BOOKS: BIBLICAL STUDIES (1500BC-AD70) / EARLY CHRISTIAN PRETERISM (AD50-1000) / FREE ONLINE BOOKS (AD1000-2008)
AD70 Dispensationalism: According to
that view, AD70 was the end of 'this age' and the start of the 'age to come'.
Those who lived before AD70 could only 'see in part' and such, lacking
the resurrection and redemptive blessings which supposedly came only
Herod's Temple in Jerusalem
fell. Accordingly, AD70 was not only the end of Old
Testament Judaism, but it was also the end of the revelation of
Christianity as seen in the New Testament.
AD70 Dispensationalism: According to that view, AD70 was the end of 'this age' and the start of the 'age to come'. Those who lived before AD70 could only 'see in part' and such, lacking the resurrection and redemptive blessings which supposedly came only when Herod's Temple in Jerusalem fell. Accordingly, AD70 was not only the end of Old Testament Judaism, but it was also the end of the revelation of Christianity as seen in the New Testament.
material is being archived for balanced representation of all preterist views,
but is classified under the theological term hyper (as in beyond
the acceptable range of tolerable doctrines) at this website. The
classification of all full preterism as Hyper Preterism (HyP) is built
upon well over a decade of intense research at PreteristArchive.com, and
the convictions of
the website curator (a
former full preterist pastor). The HyP
theology of final resurrection and consummation in the fall of Jerusalem, with its dispensational line in AD70
(end of old age, start of new age), has never been known among authors
through nearly 20 centuries of Christianity leading up
to 1845, when the earliest known full preterist book was written.
Even though there may be many secondary points of agreement between
Historical/Modern Preterism and Hyper Preterism, their premises are undeniably and
THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS "HYPER PRETERIST"
"Full preterist" material is being archived for balanced representation of all preterist views, but is classified under the theological term hyper (as in beyond the acceptable range of tolerable doctrines) at this website. The classification of all full preterism as Hyper Preterism (HyP) is built upon well over a decade of intense research at PreteristArchive.com, and the convictions of the website curator (a former full preterist pastor). The HyP theology of final resurrection and consummation in the fall of Jerusalem, with its dispensational line in AD70 (end of old age, start of new age), has never been known among authors through nearly 20 centuries of Christianity leading up to 1845, when the earliest known full preterist book was written. Even though there may be many secondary points of agreement between Historical/Modern Preterism and Hyper Preterism, their premises are undeniably and fundamentally different.
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS "HYPER PRETERIST"
SOME DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES OF SYSTEMATIZED HYPER PRETERISM
It is important to keep in mind that many ideas and doctrines full preterism appeals to - such as the complete end of the Old Covenant world in AD70 - are by no means distinctive to that view. Many non HyPs believe this as well, so one need not embrace the Hyper Preterist system in order to endorse this view. Following are exceptional doctrines which, so far as I've seen, are only taught by adherents of Hyper Preterism.:
DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES TAUGHT BY STANDARD FULL PRETERISM
DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES TAUGHT BY VARIOUS FORMS
The Last Days
By Ward Fenley
There are many today who believe we are in the last days because they see all of the middle-east turmoil, technological advancements, "new world order" etc. They claim that these are fulfillments of Biblical prophecy that prove that we are in the last days. An example of this would be Jack Van Impe's statement in July that the way that people will worship the "image" of the Beast is through the scientific achievement of "cloning." They will clone the Beast, Impe says, and therefore it will provide his image everywhere around the world for people to worship this Beast.
Consequently Impe is a few dollars richer and many gullible yet fleshly people are a few dollars poorer.
In order to determine whether we are in the last days, we should determine how the phrase was originally used in the Hebrew Scriptures. This will help us immensely in regard to our interpretation of the New Testament usage of the term "last days." First, I would like to consider the first usage of the phrase "last days" and consider those who are primarily addressed:
Jacob, in this swan song, basically pronounced the general evil that would come upon the twelve tribes. So, clearly, Israel is the subject of the last days and the last days concern the Jews.
Here again the vision is concerning the Jews. It was concerning what would happen to Israel in the last days.
