel Lee in 1846)

Edward Bishop Elliot  (1844) "See my Examination of the German Praeterist Apocalyptic Scheme, in the Appendix  to my Vol. iv." (Horæ Apocalypticæ: Or, A Commentary on the Apocalypse)

James Peabody (1847) "They who hold the Praeterist scheme, entertain the opinion, that all the leading  predictions of the book of Revelation, were fulfilled in the early periods.."

The Churchman's Monthly Review (1847) "The Professor has found a key, whereby to disprove, as he thinks, the two rival forms of the Preterist expositions, and unlock the whole prophecy. This key is the numerosity, and above all, the trichotomy of the Apocalypse. This proves that there must be three catastrophes, the fall of Jerusalem, ch. xi., the death of Nero, ch. xvi., and the destruction of Gog and Magog, ch. xx. " The trichotomy of the Apocalypse," he says, " stands pre-eminent in important consequences as to the interpretation. It settles the question whether there is more than one catastrophe in the book. This is a great question. ... It is plain that the writer's main object has been completed antecedently to this last scene (xx. 7—10). Yet the trichotomy of the book, and the nature of the case, both demanded a rounding off of the whole in such a manner! " ' (Churchman's Monthly Review, January, p. 120)

Alexander Beith (1849) "For example,— not to enumerate every thing of this kind, it is essential to the exposition that neither the Preterist nor Futurist theory be correct."

Joseph Addison Alexander (1851) "The true force of the preterite and future forms, as here employed, is that according to God's purpose, it has come to pass and will come to pass hereafter." (Isaiah Translated and Explained Part Two - Page 148)

Robert Bickersteth (1855) "It is not, perhaps, saying too much, to admit that after all the attempts of commentators, ancient and modern,— preterist and futurist, there are many symbols and visions of Revelation which, we must confess, we do not understand." (The Gifts of the Kingdom, p. 18)

Quarterly Journal of Prophecy (1856) "The author maintains that the key to the Apocalypse is, that the destruction of Jerusalem was the second coming of Christ, and that there is no other advent of Christ to be expected (Lecture xvi.) He is an ultra-preterist. Those who believe in a literal coming of the Lord to judgment, yet to take place, he condemns in language sufficiently strong. Any system (millenarian or not) that takes for granted a future advent of Christ, is founded on " strained interpretations"— " patchings of the Word of God"—" positions plainly untenable." Whereas, his own doctrine (that there is no advent) is written as with a sunbeam, and the whole body of the Scriptures coincides with it (p. 431). " (vol. 22)

James Austin Bastow (1868) "To the Preterist scheme of interpretation we incline, regarding the predictions of the book as having been fully accomplished before the close of AD 135." (A Biblical Dictionary, p. 627)

EARLY DICTIONARY STYLE DEFINITIONS

H.P. Smith (1883) "Preterist. [L. praeteritus, past] 1. One who lives in the past rather than in the present. 2. One who regards the Apocalypse as a series of predictions which have already been fulfilled." (Glossary of Terms and Phrases)

Webster's Dictionary (1913) "2. (Theol.) One who believes the prophecies of the Apocalypse to have been already fulfilled. Farrar."  (http://www.dictionary.com/cgi-bin/dict.pl?term=preterist)

The criteria by which the identification of "scholar" and "scholarship" is made relates to peer review and acceptance more than to a particular level of scholastic achievement.

GROWING ARCHIVE OF "PRETERIST SCHOLARS"
(Classified by "Grand Associations", such as Catholic, Protestant, Baptist, and Secular)

 

CATHOLICS:
Classification begins with Eusebius

*The public triumph of Christianity through Constantine and Eusebius is seen to have established what we know as "Catholicism". 
 

