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David S. Clark -The Message From Patmos: A Postmillennial Commentary on the Book of Revelation (1921) "This early twentieth-century Postmillennial commentary on the Book of Revelation, written by the father of theologian Gordon Clark, offers an easy-to-read alternative to the popular Pre-millennial/Dispensational views of the best-selling Scofield Reference Bible and a multitude of other dissertations on end-time prophecy that litter the shelves of Christian bookstores. "
A Study of Matthew Twenty-four
By Wayne Jackson
In this era of change, from one millennium to another, there may be no context that has become the focus of more controversy than the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew’s Gospel record. This marvelous depository of prophetic literature has been victimized by considerable theological speculation. Several theories, spawned by a misunderstanding of this chapter, have generated confusion in the religious community.
There are two extremes relative to Matthew 24 which must be addressed. First, there is the notion, advocated by the proponents of “realized eschatology,” that all Bible prophecy, including everything within Matthew 24 (e.g., the second coming of Christ, the judgment day, and the end of the world), was fulfilled in the event of Jerusalem’s destruction by the Romans in A.D. 70 (see King, 342-78). For a refutation of the major components of the A.D. 70 dogma, see the author’s book, The A.D. 70 Theory - A Review of the Max King Doctrine.
On the other hand, those who subscribe to the doctrine of “dispensational premillennialism” tend to view the whole of Matthew 24 as a sort of end-time manual which allows one to determine the characteristic events, and therefore the general time, at which the Lord will return to initiate his “millennial reign.” For example, in his popular book, The Late Great Planet Earth, first published in 1976, Hal Lindsey argued that Matthew 24 contains the prophetical information which indicates that the “generation” witnessing the “rebirth of Israel” is the same generation that will observe the fulfillment of the “signs” of Matthew 24:1-33, consummated by the second coming of Christ. Inasmuch as the “rebirth of Israel” took place in 1948, and since Lindsey viewed a “generation,” as “something like forty years,” he felt confident in contending that the Lord’s return would be in the neighborhood of 1988 (43). Later, as the 80s approached, Lindsey vacillated, stretched his 40-year timetable to as long as 100 years. He also confessed that he really did not know whether or not the terminal “generation” commenced with the rebirth of Israel (Eternity, 1/77). Billy Graham frequently has preached that “Matthew 24 is knocking at the door.” Neither of these views is correct.
THE “KEY” THAT UNLOCKS THE CHAPTER
Occasionally, in a context characterized by some difficulty, there will be a “key” passage that unlocks the meaning of the material (cf. 1 Cor. 7:26). Such is the case with reference to Matthew 24. The significant verse is 34, wherein the Lord states: “Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass away, till all these things be accomplished” (ASV). Before giving consideration to some of the details of this verse, let us make a general observation. When there are several passages that deal with a topic, some of which are clearer than others, or some of which are framed in language more literal than others, the less-ambiguous, or more literal, are to be employed as the guiding force in the interpretation. This is fundamental exegetical procedure. Now here is the point: Matthew 24:34 is a clear, literal statement from the Lord relative to the events previously discussed. This text, therefore, must be a prevailing guideline in the interpretation of this inspired narrative.
Crucial to understanding this verse, and the context overall, is the term “generation.” The Lord clearly indicated that “this” generation, i.e., his generation, would not “pass away,” until the events depicted in verses 4-33 were “accomplished,” i.e., fulfilled. It has been common for dispensationalists to identify “generation” (Grk. genea) with the Jewish race, hence to contend that “the family of Israel” will be preserved until all “these things” are fulfilled (Scofield, 1034). Since the Jewish people are still extant, this concept allows dispensationalists to stretch the circumstances of Matthew 24 all the way to the present time. This view of the passage is seriously flawed.
While millennialists argue that genea means “race” in rare instances, some of them acknowledge that this is not the “more common and usual meaning of the word” (Archer, 339). Certainly there is no indication that genea is ever employed in the sense of “race” in the Gospel of Matthew—perhaps in the entire New Testament.