Isaiah predicts these last days as well:
The vision was concerning Judah and Jerusalem. Nowhere is the passage referring to the last days of the physical planet but, rather, the last days of Judah and Jerusalem.
Moses confirms that the latter days of the Jews would be devastation and their ultimate scattering:
He continues this omen toward the end of the book:
Moses says, "evil will befall you in the latter days." Moses was leading the company of Jews. There is no reference to Gentiles being the subject of these latter days.
Throughout the book of Jeremiah God condemns the Jewish false prophets. Here Jeremiah predicts that when these latter days come the people of God will understand what He will do to the nation in destroying it and punishing it for its wickedness.
Ezekiel identifies Israel also concerning its doom under the nations:
Michael the archangel spoke to Daniel associating the latter days with Daniel's people:
Hosea has at least an optimistic outlook for the elect remnant of national Israel who would be saved:
Finally in Micah, the prophet states with no uncertainty that the last days involves the reduction of Israel to heaps at that time:
It is evident that national Israel was the main subject involved in these last days. One might try to argue that this concerned the spiritual Israel of God, however, in light of the evil said to come upon Israel one would be hard pressed to find God bringing such evil upon His beautiful bride.
The nation of Israel has not existed for nearly 2000 years. Those in the middle east who affirm themselves as Israel have no more right to do so than a twentieth century man would to claim He was Jesus Christ manifested in the flesh.
Those who would agree that God has been finished with national Israel for nearly two millennia would be forced to conclude that, in light of the above evidence, the latter days are concerning the nation of Israel. Therefore if they agree that God has been finished with the nation of Israel for 1900+ years they must agree that the latter days have also been finished for the same length of time.
In the book of Acts we find a profound statement made by Peter (a Jew) to a multitude of Jews out of every nation:
Peter explicitly says, "This is that." He then explains that what this multitude of Jews was experiencing was the fulfillment of the prophecy in Joel. Peter is telling this multitude that they were in the last days. Beyond this he goes on to describe what would take place during these last days: dreams, visions, prophesying, wonders in heaven, signs in the earth, blood, fire, vapour of smoke, the sun turned into darkness and the moon into blood. Peter said, "This is that." Jesus predicted strikingly similar events to take place before His return:
As we have seen, the latter days concerned the nation of Israel. In fact, the very first mention of the last days was by Jacob, the father of the twelve tribes of Israel. More importantly Jacob was addressing the twelve sons or tribes in speaking about the evil that would befall those tribes in the last days. The question is, how does this relate to the language of Jesus and Peter in speaking of the sun, moon, and the stars? Our attention should be immediately drawn to the dream of Joseph concerning His family:
This description of the foundation of national Israel would no doubt be an imprint upon the hearts of those born as Israelites. This description basically identified Jacob, his wife, and the heads of the twelve tribes, as the sun, moon, and stars respectively. They represented the foundation of the whole Jewish nation. The Jews were dangerously confident in their nationality and foundation to the point of believing that their nationality along with their works secured them a place in the eternal promised land. When Jesus, therefore spoke of the sun being darkened, the moon not giving its light, and the stars falling from heaven, He was referring to the complete dissolution of the Jewish state. Peter was very likely addressing the same event.
What is significant about Peter's statement is that he was claiming that they were in the last days. The writer of Hebrews expressed this identical sentiment as he began his discourse comparing the fading Old Covenant with the Everlasting New Covenant:
"Hath in these last days" the writer confirms. Without any speculation those in the first century believed they were in the last days. Certainly the writers of the New Testament were very aware of those passages we have studied involving the last days of Judah and Jerusalem. Therefore it is safe and logical to say that the New Testament writers believed that they were in the last days of the Jewish age. The writer of Hebrews confirmed this:
Paul believed they were living in the end of the Jewish age as well:
Paul was describing the history of the Jews and their rebellion against God in the wilderness. We should not ignore the fact that Paul, in discussing the ancient rebellion which took place in the 40-year period between the giving of the Old Covenant and the entering into the earthly promised land, was describing the rebellion taking place during the 40-year period in which he was living: the period between the giving of the New Testament and the entering into the heavenly Promised Land.
