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AD70 Dispensationalism: According to that view, AD70 was the end of 'this age' and the start of the 'age to come'.    Those who lived before AD70 could only 'see in part' and such, lacking the resurrection and redemptive blessings which supposedly came only when Herod's Temple in Jerusalem fell.    Accordingly, AD70 was not only the end of Old Testament Judaism, but it was also the end of the revelation of Christianity as seen in the New Testament.

HYPER PRETERISM

"Full preterist" material is being archived for balanced representation of all preterist views, but is classified under the theological term hyper (as in beyond the acceptable range of tolerable doctrines) at this website.  The classification of all full preterism as Hyper Preterism (HyP) is built upon well over a decade of intense research at PreteristArchive.com, and the convictions of the website curator (a former full preterist pastor).  The HyP theology of final resurrection and consummation in the fall of Jerusalem, with its dispensational line in AD70 (end of old age, start of new age), has never been known among authors through nearly 20 centuries of Christianity leading up to 1845, when the earliest known full preterist book was written.  Even though there may be many secondary points of agreement between Historical/Modern Preterism and Hyper Preterism, their premises are undeniably and fundamentally different.

WARNING: THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS "HYPER PRETERIST"



 

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Also by Desprez:
Daniel; or, The Apocalypse of the Old Testament (1865)

Discovered in the archives of Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India

Written in Answer to "The End, or, the Proximate Signs of the Close of the Dispensation"


BIOGRAPHY AND EXPLANATION

Richard Acland Armstrong "Notwithstanding its startling conclusions, Mr. Desprez's
work achieved a fair measure of literary success. The book
speedily ran through two editions. Evidence from all sides
convinced him that, whatever the defects of his work, it supplied
a real want. "


John Kitto's Journal of Sacred Literature "a work of extraordinary merit, the most original, thorough, and eloquent exposition of the Apocalypse in this or any other language. Grotius,' Dr. Hammond, and Bishop Pearce, have, we suppose, as well as the writings of Dr. Samuel Lee and Professor Moses Stuart, furnished the hints which are in this volume expanded into a series of eighteen lectures, of great force, clearness, and beauty, and with a warmth, grace, earnestness, and power, at once admirable and convincing"

Quarterly Journal of Prophecy
"He is an ultra-preterist. It is not often that we meet with such frantic imbecility"

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Historical Preterism Main

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 1-1000

070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World

 


1000-2006

FUTURIST
HISTORICAL
MODERN

1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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"To us individually, as to the church in all subsequent ages, the coming of the Lord is an event yet future. To us individually he has not yet come; his coming will be to us "the hour of death and the day of judgment." We then, equally with the disciples, may use prayer, "Thy kingdom come," for we may pray for the full and glorious consummation of that kingdom, the first advent of which was the object of their supplications. We too may pray "that at his second coming to judge the world, we may be found an acceptable people in his sight," for we, equally with them, must meet a Savior Judge, before whose bar a strict account must be rendered. This divine book, like the rest of Scriptures, contains "manna for all hears and for all times," and its lessons of warning and encouragement are not only applicable to those who were pronounced blessed if they should hear and read the words of this prophecy, but to hearers and readers of all lands and of all ages."  (p. 477)

"In their first obvious and specific meaning these prophecies relate to the coming of our Lord at the period when he abundantly declared he would so come. In their second general and universally applicable exposition they relate to a coming of Christ which every man shall experience in his own person, and which shall be to him either the judgment of the great whore, or the marriage of the Lamb; the first resurrection, or the second death." (p. 478)

 


 

 


THIRD-OLDEST KNOWN FULL PRETERIST BOOK.. WRITTEN PRIOR TO

DESPREZ'S CONVERSION AWAY FROM HYPER PRETERISM

THE APOCALYPSE FULFILLED IN THE CONSUMMATION OF THE MOSAIC ECONOMY

P.S. Desprez
(1854)

It remains to be tried whether the ideas of a finished salvation, a perfected Christianity, an open kingdom of heaven, a life-state in Christ, an eternal reign in an eternal kingdom already set up, might not have a more constraining influence upon mankind than the questionable theory of an uncertain coming."

LONDON: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.

Charles Dickens (1854)
"And finally, the Rev. Mr. Desprez has replied to Dr. Cummings Apocalyptic Sketches in a volume called the Apocalypse Fulfilled, remarkable for the moderation and modesty of suggestion with which the subject is treated" (Narrative of Literature and Art, p. 215)

CLICK HERE FOR PDF FILE OF ENTIRE BOOK
(25 Mb)

"For my own part I feel heartily ashamed of the way in which I have often interpreted many of these passages in my public teaching ; in whatever sense they may be regarded as referring to an advent yet to come, there can be no reasonable doubt but that they refer in their primary sense to the advent which then took place. " (p. 93)

"But, though he distinctly denies the resurrection of our present vile bodies, he does not lead us to suppose that the resurrection is merely that of viewless spirits ; for he says, "God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and the every seed his own body," i.e. as barley does not spring from wheat, or wheat from barley, so the living germ will be raised in the likeness of the body sown. In 2 Cor. 5. the same apostle tells us that this new and heavenly body awaits the spirit at the period of its dissolution. "We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, -- if the frail tenement of our spirits perish, -- we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." He represents the Christian as "groaning" in this earthly body, and "earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with the house which is from heaven;" and that he considered this change as immediate upon death may be gathered from the words - "Therefore we are always confident, knowing that whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord." (p. 260)

"Oh that we had faith to trust implicitly to its declarations respecting the time of Christ's second advent, believing that whatever darkness exists must be in us and not in God! Oh, that we had faith to see in the last dispersion of Israel an imperishable memorial of the coming of the Lord, chronicled for 2000 years in the history of mankind, testifying to men of ever age and clime, -- the Lord has come, -- has effected the object for which he came, - has cast down the city, temple, and nation of his choice, - has erected a new and universal kingdom upon the ashes of Judaism, and has made his once favoured people the undying witnesses, from generation to generation, that "THE END" HAS ARRIVED, AND THAT "ALL THESE THINGS" HAVE BEEN LONG AGO FULFILLED" (p. 402)

"The consideration that the passover was "fulfilled in the kingdom of God," need not in any way detract from our observance of the Christian sacrament." (p. 420)

"We proved by scriptural argument, which it is as hopeless to overthrow as to evade, that our Lord came, as he said, to destroy Jerusalem, and to close the Jewish dispensation." (p. 434)

"It is more natural, and completely in unison with Scripture to believe, that as men die so are they judged - that Christ is judging now, for "the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son" - that no purgatory, Papal or Protestant, intervenes between the hour of death and the day of judgment."

"But you say, Shall I not "lift up my head with joy, because my redemption draweth nigh?" Shall I not say, "Lo, this is my God, I have waited for him, and he will save me; I will be glad and rejoice in his salvation?" Yes, if you are in Christ, you will see him: nay, more, you will be "with him where he is, that you may behold his glory." But you will not see him coming in judgment on guilty Jerusalem; that is an event long passed." (
P. 479)

"But whatever be the blest condition of the new and heavenly city, we may be sure that it is of no earthly kind. Images, indeed, borrowed from the earth are used to depict its glory and its greatness, yet still its celestial character shines through all, and makes it evident that the Spirit of God spake of heavenly things with a human tongue. But whilst we look for deeper joys and higher blessedness that can be known on earth, let us beware of straining the symbols of the Apocalypse and of giving a literal meaning to every word of this sublime, yet allegorical description. We need not suppose that this city actually came down from God out of heaven; it will be quite in keeping with the rest of the allegory to believe that it was as the Lord says, "The city of my God . . which cometh down from heaven from my God;" that is was the "Jerusalem which is above," as contrasted as with the Jerusalem on earth, and therefore fitly represents as "that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God." (P. 492)

"Shall the blessedness of those who shall be raised hereafter exceed that of those "who first trusted in Christ?" Shall the promise, "blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection," be reversed to mean that the glory of the latter dead shall outshine the former?" (p. 497)

"I am the door, by me if any man enter in he shall be saved, and shall go in and out and find pasture." "I am the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city." (p. 499)

 

WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID



THE THEORY OF MR. DESPREZ. DEAR Sir,—May I ask you to insert in your valuable periodical the following letter, just written to an intelligent working man, who lately, with much satisfaction, showed me a book entitled,

The Apocalypse Fulfilled in the Consummation of the Mosaic Economy and the Coming of the Son of Man." By the Rev. P. S. Desprez, B.D. Second edition. 1850. Concerning this book a writer in the " Quarterly Journal of Prophecy " most justly remarks :—"To this theory the author sacrifices everything—criticism, theology, symbol, history, chronology—with a recklessness at which a scholar may wonder, and a Christian stand aghast :"—

LETTER TO A WORKING MAN

DEAR SIR,—I have attentively considered the book you lent me, by Mr. Desprez. I cannot express what I felt on reading such a perversion of Scripture ; but I will at once proceed to show you the truth on the important subjects there so barbarously handled.