Genea is found 43 times in the New Testament. In 17 of these cases, the expression is “this generation.” In Matthew’s record, for example, “this generation” is found in 11:16; 12:41,42,45; 23:36, 24:34. A careful consideration of these passages provides a clear sense of the significance of the expression. For instance, Jesus, surveying the Jewish wickedness of his day, warned of an impending punishment. He said: “All these things [the consequences of the Jews’ rebellion] shall come upon this generation” (Mt. 23:36). Why is it millennialists contend that “this generation” in 23:36 is the generation devastated by the Romans in A.D. 70, but allege that “this generation” in 24:34 refers to a far-away “future day” (Barbieri, 75,78)? Arndt & Gingrich suggest that genea denotes “basically, the sum total of those born at the same time, expanded to include all those living at a given time generation, contemporaries” (153). McClintock & Strong state that the phrase “this generation” in Matthew 24:34 denotes “the generation of persons then living contemporary with Christ” (776). Herodotus, the Greek historian, said that “three generations” fill up a “century” (II.142). To him, a “generation” was a period of some 33 years.
It should be obvious that the events of Matthew 24:4-34 have to do with the “generation” that was contemporary with the Lord. The Christians could look for certain tell-tale indicators, detailed by the Savior, and “know” that the Lord’s judgment upon Jerusalem was near (33). But of “that [the] day” of the Son’s final coming, “knoweth no one” except the Father (36). There is thus a clear contrast between Christ’s temporal activity, chronicled prior to verse 34, and that of the Lord’s judgment at the end of time.
As Jesus left the environs of the sacred area, his disciples directed attention to the temple. The Lord declared that this edifice would be “thrown down” so that not one stone would be left upon another (24:2). There is no doubt but that Jesus was uttering an oracle concerning the destruction of the city by the Romans (cf. Mt. 22:7; Lk. 21:20). Later, on the mount of Olives, the disciples asked: “When shall these things [the demolition of the temple] be?” They also wanted to know what would be the “sign” of his “coming, and of the end of the world” (24:3). R.C. Foster has well observed: “Much of the confusion in interpreting the predictions of Jesus recorded in Matthew 24 and the parallel passages arises from the failure to see that the disciples asked and Jesus answered two questions: one, concerning the fall of Jerusalem; the other, concerning His second coming” (1187). The disciples likely assumed that the destruction of the temple, and the end of the world, would occur at the same time. The Master sought to correct that impression, first, by discussing the Roman invasion (4-34), and then by commenting regarding his final coming to render universal judgment (35-51).
Jesus gave a series of clues which could be used by first-century saints to determine when Judaism’s fall would occur. A brief survey of these is as follows (see vss. 5-14):
As unlikely as some of these prophetic declarations may seem to the skeptic, each of them was fulfilled by the time Jerusalem fell in A.D. 70. A more thorough discussion of these matters may be found in J. Marcellus Kik’s volume, Matthew 24.
Continuing, Christ declared that the impending invasion had been foretold in the book of Daniel (15). The Savior thus urged the disciples to be ready to flee the city, praying that God would providentially accommodate their departure (16-19). He described the intensity of the Roman assault and promised that God would intervene for “the elect’s” sake (21-22). The disciples were not to be swayed by false claims that Jesus had personally arrived, because, when that event actually occurred, it would be globally evident (23-27). The Jewish nation was described as a rotting carcass where birds of prey would gather (28). The fall of the Hebrew system is set forth in the sort of apocalyptic nomenclature that is characteristic of Old Testament literature, e.g., when the prophets pictorially portray the overthrow of Jehovah's enemies (cf. Isa. 13:10-11; 34:2ff; Ezek. 32:7-8). All of this would be a “sign” of the fact that “the Son of man in heaven” was orchestrating these events (29-30). (Note: It is important to observe that the Lord would be accomplishing “these things” from heaven, not from some position upon the earth.) The result of Judaism’s demise would be a great gospel harvest, reminiscent of the Jubilee celebration of Old Testament fame (31; cf. Lk. 4:17-21).