Consider the statement of James as he addressed the unbelieving Jews:
Clearly James taught that these men were in the last days. To prove this with even more authority, James declares that the coming of the Lord was drawing near and that the Judge was standing at the door. This corresponds very well with the previous statement declaring the unbelieving Jews to be in the last days ready for the slaughter.
Jude, in describing the same group of unbelieving Jews, also speaks of this period, although with a different phrase:
The word "time" is the Greek word chronos, defined by Strong's Exhaustive Concordance as:
5550. chronos, khron'-os; a space of time
The word "last" is defined as:
2078. eschatos, es'-khat-os; a superl. prob. from G2192 (in the sense of contiguity); farthest, final (of place or time):--ends of, last, latter end, lowest, uttermost.
Certainly we can conclude from Jude that they were in the farthest or uttermost space of time of the Jewish age. They were in the last days of the Jewish state.
The apostle John made a similar statement:
Here, the same word "eschatos" is used for "last." However, the Greek word for "time" is slightly different, though very related: it is the Greek word "hora" defined by Strong's as:
5610. hora, ho'-rah; appar. a prim. word; an "hour" (lit. or fig.):--day, hour, instant, season, X short, [even-] tide, (high) time.
John believed they were in the last or farthest season or hour of the Jewish age. Paul believed the same:
There are two different Greek words used here translated as "time." In the first cause Paul says "knowing the time." The Greek word here is "2540. kairos, kahee-ros'; of uncert. affin.; an occasion, i.e. set or proper time:--X always, opportunity, (convenient, due) season, (due, short, while) time, a while. Comp. G5550." Strong's. In the second clause Paul uses the phrase "high time." "High time" is the same Greek word used in first John. Both Paul and John firmly believed that they were in the last time or days of the Jewish age.
There are many other passages that could be used to support the fact that the first-century believers and particularly the apostles believed unanimously that they were in the end of the Jewish age or the last days of the Jewish age.
When Jesus spoke of the last day, He was making strong reference to the final day of the Jewish age in which the elements of the Temple, rituals, and curse would be done away. There are many futurists who would say there was nothing spiritually significant concerning the destruction of the Jewish state. However, consider this very confusing, nevertheless profound statement by Arthur Pink concerning Hebrews 10:25 which reads:
On Hebrews 10:25 "and so much more as ye see the day approaching." There seems little room for doubt that the first reference here is to the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth, which was now very nigh for this epistle was written within less than eight years before Jerusalem was captured by Titus. That terrible catastrophe had been foretold, again and again, by Israel's prophets, and was plainly announced by the Lord Jesus in Luke 21. The approach of that dreadful "day" could be plainly seen or perceived by those possessing spiritual discernment: the continued refusal of the Nation to repent of their murder of Christ, and the abandoning of Christianity for an apostate Judaism by such large numbers, clearly presaged the bursting of the storm of God's judgment. This very fact supplied an additional motive for genuine Christians to remain faithful. The Lord Jesus promised that His followers should be preserved from the destruction of Jerusalem, but only as they attended to His cautions in Luke 21:8, 19, 34, etc., only as they persevered in faith and holiness, Matt. 24:13. The particular motive unto diligence here set before the Hebrews is applicable to other Christians just to the extent that they find themselves in similar circumstances. Pink-Volume 2 Commentary on Hebrews (10:25).