"Let me premise that prophecy, connected as it is with history, is to our theology what the spine is to the human body ; and although while the heart continues to beat there will be life, although the framework of the body be ever so much distorted, still it will be a poor sickly life, very much like that of the Church of the present day.

"I begin with a statement which may at first sight startle you, but which you will find is borne out by fact—namely, that neither our Lord, while on earth, nor any one of His apostles, uttered a prediction which has not its root in the Old Testament ! A future revelation, the Apocalypse, was given for the guidance of the Church, for the same reason that the Book of Daniel was given to the Jews—during the captivity in Babylon—because the Church had lost her Shekinah, the manifested presence of the Comforter, and as a visible body was sinking into the spiritual Babylon.

"The Scriptures refer to two series of judgments on the Jewish nation, besides what occurred 150 years b.c., in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. First, the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by the soldiers of Titus, which occurred 40 years after our Lord's resurrection ; and secondly, that which will take place about the time of our Lord's second advent. "

"I am quite aware that Mr. Desprez, in common with many infidel writers, makes much of that declaration (Matt. xxiv. 34), where, after speaking of the appearance of the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and the angels sent to gather His elect from the four winds, from the one end of heaven to the other, he thus proceeds : ' Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away until all these things be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.' A Christian, bowing to the word of the Lord, would naturally here pause, and consider, " What did our Lord mean by the term, this generation ? ' He might for a season be perplexed ; but by reverently searching the Scriptures with humble prayer the knot would give way without the rude treatment Mr. Desprez and others have applied.

"My Greek lexicon says that the word genea, here translated generation, is in other parts of Scripture translated nation, race, family; further than this, every present generation of Jews was addressed as parts of the whole nation. Thus, in Jeremiah ii., addressing the people of his day, the prophet says, ' Thus saith the Lord, I do remember thee, the kindness of thy youth, the love of thine espousals, when thou wentest after me into the wilderness,' &c. ; and after going through their history in this chapter he says, ' 0 generation, see ye the word of the Lord Have I been a wilderness unto Israel ? a land of darkness ? ' &c. "

"Then remember that in the close of Matt. xxiii., from verse 34 to 39, the nation is in like manner addressed. That nation, that highly-favoured nation, despisers of so many privileges, was to receive punishment for the sins committed even from the time of Abel. And wherefore ? Because the character of Cain and of all other evil-doers was strongly impressed upon them, and would be consummated in the death of the Holy One of God. And from that time to the present, from father to son, in all nations and all lands, have that nation suffered scorn, derision, contempt, and persecution ; and so will they suffer, until in their own land, according to all the prophets, the last and most terrible trouble shall overtake them. Remark in the various prophecies such threatenings as those in Zechariah xiv. 1, 2. But аs in Matt. xxiii. 39, so after all these prophecies a time of deliverance is promised ; for, still speaking to the nation, our Lord says to them, ' Ye shall not see me henceforth, until ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord '—referring to Psalm cxviii. 26, when the stone which the builders refused becomes the head of the corner.

Consider Zech. xii., xiv. ; Joel ii ; Isaiah x., xxix., &c. Trouble and the final deliverance of that nation are predicted from Moses even to the end of the Scriptures. Trouble while they continue disobedient ; deliverance on change of heart and mind. (Dent xxviii. 15—48.) Then follows a description of the people who should be the instruments for the punishment of His people from verse 49, and then, chapter xxx., the promise of deliverance is given.

"For the time of sore trouble immediately before the second coming of our Lord, see Daniel vii. 9 to the end. Concerning verse 10, remark that this cannot be the general judgment (Rev. xx. 11— 15), because only one of the four kingdoms is destroyed at the time referred to. Most probably it is the judgment on those living at the time of our Lord's return. Before proceeding further, I beg you to remark that what is recorded Matt. xxiv., is to be found in substance, Mark xiii. and Luke xvii., xxi., and if you will tell me what you consider to be the meaning of the expression, ' Times of the Gentiles,' or, rather, when began the times of the Gentiles, spoken of as follows (Luke xxi. 24) : ' And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations : and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled,' I shall be able, I trust, to convince you that such prophecies are now only fulfilling, and that they are to be fulfilled most fully at the coming of the Lord with His saints, (Rev. xix. 11 — 21.)

Your sincere friend, EM

Passages where the word genea, race, nation, generation, occurs :—Ps. xx. 30, ixiv. 6, xiv. 6, cxii. 2 ; 1 Peter ii. 9 ; Dent. xxxii. 20; Phil. ii. 15. These are a few out of numerous passages that might be adduced."  (The Rainbow, a magazine of Christian Literature, pp. 184,185)

IF ANYONE WOULD LIKE TO WHIP THIS TEXT INTO SHAPE, PLEASE EMAIL ME AT TODD @ PRETERISTARCHIVE.COM

PREFACE

THE   SECOND   EDITION.

IN order to save readers and critics trouble, the author
takes this opportunity of saying that the principle of his
book, Christ already come, is set forth in Lecture 16.
That Lecture may be consulted first, and if the proba-
bility of its correctness is found to be such as to induce
further investigation, the study of the rest of the Book
will follow as a matter of course.
He also desires to express his deep sense of the import-
ance of the present subject of inquiry both in itself and in
its consequences. If he is right, the expositions of the
Apocalypse with which, alas, hundreds of pulpits are now
resounding, must be as utterly at variance with Truth and
Scripture as they are with reason and common sense ; and
views like those advocated in Dr. Gumming's "End of
the World," must be as false and presumptuous as they
are deficient in argument and in a due consideration of
the rules of biblical interpretation. If he is wrong, it is
incumbent on those in authority to expose his error, and
not to suffer heresy to stalk through a Second Edition
unreproved.