BAPTISTS

UNIVERSALIST:

IN THE ARTS

OTHER SCHOLARS

 

"CONSISTENT ESCHATOLOGY"

  • Charles Guignebert
  • Albert Schweitzer

"REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY"

"HISTORICAL JESUS"  &
"KINGDOM SCHOLARSHIP"

PROTESTANTS:
Historical and Modern Preterism


OTHER COLLECTIONS:
Organized by Doctrinal Affiliation

FUTURISTS
(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any Particular Eschatology)

Henry Alford
G.C. Berkower
Alan Patrick Boyd
John Bradford
Wm. Burkitt
George Caird
Conybeare/ Howson
John Crossan
John N. Darby
C.H. Dodd
E.B. Elliott
G.S. Faber
Jerry Falwell
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
Murray Harris
Thomas Ice

Benjamin Jowett
John N.D. Kelly

Hal Lindsey
John MacArthur
William Miller
Robert Mounce

Eduard Reuss

J.A.T. Robinson
George Rosenmuller
D.S. Russell
George Sandison
C.I. Scofield
Dr. John Smith

Norman Snaith
"Televangelists"
Thomas Torrance
Jack/Rex VanImpe
John Walvoord

Quakers : George Fox | Margaret Fell (Fox) | Isaac Penington

EARLY CHURCH

Ambrose
Ambrose, Pseudo
Andreas
Arethas
Aphrahat
Athanasius
Augustine
Barnabus
BarSerapion
Baruch, Pseudo
Bede
Chrysostom
Chrysostom, Pseudo
Clement, Alexandria
Clement, Rome
Clement, Pseudo
Cyprian
Ephraem
Epiphanes
Eusebius
Gregory
Hegesippus
Hippolytus
Ignatius
Irenaeus
Isidore
James
Jerome
King Jesus
Apostle John
Lactantius
Luke
Mark
Justin Martyr
Mathetes
Matthew
Melito
Oecumenius
Origen
Apostle Paul
Apostle Peter
Maurus Rabanus
Remigius
"Solomon"
Severus
St. Symeon
Tertullian
Theophylact
Victorinus

 

HISTORICAL PRETERISM
(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Joseph Addison
Oswald T. Allis
Thomas Aquinas
Karl Auberlen
Augustine
Albert Barnes
Karl Barth
G.K. Beale
Beasley-Murray
John Bengel
Wilhelm Bousset
John A. Broadus

David Brown
"Haddington Brown"
F.F. Bruce

Augustin Calmut
John Calvin
B.H. Carroll
Johannes Cocceius
Vern Crisler
Thomas Dekker
Wilhelm De Wette
Philip Doddridge
Isaak Dorner
Dutch Annotators
Alfred Edersheim
Jonathan Edwards

E.B. Elliott
Heinrich Ewald
Patrick Fairbairn
Js. Farquharson
A.R. Fausset
Robert Fleming
Hermann Gebhardt
Geneva Bible
Charles Homer Giblin
John Gill
William Gilpin
W.B. Godbey
Ezra Gould
Hank Hanegraaff
Hengstenberg
Matthew Henry
G.A. Henty
George Holford
Johann von Hug
William Hurte
J, F, and Brown
B.W. Johnson
John Jortin
Benjamin Keach
K.F. Keil
Henry Kett
Richard Knatchbull
Johann Lange

Cornelius Lapide
Nathaniel Lardner
Jean Le Clerc
Peter Leithart
Jack P. Lewis
Abiel Livermore
John Locke
Martin Luther

James MacDonald
James MacKnight
Dave MacPherson
Keith Mathison
Philip Mauro
Thomas Manton
Heinrich Meyer
J.D. Michaelis
Johann Neander
Sir Isaac Newton
Thomas Newton
Stafford North
Dr. John Owen
 Blaise Pascal
William W. Patton
Arthur Pink

Thomas Pyle
Maurus Rabanus
St. Remigius

Anne Rice
Kim Riddlebarger
J.C. Robertson
Edward Robinson
Andrew Sandlin
Johann Schabalie
Philip Schaff
Thomas Scott
C.J. Seraiah
Daniel Smith
Dr. John Smith
C.H. Spurgeon

Rudolph E. Stier
A.H. Strong
St. Symeon
Theophylact
Friedrich Tholuck
George Townsend
James Ussher
Wm. Warburton
Benjamin Warfield

Noah Webster
John Wesley
B.F. Westcott
William Whiston
Herman Witsius
N.T. Wright

John Wycliffe
Richard Wynne
C.F.J. Zullig

MODERN PRETERISTS
(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Firmin Abauzit
Jay Adams
Luis Alcazar
Greg Bahnsen
Beausobre, L'Enfant
Jacques Bousset
John L. Bray
David Brewster
Dr. John Brown
Thomas Brown
Newcombe Cappe
David Chilton
Adam Clarke