Finally, just as the ancient citizen of Palestine could determine the coming of summer by the budding of the fig tree, even so, by reflecting upon the signals given by Christ, the disciples would be able to discern the approach of the promised calamity (32-33).
Our major thrust now will be to argue the case that the “signs” of Matthew 24:4ff do not find their fulfillment in the final return of Christ.
First, whereas dispensationalists argue for a 20th century fulfillment of these “signs,” accompanied by a nuclear holocaust (Lindsey, 135-57), contextual indicators clearly reflect the fact that Jesus had reference to an ancient and local situation. Consider the following factors.
Second, though the destruction of Jerusalem was seen as a sort of “coming” of Christ (cf. Mt. 10:23; 24:30,33; Lk. 21:27), i.e., in judgment upon the Hebrew nation, such was emphatically distinguished from the event known as the “second” coming (cf. Heb. 9:28). The Lord cautioned that if any false teacher should attempt to proclaim his visible “coming” in connection with Jerusalem’s fall, the bogus prophet was to be ignored, because the second coming would be apparent universally (23-27), whereas the destruction of Jerusalem was but a local event. Jerusalem’s fall would only reflect a “sign” of Christ’s providential “coming” in destructive judgment upon the holy city (29-31), not the Savior’s visible, final coming. More on this momentarily.
Third, it is very significant that the Lord, in connection with his discussion of the destruction of Jerusalem, introduced the remarkable prophecy that had been given five centuries earlier to the prophet Daniel. Jesus said: “When therefore ye see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let him that readeth understand), then let them that are in Judea flee ...” (24:15,16). The dispensational theory argues that the “abomination of desolation” is, from our vantage point, yet in the future. Supposedly, the prophetic focus is upon “the Antichrist,” alleged to be “a world dictator” who will “make the temple abominable” in the so-called “Tribulation” period just prior to the Lord’s second coming (Barbieri, 77). The problem with this view is this: Daniel connects the appearance of the “abomination that makes desolate” with the first coming of Christ, not the Lord’s second coming (Dan. 9:24-27)!
THE PROPHECY OF DANIEL’S SEVENTY WEEKS
Let us, in this connection, briefly examine this fascinating prophecy. There is a three-fold thrust to the narrative.
First, it foretells the “Anointed” One’s advent, and what would be accomplished thereby. The Messiah would: finish transgression, bring an end to sins, make reconciliation for iniquity, usher in everlasting righteousness, seal up vision and prophecy, be anointed as the most holy one, make firm a new covenant, and terminate sacrifices. These things are associated with Christ’s redemptive work at Calvary—not his second coming. To suggest that Daniel’s prophecy contains a “long parenthesis,” the “church age” (between the 69th and 70th weeks), which was wholly unknown to the Old Testament prophets, is without any rational basis.
Second, the prophecy sets forth a chronological time-frame in which the messianic events would take place. From the time of Judah’s commission to leave Babylonian captivity (in 457 B.C.), some 4861/2 years (set forth in three increments—with “days” signifying “years”) would pass, thus terminating in the very year of Jesus’ death (see the author’s article on Daniel’s Prophecy Of The Seventy Weeks, elsewhere in our Archives).
Finally, the terrible price for the Jews’ rejection of Jesus is graphically portrayed. “As a result or consequence of the death of the Messiah one making desolate (i.e. the Roman prince Titus) appears ‘upon the wing of abominations’ (i.e. the pinnacle of the temple). By this language the complete destruction of the temple is signified” (Young, 679).
It is not without significance that the Jews themselves recognized that the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 was the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy. Josephus, the Jewish historian, stated that “Daniel also wrote concerning the Roman government, and that our country should be made desolate by them” (Antiquities, 10.11.7). This view of “Daniel’s seventy weeks,” commonly called the “traditional” view, “has been held with slight variation by most Biblical scholars until recent years” (Scott, 364).
JESUS’ DISCUSSION OF HIS SECOND COMING
Beginning in verses 35ff, the Lord turns his attention to the final day of history, the day of his ultimate “coming.” Heaven and earth will pass away, but the Savior’s words will remain inviolate.