 
VI PREFACE TO THE
John defines as " that old serpent called the Devil and
Satan," transmuted into heathen Rome, and of his casting
out of his mouth an eruption of Visigoths, Vandals, arid
Huns, into Italy, all of whom were Arians III
1 learnt, to my amazement, that the earth opening her
mouth and swallowing up the flood emitted by the dra-
gon, prefigured the swallowing up of these heterodox
Arians into the orthodox Trinitarian population of Italy.
I stood aghast at the omnipotence of the magic wand,
which could with a touch change a mighty angel into our
Lord Jesus Christ, and then with another touch could
transform the Saviour into Pope Leo X. I felt the sub-
ject to be wholly out of the reach of my limited percep-
tion, which could resolve the mighty voice of the angel
into the roaring of Pope Leo X. against Luther, and
the seven thunders into the thunders of the Vatican. I
found, to my great surprise, that the image of the beast
meant general councils; and the power to give life to the
image of the beast prefigured the right of the clergy to
vote at those councils. I found, — what did I not find
that did not savour of the apocryphal and the marvellous?
— I found that no limit would be put to my credulity,
and that at last I was required to believe that a certain
hail-storm which injured parts of Frame, on Sunday,
July 13, 1788, was foretold in the Apocalypse, and that
a little frog called the Tractarian heresy had been heard
by St. John to croak all the way from St. Barnabas to
Patmos, at a distance of nearly 2000 years !
Now this was really too much. It would require an
opening of the earth, such as that which swallowed up
the heterodox Arians into the Trinitarian population of
Italy, to believe it all; and it occurred to me (and I hope FIRST EDITION. Vll
I may say so without presumption, although Dr. Gum-
ming affirms he has never yet read anything to make him
dissatisfied with the correctness of his interpretations),
that the exposition of the Apocalypse might not be
finally settled, and that there might be room for another
attempt.
Accordingly I resolved to use my Protestant privilege
of searching the Scriptures for myself, and with the help
of the Commentary of the learned American expositor
Moses Stuart, and the aid of those Jewish, Heathen, and
Christian writers who lived nearest to those days, I
plunged into the Book, of which Dr. South said, " It
either finds a man mad or makes him so."
The principle upon which I have conducted this in-
vestigation is founded on that most clear, universally ex-
pressed, and Scriptural truth, that our Lord came, a$ he
said, to destroy Jerusalem, and to close the dispensation.
No doctrine of Christianity stands on more ample evi-
dence, and none is capable of more complete and definite
proof. The reason why it is not more generally insisted
upon, is that we are accustomed to look at the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem, and the close of the Jewish dispensa-
tion, in the same light as the destruction of any other
city and people. This is a false point of view. That
awful consummation was the grandest event, both in its
nature and in its consequences, which has rolled along
the stream of time. It was the breaking up, not of a
dynasty, but of a dispensation ; not of a city and nation,
but of a religion — a religion established by God himself,
and which for 2000 years was the only religion vouch-
safed to man.
As a sequence to this indisputable fact follows the ga-thering of the elect at the same period. The two events
are inseparably connected together in Holy Scripture.
If our Lord came, as he said, before that generation had
passed away, — if he came, as he said, to destroy that
city and people, and to close the age, — if he came, as he
said, before his disciples had gone through the cities of
Israel, and if some who heard his words did not taste of
death till they saw the " Son of Man coming in his king-
dom,"— then he also gathered his elect at the same time.
There is no alternative; this must either be true, or the
Bible must be false. That he did so come is proved to a
demonstration by his effecting the objects for which he
. came : that he also gathered his elect (although the sub-
ject is necessarily incapable of the same kind of proof) is
the natural consequence, and the deducible corollary from
the coming of the Son of Man.
I look upon this Book, as its title imports, as the Apo-
calypse of Jesus Christ— as the revealing and unfolding
of those scenes and events which accompanied his coming.
One note rings through all its seals, trumpets, and vials,
and the note struck is the " Lord is at hand." One bur-
den is heard through all its symbols and allegories, and
that is,- "Maran Atha," the Lord cometh. One cry is
distinguishable in the midst of sounds of terrific vengeance
taken upon a particular land, a particular people, and a
particular city, and that—" Behold he cometh with clouds,
and every eye shall see him." The Book from beginning
to end, from A to /2, is nothing else than a prophetical
drama, an allegorical representation of the Apocalypse (as
our Lord's coming is frequently called in Scripture) of
Jesus Christ. It contains no new prophecy distinct from
those uttered by our Lord. Had such prophetic teaching FIRST EDITION. IX
been necessary, it is not likely that he would have left it
to his disciples to make such announcement. They but
repeated their Master's words; and the Apocalypse is only
a recapitulation, a reiteration, of his awful sayings : " Im-
mediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun
be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and
the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the
heavens shall be shaken, and then shall appear the sign of
the Son of Man in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of
the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming
in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory; and
he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet;
and they shall gather together his elect from the four
winds, from one end of heaven to the other."1
It gives additional weight to this principle of interpre-
tation, that under its application the difficulties of the
Apocalypse are no longer insurmountable. It is notorious
the Book has never yet received a satisfactory explana-
tion, and that great and good men have shrunk back from
its symbols in despair. Much that has been written upon
it is mere guess-work, and not a little so completely
shrouded in mysticism as to render it " confusion worse
confounded."
By applying this principle, an interpretation can be
given, easy, simple, natural, and, above all, one suited to
the circumstances of the case, and to the date and age of
the Apocalypse. By applying this principle,—a principle,
be it remembered, distinctly recognised in Holy Scripture,
— the Book is no longer unintelligible ; its mysteries
vanish, its figures and allegories shape themselves into
palpable truths, its enigmas are resolved, a clue can be
1 Matt. xxiv. 2J), 30, 31.

X PRIBITMJB TO THE
found for all its varied symbols, and an exposition can be
offered for all its hieroglyphic machinery.
By applying this principle, the propriety of that angelic
interposition so continuously exerted throughout the
Apocalypse is seen at once ; an interposition, let us bear
in mind, which prevailed in the world up to that period,
but which has never since been heard of amongst men.
By applying this principle, an exposition can be found for a
Book containing more complicated variety, more hetero-
geneous matter, more opposite symbols, and more diver-
sified allegory, than any other book in the world.
A Book which mixes together in one apparent mass of
inextricable confusion, earth and heaven, men and angels,
Christ and demons, a perishing earthly city and the city
of our God.

A Book, containing within a very limited compass, cha-
racters, events, times, places, circumstances, so widely
different from each other, that this world alone cannot
supply them.
A Book introducing upon the theatre of its complicated
action, Roman invaders and Euphratean allies; Kings of
the east, Kings of the earth, and Kings of the whole
world; Nero and Vespasian; Titus and John of Gischala;
Antiochus and Sohemus ; Malchus and Agrippa ; Michael
and Satan ; the false Prophet and Him called Faithful and
True; the great red Dragon and the Word of God.
A Book describing upon its variegated map the Tiber
and the Jordan ; the Mediterranean and the Euphrates ;
Patmos and Sodom; Ephesus and Egypt; Rome and
Great Babylon ; the Wilderness and Mount Zion ; the
Bottomless pit and the New Jerusalem.
A Book comprising within the many-coloured sphereFIRST EDITION XJ
of its development, Heathen persecutors and Christian
martyrs; Jewish Prophets and holy Apostles ; the Beast
and the Lamb, dypiov, apviov; the Whore and the Bride,
iropvrj, yvv*i; the Apostasy and the Church ; the Rene-
gades and the Witnesses ; the Image of the Beast and the
King of Kings ; his Mark and the Number of his Name,
and the Lord of Lords; ihe idol-branded in their fore-
heads and in their hands, the angel-sealed in their fore-
heads with the seal of the living God ; the worshippers of
the Beast and the worshippers of Him that made heaven,
and earth, and sea; the fire and brimstone, and the pre-
sence of the Lamb ; the first resurrection and the second
death.
A Book detailing in awe-struck language, a reign of
terror, a triumph of sublime agony and despair, mingled
with notes of ecstatic gladness and of pealing conquest;
the measure of wheat for a penny and the measure of
barley for a penny, and the " tree of life bearing twelve
manner of fruits ;" death on the pale horse, and hell fol-
lowing him, and the "river of life clear as crystal; " ene-
mies of Christ gnawing their tongues for pain, and ser-
vants of the Lord shouting victory ; the scorpion-stricken
longing for death, and the redeemed from among men, the
redeemed from the earth, singing Alleluia ; the great city
divided into three parts, and the holy city coining down
from God out of heaven ; the outer court of the temple
given unto the Gentiles, and the golden city which had
no temple therein ; the tribes of the earth mourning, and
the elect gathered ; the supper of the great God and the
marriage of the Lamb; the wine-press trodden without
the city, and the Book of Life ; the harvest of the earth,
and the sealing of the 144,000 ; the armies of heaven, and

Xll PREFACE TO THE
the resurrection of the just; thrones and judgment, and
the coming of the Son of Man.
Such the diversified, the miscellaneous, the unearthly,
the unique character of this wonderful Book : heaven, and
earth, and hell provide the actors on its mysterious pages,
and the scenes of its awful disclosures reach from the
throne of the Eternal to the bottomless pit. Who shall
unfold its hidden mysteries ? who shall penetrate into its
dark recesses ? " Here is wisdom.'1
A key must be found to fit a lock whose wards are so
intricate and so complicated that no false key can make
its springs revolve. A demonstration must be given to a
problem so knotty and tangled, that a mistake in the pre-
mises must lead to a wrong conclusion. An answer must
be discovered for an enigma so sphinx-like and so per-
plexing, that an uncertain reply tells its own tale imme-
diately of impotence and error. An exposition must be
found for an Apocalypse which has defied the world.1
That key—that demonstration —that answer—that expo-
sition can he found. Like all great truths, it is of simple
and easy comprehension.
The key to the Apocalypse, and the only key, is the
1 " No competent, and at the same time unprejudiced, judge will
deny, that after all the labour bestowed on its explanation, no book of
the New Testament has so defied all attempts to settle its interpretation."
— Bloomfield.
" My readers will naturally expect that I should either give a decided
preference to some one of the opinions stated above, or produce one of
my own. I can do neither, nor can I pretend to explain the Book. I
do not understand it; and in the things which concern so sublime and
awful a subject, 1 dare not, as my predecessors, indulge in conjecture*"
— Dr. Adam Clarke.
" Mihi tota apocalypsis valde ohscura videtur: et talis, cujus expli-
catio citra periculum vix queat tentari. Fateor me hactenus in nullius
Scripti Biblici lectione minus proficerc quam in hoc obscurisshno vaticinio."
— Grawrus.