The approaching day was the same day that would come in a little while according to the author of Hebrews:
Pink again with incredible insight, still employs a hermeneutic that radically distorts the text:
A little while: "The Greek is very expressive and emphatic. The apostle used a word which signifies 'a little while,' and then for further emphasis added a particle meaning 'very,' and this he still further intensified by repeating it; thus, literally rendered this clause reads, 'For yet a very, very little while, and he that shall come will come.'…'For yet a little while, and He that shall come will come, and will not tarry.' The reference here is to the person of the Lord Jesus as is evident from Hab. 2:3, to which the apostle here alludes. Like so many prophecies, that word of Habakkuk's was to receive a threefold fulfillment: a literal an initial one, a spiritual and continuous one, a final and complete one, The literal was the Divine incarnation, when the Son of God came here in flesh, The final will be His return in visible glory and power. The spiritual has reference to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 when that which most obstructed the manifestation of Christ's kingdom on earth was destroyed- with the overthrow of the Temple and its worship, official Judaism came to an end, The Christians in Palestine were being constantly persecuted by the Jews, but their conquest by Titus and their consequent dispersion put and to this, That event was less than ten years distance when Paul wrote: compare our remarks on 'see the day approaching' (10:25) We trust that none will conclude from what has been said above that we regard v.37 as containing no reference to the final coming of Christ. What we have sought to point out was the immediate purport of its content unto the Hebrews. But it also contains a message for us, a message of hope and comfort, It is out privilege too to be waiting for God's Son from Heaven. Let us add that is a big mistake to regard every mention of the 'coming' of Christ in the N.T. Scriptures as referring to His 'appearing the second time' (Heb 9:28). Pink-Commentary on Hebrews-Pg 145
John Brown also makes some unique remarks:
John Brown commentary on Hebrews 10:25: "The day’ here referred to seems plainly the day of the destruction of the Jewish State and Church. That day had been foretold by many of the prophets, and with peculiar minuteness by our Lord Himself: (Luke 21:8-12)..."These events were now very near; and the harbingers of their coming were well fitted to quicken to holy diligence the Hebrew Christians, that they might escape the coming desolation
John Brown commentary on "these last days" of Hebrews 1:2: "...the meaning is, towards the conclusion of the Jewish dispensation. It seems equivalent to the expressions used by the Apostle, 1 Cor, 10:11, ‘the ends of the world (age) are come’-the conclusion of the Mosaic economy; Gal. 4:4, ‘the fulness, or the fulfillment of time’-the accomplishment or termination of the period assigned for the duration of the Mosaic economy; Eph. 1:10, ‘the dispensation of the fulness of times’-the economy which was to be introduced when the times of the Mosaic economy were fulfilled; Heb. 9:26, ‘the end of the world,’ literally ‘of the ages’-the period of the termination of the Mosaic economy-the time when the present age or world was about to be changed into the coming age-the world to come. The Christian revelation was begun to be made in the conclusion of the Jewish age. It was before the conclusion of that age that God spake to the Jews by His Son, who, according to our Lord’s parabolical representation, was sent last of all to the husband men: ‘He sent forth His Son made under the law.’ His personal ministry, and for some time that of His Apostles, was confined to them; and though by His death the Mosaic economy was virtually abrogated, yet it was not in fact dissolved till forty years afterwards, in the destruction of the Temple by the Romans, and the consequent final cessation of its services."
John Owen comments on Hebrews 10:25:
John Owen--"It is not such a day, such a motive, as is always common to all, but only unto those who are in some measure in the same circumstances with them....Wherefore this day was no other but that fearful and tremendous day, a season for the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple, city, and nation of the Jews, which our Saviour had forewarned His disciples of, and which they had in continual expectation"--Commentary on Hebrews
With the exception of this last comment by Owen, it is manifestly evident that the preceding quotations are in gross error of applying a hermeneutic that is completely unwarranted both contextually and historically. Nevertheless, we have seen that even the greatest scholars cannot ignore the particular reference given to the Jews and the destruction of the Temple in AD 70 and the last days.
A question should be raised: if, as we have seen, the last days were concerning Judah and Jerusalem, and we believe that God is done with the nation of Israel, then how can we affirm that we are in the last days?
Also, if we have proven that they were in the last days and the end of the age, and that those last days have come and gone and the Jewish age has come and gone, then in what age are we now? Jesus spoke of two ages:
Interestingly, the Greek phrase used is aeoni houtay en toe mellonti, literally translated "age about to come." Jesus spoke of the present Jewish age and the ensuing New Covenant age. Because of the obvious overlap, which, even the authors cited recognized, Paul could say:
This age is synonymous with the city of the living God:
With the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple, Jesus Christ brought to complete establishment the eternal Jerusalem from above. The last days concerned Israel and its covenant and nation. We are now in the age that was about to come, the everlasting Covenant through the blood of that great Shepherd of the sheep.
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