Jesus shows that there had been a broad range of indicators—“all these things”— which, when observed, would allow the Christians to escape the horrible Roman invasion (33). Nevertheless, at the time of the second coming, no such signs would be provided; rather, the end of the world will occur in a dramatically unannounced fashion. Let us study some of the Lord’s arguments.
The Savior affirmed: “But of that day and hour knoweth no one, not even the angels of heaven, neither the Son, but the Father only” (36). First, observe the use of “but,” an adversative particle, which stresses a contrast between the previous material and that which follows. Professor Kik comments that this verse “gives immediate evidence of a change in subject matter” (101). In 4-34 the Lord had spoke of the “days” (plural) of tribulation associated with Jerusalem’s peril (19,22,29), but now it is “the day” (singular)—an expression commonly used of the final day of history (cf. 1 Cor. 3:13; 1 Thes. 5:4; 2 Tim. 1:12).
Second, observe that even Jesus himself did not know when “the day” of his coming (cf. 37) would be. Yet, he had given signs whereby others might “know” (33) that he was providentially “nigh” in the destruction of Jerusalem. Obviously the two events were not the same. Is it not rather ironical that Christ, who gave these “signs,” did not know (while on earth) when his return would take place, but modern dispensationalists can read Matthew 24 and virtually pinpoint the time of the second coming! In 1992 Harold Camping, a syndicated television preacher, wrote: “The results of this study indicate that the month of September of the year 1994 is to be the time for the end of history” (531).
Third, Christ cited an historical example which demonstrated that those of the pre-flood world were unaware of their impending doom “until the flood came, and took them all away.” The point being, “so shall be the coming of the Son of man” (39). There will be no specific, chronological warning!
Fourth, Jesus appealed to certain cultural circumstances to depict the sudden, unanticipated nature of his return. Two men would be working in the field; one would be taken, the other left (40). Two women will be grinding at the mill; one is taken, one is left (41). Then, in a parallel reference, two men are in bed; one is taken, the other is left” (Lk. 17:34). One scholar has observed that these references contemplate different times of the day—early morning (grinding at the mill), mid-day (working in the field), and night (in bed), thus suggesting that when Christ returns, it will be day in some places, but night in others—day and night, at the same time (Collett, 277). This could not have reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, but must represent a “coming” of the Lord that will affect men globally. Additionally, during Jerusalem’s calamity, it was not a matter of some taken/some left; all were taken! More than a million Jews were slaughtered and thousands of others were taken into foreign slavery (Josephus, Wars 6.9). Geldenhuys states that “not a single Jew was left alive in the city or its vicinity” (III.141).
Fifth, the Lord refers to a societal situation. The final day will be like the coming of a thief, who never warns or gives clues as to the time of his encroachment (42,43). The Christian thus is cautioned to “watch,” for in an hour “that ye think not the Son of man cometh” (44). Again, the point is: The time of Jesus’ return cannot be anticipated. This clearly divorces the Lord’s second coming from those “signs” associated with the fall of Jerusalem.
As we conclude, we feel compelled to emphasize again:
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Arndt, Wilbur & Gingrich, F.W. (1967), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago).
Barbieri, Louis (1983), “Matthew.” The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books).
Camping, Harold (1992), 1994? (New York:Vantage Press).
Collett, Sidney (n.d.), All About The Bible. London (London: Fleming H. Revell Co).
Edersheim, Alfred (1957), Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).
Eusebius (1955), Ecclesiastical History (Grand Rapids: Baker).
Foster, R.C. (1971), Studies in the Life of Christ (Grand Rapids: Baker).
Geldenhuys, J. Norval (1960), “Luke,” The Biblical Expositor, Carl F.H. Henry, ed. (Philadelphia: A.J. Holman Co.).
Herodotus (1928), History of Herodotus (New York: Tudor).
Kik, J. Marcellus (1948), Matthew Twenty-Four (Philadelphia: Presbyterian & Reformed).
King, Max (1986), The Cross and The Parousia of Christ (Warren, OH: Parkman Road Church of Christ).