FIRST EDITION.
dosing of the Jewish dispensation, the gathering of the
elect, and the coming of the Son of Man.
The nature of the interpretation about to be offered
proceeds upon this principle. It takes for granted, that
the Book really is, what at the outset it professes to be,
viz. "The revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave
unto him, to show unto his servants things which must
shortly come to pass/' It assumes, that if it was a Reve-
lation it must have been intelligible ; if it was a Revelation
shown to the servants of Christ, it must have been intelli-
gible to them; if it was a Revelation of " things which must
shortly come to pass," it is folly, nay more, it is impiety,
to look for an exposition in the distant future, for it must
have a distinct and specific reference to the circumstances
of the Church in those days.
It only remains for me to add, that although I have fre-
quently found it necessary to vindicate the Church of
Rome from what I considered unfair attacks, I am neither
a Tractarian nor a Jesuit in disguise. My sole aim and
object has been to elicit truth, and, to attain this, I have
done what my readers must do likewise,— I have renounced
all dependence upon commentaries, canons, councils,
or Fathers, and have searched the Scriptures for myself.
The result is the exposition now offered: if it is to be
condemned for its novelty, that novelty may be considered
as an indication of the genuine Protestant feeling which
has prompted such an investigation. To affirm that pro-
gress may be made in mental, moral, physical, but not in
spiritual science, is a thought worthy of the dark ages.
Wolvcrhampton, September, 1854.CONTENTS.

LECTURE I.

PAGE

Date of the Apocalypse ------- I

LECTURE II.
The Sealed Book --..-. 30

LECTURE III.

Opening of the First Four Seals - - - » -49

LECTURE IV.

The Fifth Seal. The ^Era of Martyrs - - - - -66

LECTURE V.

The Sixth Seal -------- 84

LECTURE VI.
God's Sealed Ones - ... - . 105

LECTURE VII.

The First Four Trumpets and Vials - A. - 131

LECTURE
The Fifth Trumpet and Vial - - - - - - 1GI
LECTURE IX.
The Sixth Trumpet and Sixth Vial - - - - -186

XVI CONTENTS.

LECTUKE X.

PAGE

The Open Book.......209
LECTUKE XI.
The Resurrection of the Two Witnesses - - - - 244
LECTURE XII.
The Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh Vial .... 286
LECTURE XIII.
The Church in the Wilderness - - - - . . 307
LECTURE XIV.
The Beast rising from the Sea, and the Beast coming up out of (lie
Earth........32,5
LKCTUKK XV.
Babvlon - - - - - - - -357
LECTURE XVI.
The Coming of Christ ----.-. 390
LECTURE XVII.
The Millennium, the Judgment, and the Kingdom ... 433
LECTURE XVIII.
The New Jerusalem -----.. 472
APPENDIX.
The Identity betoreen the Trumpets and Vials .... 508

APOCALYPSE FULFILLED,

CONSUMMATION OF THE MOSAIC ECONOMY, AND THE COMING OF
THE SON OF MAN.

LECTURE L
DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE.
1 REV. 1, 2, 3. 22 REV. 6, 7- 16.
i
1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ, (). And he said unto me, These
which God gave unto him, to shew sayings arc faithful and true : and
unto his servants things which W/M.V/ the Lord God of the holy prophets
shortly come to paxs : and he sent and ; sent his angel to shew unto his ser-
signifted it hy his angel unto his ser- vants the things which mu&t shortly
vant John : he done.
2. Who hare record of the word 7- Behold, I conic quickly: blessed
of God, and of the testimony of Jesus i,v he that keepeth the sayings of the
Christ, and of all things that he saw. ; prophecy of this hook.
3. Blessed ?V he that readeth, and j I(>. I Jesus have sent mine angel
they that hear the words of this pro- : to testify unto you these things in
phecy, and keep those things which the churches*
are written therein : for the time is
at hand.
OUR first Lecture must be devoted to establish certain prelimi-
naries upon which the whole theory of the subsequent interpre-
tation is to be grounded. Here it is of the utmost importance
that the base of the future superstructure should be firm and
strong.

2 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.

We are about to erect a building, to raise story upon story,
to pile up casement upon casement; it is well then to look to
the foundation that it is securely laid, "lest haply after we have
begun to build, we should not be able to finish," and the edifice
erected at so much cost and care should fall headlong to the
ground. As a preliminary of the highest moment with regard
to the subsequent interpretation, it is proposed to consider in
this Introductory Lecture the question of the date of the Apo-'
calypse.

Here is a material difference of opinion.

We have men of high classical attainments and critical
acumen maintaining the Neronic date, I. e. that the Apoca-
lypse was written during the reign of Nero, and consequently
before the destruction of JerusalemJ; and others of equally high
reputation defending the Domitianic date, /. e. that it was
written during the reign of Dornitian, and consequently after
the destruction of Jerusalem. Who shall decide ? And yet a
decision must be come to; all subsequent interpretation depends
upon this question ; it is a point of all others most necessary to
be attained. If the Apocalypse was written in the time of Nero,
before the destruction of Jerusalem, a consistent, reasonable,
and satisfactory explanation can be given of the book : if written
in the reign of Domitian, after the destruction of Jerusalem,
that line of interpretation only can be adopted which rests on
the will and caprice of the interpreter ; and this opens so \vi<le
a field, and is capable of such unlimited extravagance, that it is
no uncommon event for hermeneutical opponents to take eontra-

1 Bishop Newton : " These prophecies were written a few years l>efore the
destruction of Jerusalem." Professor Lee : 4' I take it for granted that the
author lived some time before the destruction of Jerusalem/' Moses Stuart:
" That the Apocalypse was written under the bloody reign of Nero, or shortly
after, is a matter agreed on by nearly all the recent critics who have studied
the literature of this hook." To these rnav lie added, Sir J. Newton, Ilen-
tenius, Harduin, Orotius, Lightfoot, Schleusner, Hammond, Dr. A. Clarke,
Wetstein, and many others. " \Vetstein contends, and he is supported by
very great men among the ancients and moderns, that the Book of Revelation
was written before the Jewish war and the civil wars in Italy. That the im-
portant events which took place at that thru*, the greatest that ever happened
since the foundation of the world, were worthy enough of the Divine notice, as
the affairs of his church were so intimately connected with them."—Dr. Adam
Clarke.

LECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 3
dictoryl views of the same symbol, or for interpreters holding
the same religious tenets, to place an interval of 1000 years
more or less between their several interpretations.
Now before any argument in favour of the Neronic date can
have weight, it must be shown that sufficient ground exists for
receiving with diminished confidence the common opinion that
the Revelation was seen by St. John in the reign of Domitian;
and as the question of the date is not determined in Scripture,
it will be necessary to examine the opinions of the early Chris-
tian Fathers upon this point.
The defenders of the Domitianic date rely chiefly on a pas-
sage of IreiWHis2, quoted verbatim by Eusebius in the 3rd and
5th books of his Ecclesiastical History :—" For had it been
necessary that his name should be in open publication at the
present time, it would have been mentioned by him, especially
as being the one who saw the Apocalypse; for it is not so long
a^o since it was seen, but almost in our own generation, at the
close of the reign of Domitian." This statement of Irenseus is
considerably weakened, if not shown utterly unworthy of credit,
by a similar statement of the same writer, professedly derived
from those who had received it from the Apostle John and the
other Apostles, that Christ lived to be near fifty years of aye. —
(Con. Hair. lib. vi. cap. 20.)
If we add to this his belief in the absurd opinion of the Alex-
andrian Jews respecting the miraculous version of the LXX.
(Eus. Eccles. Hist. v. 8.), and his adoption of the millennial
views of Papias (Ens. Ecrles. Hist. iii. 3[).), it will be seen
that no implicit reliance can be placed upon a writer guiJty of
1 Lufher asserted that the Beast, Rev. xvii., was the Pope. The Pope
asserted that the Beast was Luther, and the false prophet Calvin. Luther
said that the number of the Beast indicated by the numerals u'6'6 was to be
found in the name of the Pope. The Pope retaliated by finding the number
of the Beast in the name of Luther.
" The common method of interpretation founded on the hypothesis that the
book was written after the destruction of Jerusalem, is utterly destitute of
certainty, and leaves every commentator to the luxuriance of his own fancy,
as is sufficiently evident from what has been done already on this book." —
Wetstein's Gr. Test vol. ii. p. 88.0.
2 " El Si test di'(i0(mY;r eV TM rvi' k'cupfi tctjpvmffOat Tovro^a avrov tY
twlt'ov ai' IpptOtj rov KCI] rijr inroi;u\v\l>ti' twpak'oroc;. OvCf yap Trpu Tro\\ov
\poi'ov EutpaOrj ciXXci rr^ttV)!' t7Ti n/f >//ier*p(i£ ytrecce Tpoc Tfri\£i Ao/uc-
rmrov a/>x>/c."—Irciifeus; in Hter. v. 30. ; Eus. Eccles. Hist. iii. 18., v. 8.
B 2