Henry Cowles
Ephraim Currier
R.W. Dale
Gary DeMar
P.S. Desprez
Johann Eichhorn
Heneage Elsley
F.W. Farrar
Samuel Frost
Kenneth Gentry
Steve Gregg
Hugo Grotius
Francis X. Gumerlock
Henry Hammond
Hampden-Cook
Friedrich Hartwig
Adolph Hausrath
Thomas Hayne
J.G. Herder
Timothy Kenrick
J. Marcellus Kik
Samuel Lee
Peter Leithart
John Lightfoot
Benjamin Marshall
F.D. Maurice
Marion Morris
Ovid Need, Jr
Wm. Newcombe
N.A. Nisbett
Gary North
Randall Otto
Zachary Pearce
Andrew Perriman
Beilby Porteus
Ernst Renan
Gregory Sharpe
Fr. Spadafora
R.C. Sproul
Moses Stuart
Milton S. Terry
Herbert Thorndike
C. Vanderwaal
Foy Wallace
Israel P. Warren
Chas Wellbeloved
J.J. Wetstein
Richard Weymouth
Daniel Whitby
George Wilkins
E.P. Woodward
 

 

JEWISH SOURCES

Agrippa II
Queen Bernice

Herod the Great
James
King Jesus
Josephus
Apostle John

Justus of Tiberias
Matthew
Apostle Paul
Apostle Peter
Alfred Edersheim

 

ADVOCATES FOR THE EARLY DATE OF REVELATION
(PRIOR TO THE 20TH CENTURY)

Greg Bahnsen (1984)
"
A partial list of scholars who have supported the early date for Revelation, gleaned unsystematically from my reading, would include the following 18th and 19th writers not already mentioned just above: John Lightfoot, Harenbert, Hartwig, Michaelis, Tholuck, Clarke, Bishop Newton, James MacDonald, Gieseler, Tilloch, Bause, Zullig, Swegler, De Wette, Lucke, Bohmer, Hilgenfeld, Mommsen, Ewald, Neander, Volkmar, Renan, Credner, Kernkel, B. Weiss, Reuss, Thiersch, Bunsen, Stier, Auberlen, Maurice, Niermeyer, Desprez, Aube, Keim, De Pressence, Cowles, Scholten, Beck, Dusterdiek, Simcox, S. Davidson, Beyschlag, Salmon, Hausrath. Continuing on into the 20th century we could list Plummer, Selwyn, J.V. Bartlet, C.A. Scott, Erbes, Edmundson, Henderson, and others. If one's reading has been limited pretty much to the present and immediately preceding generations of writers on Revelation, then the foregoing names may be somewhat unfamiliar to him, but they were not unrecognized in previous eras. When we combine these names with the yet outstanding stature of Schaff, Terry, Lightfoot, Westcott, and Hort, we can feel the severity of Beckwith's understatement when in 1919 he described the Neronian dating for Revelation as "a view held by many down to recent times." (Historical Setting for the Dating of Revelation)
 

 

ADVOCATES FOR "AD70 WAS 'A' COMING OF CHRIST"

 

ADVOCATES FOR "AD70 WAS 'THE' COMING OF CHRIST"

 

MILLENNIUM PAST:  Grotius, Prideaux, Lightfoot, Brightman, Usher, Turretin the Elder, Ewald, Bush, Stuart, Davidson, Marck


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What do YOU think ?

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Date: 11 Oct 2010
Time: 11:11:27

Your Comments:

I think the word "parousia" could never indicate a quick trip to somewhere and then a rapid exit! It means, rather, a triumphal appearance and an intention to remain. How long a stay is immaterial. Aside from usage with inanimate objects its thrust always intimates that the "appearer" will come with a purpose and remain until that purpose is accomplished. If this can be demonstrated to be the correct function of "parousia" it tolls the death knell on the entire preterite notion of some sort of quickee exit for the saints of 70A.D.


Date: 21 Nov 2010
Time: 04:09:27

Your Comments:

I believe that all three views should be combined into ONE BIBLICAL VIEW because Revelation covers past,present and future. There are events that have been fulfilled, some presently taking place and others stil to take place. Why not call the final view THE BIBLICAL VIEW?

 

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