Jackson, Wayne (1990), The A.D. 70 Theory - A Review of the Max King Doctrine (Stockton, CA: Courier Publications).
Josephus, Flavius (1957), The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus (Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co).
Lindsey, Hal (1970), The Late Great Planet Earth (Grand Rapids: Zondervan).
Lindsey, Hal (1977), Eternity (January).
May, Cecil. “Matthew 24,” The Biblical Doctrine of Last Things, David Lipe, ed. (Magnolia, MS: Magnolia Bible College).
McClintock, John & Strong, James Cyclopedia of Biblical, Ecclesiastical, and Theological Literature (Grand Rapids: Baker), Vol. III.
Scofield, C.I. (1945), The Scofield Reference Bible (New York: Oxford Press).
Scott, J.B. (1975), “Seventy Weeks,” The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Encyclopedia, Merrill Tenney, ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), Vol. Five.
Young, Edward J. (1954), “Daniel,” The New Bible Commentary, Davis, Stills, Kevan, eds. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).
What do YOU think ?
Hello, I enjoyed reading your article, and pretty much agreed with you except for the following. I don't agree that there is a transition between the discussion of the destruction of Jerusalem and a "final (global) coming." It makes no sense that Jesus would tell his Disciples and the multitudes: (He was speaking to them, not us) that He is right at the door (vs 33), "this " generation (vs 34) and "be on the alert," (vs 42),"be ready" (vs 44). If Jesus' language implied a change of subject in Matt 24, then the same language would have Jesus, in Luke 17, jumping back and forth between these two major Bible subjects. Luke 17 vs 23-25 Destruction of Jerusalem - vs 26-30 Final return? vs 31-33 Destruction of Jerusalen vs 34-36 Final return? vs 37 Destruction of Jerusalem. Confusing isn't it.
Mat 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.
Mat 24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
As these come before your separation of vvs 34 and 35, you are teaching Jesus will appear AD 70 then again at the end of the world when man does not know the time. Is two comings of Christ consistent with your views.
Mr. Jackson is obviously lost is a eschatological haze. In a prior article ("The Menace of Radical Preterism") he writes, "Not even Jesus himself knew of the time of his return to earth (Mt. 24:26)," clearly indicating that he suggests Matthew 24:26 is a reference to Christ's second coming, His "return to earth." However, in this article, Mr Jackson now writes, "It should be obvious that the events of Matthew 24:4-34 have to do with the “generation” that was contemporary with the Lord." Which is it? Last I checked, 26 is between 4 & 34. I think Mr. Jackson is suffering from the same problem all futurists suffer from, inconsistency.
Bro. Jackson does a good job of refuting the futurist position, but falls well short of refuting the preterist position. He says, "There are two extremes relative to Matthew 24 which must be addressed. First, there is the notion, advocated by the proponents of 'realized eschatology,' that all Bible prophecy, including everything within Matthew 24 (e.g., the second coming of Christ, the judgment day, and the end of the world), was fulfilled in the event of Jerusalem’s destruction by the Romans in A.D. 70 (see King, 342-78)." Notice that he uses language not used in Mt. 24; "second comming", "the judgement day". He also fails to deal with the fact that "end of the world" should be translated as "end of the age. He writes of Jesus' saying that there would be signs of the destruction of Jerusalem and then writes that the fact that Jesus said that no one knew the hour and the day proves that these cannot be the same subject. He should know that the existance of signs is not the same as knowing the exact time of Jerusalem's end. Darryl Trapp email@example.com
Another comment on Wayne Jackson's article. He wrote "Additionally, during Jerusalem’s calamity, it was not a matter of some taken/some left; all were taken! More than a million Jews were slaughtered and thousands of others were taken into foreign slavery (Josephus, Wars 6.9). Geldenhuys states that 'not a single Jew was left alive in the city or its vicinity' (III.141)." When the Romans destroyed Jerusalem this did happen. Some were taken (in slavery) and others were left (dead). Darryl Trapp firstname.lastname@example.org http://highplainschristian.greatnow.com/
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