4 BATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.
such gross blunders, and that nothing is more probable than
that he should have committed an error with regard to the date
of the Apocalypse.
Eusebius1, however, appears to have relied entirely on this
passage of Irenams as determining the time when the Apocalypse
was seen, and to have drawn from it the conclusion that St. John
saw the Apocalypse in the reign of Domitian.2 He says: "In
this persecution it is handed down by tradition that the Apostle
and Evangelist John, who was yet living, in consequence of his
testimony to the Divine word, was condemned to dwell on the
Island of Patmos ;" and then he quotes the passage of Irenanis
before referred to as the source from whence this tradition sprang.
This is of great consequence, because it serves to show, that the
opinion of Eusebius /',? not independent testimony, but simply a
repetition of the statement of Irenreus ; and this observation is
also applicable to the testimony of Jerome, who only reiterates
the opinions of Jrenfeus and Eusebius.
This tradition is further supported by Virtoriuus 3, who as-
serts: "When John saw the Apocalypse, he was in the island
of PatmolJ banished by Caesar Domitian." "Domitian being
slain, John, dismissed from banishment, afterwards committed
to writing this same Apocalypse which he had received from
the Lord.'7
But Victorinus on Rev. iv. 14.4 says: "For he wrote
1 u 'E»> TOVTO) KaTi-^tt Xoyoc TOV aTrooToXor upa KT(i €vayy£\ioTi/i' 'Iwarrj?!'
tri TO) /3/6> ivCta.T(>i£oi'Ta9 rrjc tie; ror £tior Xoyoi' treKa paprvpidQy Ilcir-
pov olKt.1v Kara^iKatrdrji'at rrji' i'»/flr0r, yp<«^wi> yt. rot v Eip/ru7o£," K. r. X.
Eus. Eccles. Hist. iii. 18. 4i'ErOa Trji' uTrokaXi^tr loipcik'tr, u>e CtjXol Klp?/-
valoc"—Eus. Chronicon.
- That Eusebius was not very careful in preserving the strict meaning of
the authors quoted by him, may be proved from the circumstance that he
renders the words of Tertullian "cum maxime Rom IF orientem" (Tert. Apol.5.)
" then chiefly springing up at Rome," by " //n\-a /utXtora eV'Pw^p r»yi' ara-
ToXtjv tratrav i/TrorciSat,"—translated by Dr. ('ruse " particularly then, when
after subduing all the East, he exercised his cruelty against all at Rome/'—
giving a totally different meaning from the original.
3 "Quando hoc vidit Johannes, erat in insula Patmos, in metallum darnna-
tus, a Domitiano Caesare." ft Interfecto Domitiano, Johannes de metallo di-
jnissus, sic postea tradidit bane eandem quarn acceperat a Domino A]>oca-
lypsin."—In Bib. Max. iii. p. 419-
4 "Nam Evangeliuin postea scripsitcum essent Valentinus, et Cerinthus, et
Ebion, et caeteri scbol® Sathanae diffusi per orbem, convenerunt ad ilium de
finitimis provinciis omnes, et compulerunt ut ipse testimonium conscriberet."

LECT. I.] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 5
his Gospel afterwards, when Valentinus, and Cerinthus, and
Ebion, and others of Satan's school, were scattered over the
world: all from the neighbouring provinces came together to
him, and compelled him also to write his Gospel." Yet Epi-
phanius l declares, that John wrote his Gospel after the return
from Patmos in the time of Claudius Ca?sar, A. D. 54. A
fragment of Hippolytus places the date of that Gospel A.D. 61,
and Sir Isaac Newton, quoting from Caius, says that " Cerin-
thus lived so early that he resisted the Apostles at Jerusalem in
or before the iirst year of Claudius, that is, 26 years before the
death of Nero, and died before John." Victorinus is followed
by Sulpicius Sever us, Orosius, and others.
It appears then matter of fact that a tradition originated with
Iremeus 2 (a writer by no means infallible), which was subse-
quently propagated by successive ecclesiastical writers, who fol-
lowed one another much on the same principle as the Chiliasts
followed Papias on the question of the Millennium, — "He was
the cause that by far the greater number of Church writers after
1 ec'Merd rt}if avrou CITTO r//t' Harjjiov erraroco)', r/)r iirl K\a,$$iov y&'QjJii-
i )))' Kaiarapos"—Epiphan. Ihur. 51.
2 ct Irenteus introduced an opinion that the Apocalypse was written in the
time of Domitian ; but then he also postponed the writing of some others of
the sacred books, and was to place the Apocalypse after them. He might
perhaps have heard from his master Polycarp that he had received this book
from John about the time of Domitian's death ; or indeed John might him-
self at that time have made a new publication of it, from whence Irena^us
might imagine it was then but newly written. Eusebius in his Chronicle and
Ecclesiastical History follows Iremeus, but afterwards in his Evangelical De-
monstrations he conjoins the banishment of John into Patmos with the deaths
of Peter and Paul, and so do Tertullian and Pseudo-Prochorus as well as the
first author, whoever he was, of that very ancient fable that John was put by
Nero into a vessel of hot oil, and coining out unhurt, was banished by him
into Patmos. Though this story be no more than a fiction, yet was it founded
on a tradition of the first Churches, that John was banished into Patmos in
the days of Nero. Epiphanius represents the Gospel of John as written in
the time of Claudius, and the Apocalypse even before that of Nero.
" Arethas in the beginning of his Commentary quotes the opinion of Iremcus
from Eusebius, but follows it not , for he afterwards affirms the Apocalypse
was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and that former commentators
had expounded the Sixth Seal of that destruction. With the opinion of the first
commentators agrees the tradition of the churches of Syria preserved to this
day in the title of the Syriac version of the Apocalypse, which title is this, —
' The Revelation which was made to John the Evangelist by God, in the
island of Patmos, into which he was Vanished by Nero the Ctesar." — Sir 1.
Newton.
B a

6 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.

him held the like doctrine, pleading the antiquity of the man"
(Eus. Eccles. Hist. iii. 39.), that the Apocalypse was seen by
St. John in Patinos at the close of Domitian's reign.

The question arises was this tradition universally received ;
and if not, is there positive evidence to show that a contrary
opinion was entertained even from the earliest times?

The first testimony which I shall adduce to show that the
tradition of Irenteus was not universally adopted, is that of
Epiphanius1, who says of St. John, — " Who prophesied in the
time of Claudius (A.D. 54) .... the prophetic word accord-
ing to the Apocalypse being disclosed."

In a fragment of an antient Latin writer2, attributed by
some to Caius, it is found — " Paul, following the order of his
predecessor John, wrote only to seven churches by name in
similar order/7 In this passage John is called the predecessor
of Paul, and Paul is said only to have written to seven churches
by name, following the example of John, who wrote only to
the seven churches of Asia. Now as Paul suffered martyr-
dom A.D. 68, this would place the date of the Apocalypse prior
to the destruction of Jerusalem.

The title of the Syriac version is " The Revelation which
was made to John the Evangelist by God in the island of
Patmos, into which he was banished by Nero the Ca\sar"
Tertullian3 conjoins the banishment of John with the martyrdom
of Peter and Paul at Rome, under Nero — " O happy Roman
church, where Peter is deemed worthy to share the passion of
the Lord, where Paul is beatified by the same death as John
(the Baptist), where the Apostle John plunged into burning oil,
escapes unhurt, arid is condemned to banishment." Andreas4,

oc ir ffltoi'OiG KXai/ctow .... oa/v'rv/u'rou rov Kara r;/i'
Xoyov Trpo^jyrik'ou." — Hair. 5J.
2 " Paulus, sequens praetkcessoris sui Johannis ordinein, nonni^i noininatim
septem ecclesiis scribal online tali." — Muratori, Antiq. Ital. iii. p. 85-1.
3 "Felix ecclesia Rom an a, ubi Petrus passioni Dominicse adi&quatur, ubi
Paulus Jobannis exitu coronatur, ubi Apostolns Johannes postcaquam in
oleum igneum demersus, nihil passus est, in insularn relegatur."
4 Andreas and Arethas, tbe earliest commentators excepting a few frag-
ments of Victor-inns, whose interpretations have come down to us, not only
expound the Apocalypse of tbe woes which fell upon the Jews,, but declare
that other* had done .vo ako. Arethas moreover shows that be was acquainted
with the tradition of Jrenams,which he evidently considered incorrect. This is
invaluable, because it shows that from early times the symbols of the Revelation

LECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 7
bishop of Ceesarea, in his Greek commentary on the Apocalypse,
still extant, (c. vi, 16.) says, "John received this revelation
under the reign of Vespasian" On Rev. vi. 12.: " There are
not wanting those who apply this passage to the siege and de-
struction of Jerusalem by Titus" On Rev. vii. 2. he says :
" Although these things happened in part to Jewish Christians,
who escaped the evils inflicted on Jerusalem by the Romans, yet
they more probably refer to Antichrist." Arethas, who suc-
ceeded Andreas, mentions the statement of Iremeus before
alluded to ; he says : " That John was banished to the isle of
Patmos under Domitian, Eusebius alleges in his Chronicon."
But on Rev. vi. i£J. he affirms : " Some refer this to the siege of
Jerusalem by Vespasian, interpreting all tropically." On Rev.
vii. 1. : "Here, then, were manifestly shown to the Evangelist
that things were, to hefal the Jews in their tear against the
Romansy in the way of avenging the sufferings inflicted upon
Christ." On Rev. vii. 4. : " When the Evangelist received
these oracles, the destruction in which the Jews were involved
was not yet inflicted by the Romans" To all this may be
added the testimony of Origen1, upon which Moses JStuart, from
whom this evidence is chiefly taken, lays great weight: " The
King of the Romans, as tradition teaches, condemned John,
who bare witness for the word of truth, to the island of Patmos.
John, moreover, teaches us the things respecting his testimony,
without saying who condemned hint, when lie utters these
things in the Apocalypse." It must have been impossible for
Origen, the greatest critical scholar of the first three centuries,
not to have known the statement of Ireiueus respecting the
Domitianic date, and this makes his silence all the more marked,
lie mentions neither Nero nor Domitian. "The King of the
Romans," he says, "condemned John to the isle of Patmos," and
he remarks tluit St. .John is silent respecting the author of his
exile,—"without sayiny trho condemned him"
Even on the supposition that the evidence adduced for the
wore applied to the closing scenes of the Jewish dispensation, and that the
fable of the Pope and the scarlet lady is the myth of yesterday.
1 '() <?£ 'V'hiiu (<i)r /HirrtXf t>f o;c »/ TcafiuCofru; fttCuvxei KctT^ik'nfff ror'Iw«r-
TU fttct TOT rj/c u/\j;0v':./'nc \oyor f?c Harbor r»)»-' i'ji/<ro»'. ^u'«-
i TOV naprvptou tavrov 'Iwarri/c, /<»} \iytor TIC aurov xaTiCt-
/;«<rf, tyiuTKMV .v Ttj tA7roK'a\v\//ec rai/r«." — Opp. in Matt. iii.

8 BATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.
Neronic date is not so conclusive as that brought forward for the
Domitianie date (although when it is considered that Eusebius
followed Iremeus, and that Jerome followed Eusebius, and so
on, the testimony becomes that not of many individuals but of
one), yet still it must be admitted there is positive external
evidence in favour of the Neronic, as well as of the Domitianic
date, and all that can be done is to array father against
father, and testimony against testimony, weighing the proba-
bilities of the truthfulness of each in the balances of our own
judgment.
It is plain the question cannot be settled by external testi-
mony. What, then, is the fair and manly course to be taken
in bringing this point to a right issue ? If the conflicting tra-
ditions of the early church make it impossible to determine
whether John was banished to Patmos in the reign of Nero or
Doinitian, let an appeal be made to the internal eridaice of the
book itself. Let the words traced by the Spirit of God teach us
that knowledge which we cannot learn from the surmises of the
early fathers, or from the traditions of the Church. Let the
love of "science falsely so called," which would exhaust human
wisdom in building up a position drawn from sources from which
no valid argument can be drawn, turn from the fables of an-
tiquity to the truth of revelation. The Scriptures are silent;
the voice of antiquity is divided ; one only course remains (a
course the supporters of the Domitianic date are very reluctant
to adopt), and that is, to rest the question upon far surer
grounds than the tradition of Irerueus, or the hesitations of
Eusebius, who does not seem to have believed that St. John
wrote the book at all.1 Let us then inquire—Is there internal
1 Eusebius affords almost a solitary example amongst the early fathers of
indecision and douht respecting the authorship and canonical rank of the Apo-
calypse : he says, (Eccles. Hist. iii. 24.) : " The opinions respecting the Reve-
lation are still greatly divided"—u T>7c' c' 'A7rona\v\lsf.iij£ tfy tvarf/ior tVi
rvv Trapa TOIQ rroXXolc iripU\k'tTai if 3V'£a."
Speaking of canonical books. " To these may be added, if it seem good, (tt
<j)aveiri,} the Apocalypse of John,". . .. '* which some reject, but others reckon
it among the acknowledged books."—Eus. Kccles Hist. iii. 25. He gives at
some length the opinions of Dionysius, who supposed the author of the Apo-
calypse not to be the same John who wrote the Gospel: <l That it is a John
who wrote these things we must believe, as he. says it ; but what John it is, is
uncertain." " I am of opinion, there were many of the same name with John
the Apostle."... " I think, therefore, that it was another one of those in Asia, for

LECT. I.] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 9
evidence from the book itself which makes it morally certain
that the Revelation must have been written before the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem ? I answer,—there is overwhelming evidence
in favour of this position in every page and line of the Apoca-
lypse, whilst there is no internal evidence, deserving the name,
to show that it was written after that period.
* 1. Our first argument is, that St. John speaks continually of
the speedy coming of Christ.
Rev. i. 7-—" Behold Me cometh with clouds."
Rev. in. 11----"Behold I come quickly."
Rev. xiv. 1 Jk—" Behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud
one sat like unto the Son of Man."
Rev. xvi. 15.—" Behold I come as a thief."
Rev. xix. 11.—" I saw heaven opened, and behold a white
horse, and he that sat upon him.....is called the
Word of God."
Rev. xxii. C20—" He which testifieth these things, saith,
surely I come quickly."
No scriptural statement is capable of more decided proof
than, that the coming of Christ is the destruction o£ Jerusalem,
and the close of the Jewish dispensation.1
they say that there arc two monuments at Ephesus, and that each bears the name
of John."—(Eus. Eccles. Hist. vii. 25.) I do not mention tthis to cast any doubt
upon the authorship of the Apocalypse, for the testimony of antiquity may be
said to he universally agreed that the Apocalypse was written by St. John.
This is also confirmed by the internal evidence of the Book: — Compare
" If I will that he tarry till I come/' John, xxi. 22.
" Even so, come,, Lord Jesus." Rev. xxii. 20.
" Behold the Lamb of God." John, i. M.
"A Lamb stood on the Mount Sion." Rev. xiv. 1.
li In the beginning was the Word." John, i. 1.
(( His name is called the Word of God.*' Rev. xix. 13.
" They shall look on him whom they pierced." John, xix, 37.
" Every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him." Rev. 1. 7-
These and many other interesting peculiarities of style and language, found
only in the Apocalypse and in the Gospel of St. John, render it highly pro-
bable that he was the author. These doubts of Eusebius are only adduced to
show that no great dependence can be placed upon him with regard to any
decision respecting the date, and if that in his opinion, the claim to authorship
was not completely settled, bis testimony with regard to the date must neces-
sarily be looked upon as liable to suspicion.
1 Bishop Newton says : " Our Saviour's repeating so frequently in this
book,—'Behold, I come quickly;' l Behold, he cometh with clouds, and

10 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. OUcx. I.
At this part of the subject I cannot stop to adduce the many
and varied proofs which establish this—a few must suffice : —
Matt, xxiv. 29.—"Immediately after the tribulation of
those days.....they shall see the Son of Man
coming in the clouds of heaven/*
Mark xiii. 24___"In those days, after that tribulation
. . . . then shall they see the Son of Man coming- in the
clouds with power and great glory."
Luke XXK 22—27—" These be the days of vengeance . . .
for there shall be great distress in the land, eVt TTjsyrJs, Judaxi,
and wrath upon this people, but woe to them that are with child
and to them that give suck in those days , . . . they
shall fall by the edge of the sword .... and Jeru-
salem shall he trodden down of the Gentiles .... and
then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with
power and great glory."
Nothing can be plainer than that our Lord said his advent
should take place, according to St. Matthew, " Immediately
after the tribulation of those days;" according to St. Mark,
"In those days after that tribulation;" according to St.
Luke, when 4f Jerusalem should be trodden down of the
Gentiles" and there should be " yreat distress in the land and
ivrath upon this people" At that time, and at no other, did
our Lord say that he would come. At the outset, then, I state
with what may be thought great boldness, but with the
strongest conviction of truth, that the coming of Christ is the
destruction of Jerusalem, and the close of the age, crwreXeta
TOV aloivos, and that no other coming is spoken of in the
Scriptures.
If so, and the Apocalypse be written after the destruction
of Jerusalem, it must be the work of some higher arch-enemy
than Cerinthus, for it represents Christ as yet to come after
the object for which he said he would come had been fulfilled.
And be it remembered, the proof of our Lord's coming at
every eye shall see him ;' and the like expressions, cannot surely be so well
understood of any event as of the destruction of Jerusalem ; which coining
was also spoken of in the Gospels; and what other coming was there HO
speedy, and so conspicuous ?" Add to this, "they ulso which pierced him, '
were to look upon him ; and who were they " which pierced him " but the
Jews ?

LECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE* 11

that period does* not depend upon the Apocalypse. That truth
would have remained the same had the Apocalypse never been
written. The Apocalypse only confirms the statements in the
Gospels. It is only when viewed as written after that event
that the whole question is encircled with irreconcileable diffi-
culties. For if the Gospels and Epistles state explicitly that
Christ was to come within a certain defined period, and for a
certain defined object, and the Apocalypse represents him as yet
to corne, after that event had taken place, and that period
passed away, not only is Scripture set against Scripture, hut
the whole of the sacred canon is involved in one irremediable
mass of contradiction and mystery.

2. The woes of the Apocalypse (and I presume I may take it
for granted that the Book from the opening- of the first seal to
the final consummation of the destruction of Babylon, is one
unmixed and uninterrupted series of terrible calamity) are said
to fall upon the dwellers in a particular land, upon the Princes
and Lords, and merchants of a particular land, and upon a par-
ticular city.

These are described as " they that dwell on the earth,"1 "01
ovvres CTTC T^9 y??9«" " The kings of the earth," " )8a~
rfjs yr?9." " The great men of the earth," " p.ey toravcs
7779." " The merchants of the earth," " e/u-Tropot rrjs
"The great city which had dominion over the kings of
the earth," " rj 710X15 rj ptyokri rj e^ovcra fiao'iXeiav CTTI raw

Let us see first whether the woes of the Apocalypse descend
upon " them that dwell on the earth."
This can be confirmed by numerous passages scattered
everywhere throughout the Book, thereby proving that the
Apocalypse embraces only one grand subject, and that the
miseries about to fall on one particular people.
" Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth," (Rev.
1 " They that dwell on the earth," CTTI r//c y*k — m every passage this
uityht to bv translated, "ON THE LAND,"*'.*', the land of Judsen. Compare
Luke, xxi. 23. : ** there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon
this people," — 4*'"Koreu yap untyo; pfyaXrj irrl rrjfc yJ/C» Kdt opyy iv TM \af
Tovru" — where our translators, driven to the right meaning of the words by
the qualifying clause, " this people,'* have translated CTT* r//c yyc *' in the
land/'

12 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. L
viii. 13.) " Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the
sea/' (Rev. xii. 12.) "And there fell a noisome and a
grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast,
and which worshipped his image," (Rev. xvi. 2.) Now the
men who had " the mark of the beast, and who worshipped his
image," are defined as " they that dwell on the earth." " And
all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him," «. e. the
beast, (Rev. xiii. 8.) " He . . , causeth the earth and them
that dwell therein to wrorship the first beast," (Rev. xiii. 12.)
66 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth . . . saying
to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an
image," (Rev. xiii. 14.) (Compare also Rev. iii. 10., Rev.
vi. 10., Rev. xvii. 2., Rev. xvii. 8.) I trust then it will be
admitted as an irrefragable position, that the woes of the Apo-
calypse were to foil upon a particular people specially marked
out and defined as " Them that dwell on the earth."
Now who are " they that dwell on the earth ?"
The words " the earth," "^ y^," are not unfrequently used
in the Apocalypse in connection with other clauses which qua-
lify their meaning, making it evident that no particular land is
pointed out, but the earth generally. I would adduce in support
of this such passages as the following :—" And no man in
heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth,77 (Rev. v. o.) ;
" And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth,
and under the earth, and such as are in the sea," (Rev. v.
13. So also Rev. xi. ()., xiv. 7»? xviii. 1., xx. U. &c.) In
all which passages it is at once evident from the qualifying
adjuncts that no particular land can be intended, but the earth
generally as part of creation.
In some other passages, the obscurity of which does not
admit of a positive interpretation, it is possible that the earth
generally or a particular land may be intended. I allude to
such texts as "The seven spirits of God sent forth into all
the earth," (Rev. v. 6.); "The stars of heaven fell to the
earth," (Rev. vi. 13.) ; " And he set his right foot upon the
sea, and his left foot on the earth," (Rev. x. 2.) ; although,
if we bring our Lord's prophecies and the prevailing opinions
of the Jews into the scale, it will seem most probable that a
particular land was intended. But the words in question are
sometimes found qualified by governing considerations whichLECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. ' 13
define and determine their meaning, and this is always the
case, when they are found in connection with the governing
clause " they that dwell," " ot /carot/cowres." Then they have,
and can have, only one meaning ; then they refer only to one
land and to one people ; and this land and this people must be
the land and people of Judiea.
This will be reduced to demonstration from a consideration of
the passages in which these words occur.
They are found put in apposition and contradistinction to
" every tongue and kindred, and people and nation," " iraora
<j>v\r) /cat yXwcrcTT?, /cat Xaos *at €0vo$" It is well known
that one only land claimed this distinction ; one only people as-
serted this separation from the Gentile world. The Greeks
were not more anxious to be held distinct from the Barbarians,
than the Jews from the heathen,—than "they that dwell on
the earth," from the tongues, and kindreds, and peoples, and
nations.
The first passage which I shall bring forward in proof of
this is Rev. vii. 4., where the 144,000 are said to be sealed
" of all the tribes of the children of Israel." By turning to
Rev. xiv. 3., it will be found that the same 144,000 are said
to be " redeemed from the earth" These are contrasted (Rev.
vii. 9«) with " a great multitude ... of all nations and kindreds,
and people and tongues." Here it is evident that the 144,000
of all the tribes, defined as the " redeemed from the earth," are
put in apposition to " the great multitude . . . of all nations and
kindreds, and people and tongues." The inference is un-
avoidable that the writer of the Book intended to draw a dis-
tinction between Jew and Gentile, between the sealed " of all
the tribes of the children of Israel," (and these tribes are enu-
merated by name in order to show that a literal Israel is in-
tended,) and the gathered from "all nations and kindreds, and
people and tongues ;" and by comparing Rev. vii. 4. with Rev.
xiv. 3. it is made matter of positive certainty that the " re-
deemed from the earth" are identical with the sealed from "all
the tribes of the children of Israel." This at once gives us
the position we contend for, that " the earth " is the land of
Juda»a.
Rev. xi. 9. 10. " And they of the people and kindreds and&ATI OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.
tongues mid nations shall see, &c. ... and they that dwell
upon the earth shall rejoice over them/'
Rev, xiii. 7, 8. " And power was given unto him over all
kindreds, and tongues, and nations, and all that dwell upon
the earth shall worship him/'
Ilev. xiv, 0. " And I saw another angel . . . having the
everlasting1 Gospel to preach unto them that dwell on tlte earth,
and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people."
In all these passages there is a marked antithesis between the
Jew and the Gentile, a distinction evident to the simplest
comprehension. The Jew is described by that title which be-
longs to him alone, and which is never used in this Book in
any other sense but as defining that peculiar people who were
separate from the Gentile world. The heathen, on the other
hand, are appropriately distinguished by the name by which the
Jew ever recognised them,— the one as " they that dwell upon
the earth;" the other, as "the nations, and kindreds, and
tongues, and people."
The same argument may be drawn from the consideration of
those texts in which the expression "the kings of the earth"
occurs, in contradistinction to other clauses which serve to define
and particularise its meaning. And here again I should wish
to take it for granted that the woes of the Apocalypse descend
upon the "kings of the earth" as well as upon "them that
dwell on the earth." This will not require any elaborate proof.
Under the Sixth Seal the kings of the earth and the great men
hide themselves from the approaching vengeance, calling upon
the mountains and rocks, almost in the identical language pre-
dicted by our Lord, " Fall on us, and hide us from the face of
him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of "the
Lamb." (Rev. vi. 16.) At the destruction of Great Babylon
the kings of the earth "bewail and lament for her when they
see the smoke of her burning." (Rev. xviii. 9.)
It will then hardly be denied that the woes of the Apocalypse
come on princes and lords, who are called kings of the earth,
as well as upon the inhabiters of the earth.
Is there then any clue by which we may discover who are
meant by the kings of the earth ? (Rev. xvi. IC2. 14.) They
are mentioned in opposition to the "kings of the East" and theLBCT.I.] DATS OF TEE APOCALYPSE. 15

king's " of the whole world." ] This is a very remarkable dis-
tinction. They are the princes of a particular land which main-
tained a separation from every other country, which held itself
aloof from the " whole world'7 of imperial Rome, and the hinds
inhabited by the people of the East. This in the uniform lan-
guage of history and Scripture can only be Judaea.

The same distinction is observable in Rev..xviii. 3. : "For
all nations, effiny, have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her
fornication, and the kings of the earth, 7179 9/775, have com-
mitted fornication with her." So also Rev. xxi. 24. : "And
the nations, tdvrj, of them that are saved shall walk in the lioht
of it, and the kings of the earth, rfjs 7775, do bring their glory
and honour into it."

It is most evident that the writer of the Apocalypse (a book
everywhere abounding with the most forcible and magnificent
contradistinctions and appositions) intended by these striking
points of contrast to define and to determine the princes of that
particular land which ever vaunted its superiority in point of
privilege above the heathen world.

The same argument, which however I shall not now pursue,
is applicable to the expression "the merchants of the earth,"
€p,7ropOL TT}9 7779, as contrasted with "all nations," TTCLVTQ* ra
tOm) (Rev. xviii. 3. ; Rev. xviii. 23.).

I may now take it lor granted that the woes of the Apoca-
lypse descend upon a particular city as well as upon the inhabit-
ants and princes of a particular land. ISow that city (every-

1 " The kings of the earth," r?/c ync, are not the kings of the Gentile na-
tions, or they would be called " o\ fia<ri\ug ru)r ctti'wt' (Luke, xxii. 25.),
and not " oi /3a*ri/\f7c T*J/C )""/€" They are not identical with " <>l ctKa /xt-
ffiXecc . . . TOV $t]frivv (Rev. xvii. 12.) ; for these are not called " oi. ftatriXuc
TJ/C yJ/r-" Nay, it is said of them that they shall hate the whore, fc // t^ovtra
ftctfTi\f.iai' lir\ Tu>r fittffiKiw n/e ytj<; ;" it would be impossible for them to hate
and destroy the " whore which reigneth over the kings of the earth," and be
themselves *' the kings of the earth." Added to this, Clement calls the king
of Jericho ao /Jao-iXevc riJQ yijff," (Epist. i. 12.) ; and Herod and Pontius
Pilate, the rulers of Judfca, are called " the kings of the earth" (Acts, iv. 26*.)
It is most evident that a distinction was intended to he made between "the
kings of the East,—te TUH> (two UVCITO\£V i/X/oi;," defined by St. Clement to
mean " ai/<m>Xu-w ro/roc, TOVT* trrrir oi ire pi Tt}v 'ApaS/ar,*' (Epist. i. ad
Cor. 25.), "the kings of the whole world,"—ri/<; oiKovjjiivtjs o'X?/c,—of Im-
perial Home, — and " the kings of the earth,"— r>;£ y;Jc, — Judwa1ft

BATK OF THE APOCALYPSE, [LECT. L

where mentioned in the Apocalypse as the subject of divine

wrath) is defined as "that great city which reigneth over the

Kings of the earth." If "they that dwell on the earth," as opposed

to the heathen, can only be the Jewish people ; if " the kings of

the earth," as distinct from the kings of the East and of the

whole world, can only be the princes of Judaea ; then " the great

city which reigneth over the kings of the earth " can only be

Jerusalem.

It will be satisfactory to find that the same argument which
we have as yet employed, is applicable to our present posi-
tion ; and that the city which is the object of the woes of the
Apocalypse is ever held distinct from the cities of the heathen.
Rev. xvi. 19. The city is contrasted with the cities of the
nations : " And the great city was divided into three parts, and
the cities of the nations, eQvatv, fell, and Great Babylon came
in remembrance before God."

Nothing can be more evident than that a marked contrast is
here intended to be kept up between the great city which came
into remembrance before God, and the cities of the nations,

Rev. xi. C2. — " The holy city shall they (the Gentiles,
tread under foot." Or, according to St. Luke, xxi. 24. —
" Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles." The dis-
tinction drawn between the Gentiles who should tread down
" the holy city," and that city which alone could claim this
unique title of separation, is so plain, that there hardly seemed
a necessity for the author of the Apocalypse to render his
meaning still more intelligible by defining that holy city as
"the great city where also our Lord was crucified." — Rev.
xi. 8. ~
In Rev. xvii. 1. mention is made of " the great whore," and
"The many waters." In verses 15, 18, the "waters" are ex-
plained to mean " peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and
tongues," and "the woman" " the great city which reigneth
over the kings of the earth." Here is another clear point of
antithesis between the metropolis of Judam, over which " the
kings of the earth" lament (Rev. xviii. {))> an(l fr°m whose
approaching miseries "the kings of the earth" hide them-
selves (Rev. vi. 15.), and "the peoples, and multitudes, and
nations, and tongues," of the heathen world ; and it is worthy

LECT. I] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 17
of observation that this distinction is found in a passage which
is a definition of the symbols of verse 1. and where it is
evident that the author, as in his previous delineation of " the
great city77 by the significant phrase " Where also our Lord
was crucified" or of "the great dragon" by " That old
serpent called the Devil or Satan," intended to give an intelli-
gible explanation of the symbols employed.
The argument then resolves itself into this :—Either the
woes of the Apocalypse hare fallen upon this particular
people, princes, and city, or they hare yet to fall upon this
particular people, princes, and city.
For it cannot be too strongly stated that the terrific symbols
of the Apocalypse do not fall upon the dwellers on the whole
world, oiKov/mevr), upon the princes and merchants of the
Gentiles, edvr), or upon more than one city, and that, not a city
of the nations, Wvri, but a city having* dominion over the
"kings of the earth.77 That from the beginning to the end of
this mysterious volume one only people are the subjects of
vengeance, and no vengeance is denounced on any other. One
only city conies into remembrance before God ; the princes and
merchants of one only laud experience the vengeance of the
Almighty ; and these are from first to last put into distinct
contrast with the rest of mankind.
It will give me no trouble to show that they have so fallen.
I answer at once, in the words of St. Barnabas, " So it is,"
" and it has come to pass us the Lord hath spoken "—" Tivt-
rai." " KCU eyeVero Kaff a tXdXr/cre Kvpios" (S. Barnabas
Epist. 1(5.) This is so certain that nothing more need be said.
It will not be so easy to show that the woes of the Apocalypse
have yet to fall upon the Jewish people.
According to popular theories, the kings of the East, trans-
formed into the people of the Jews, although the Jews never
considered or spoke of themselves as the people of the East,
are to be gathered unto their own land ; Jewish millionaires
are to repurchase Palestine ; Jerusalem is to be rebuilt with a
splendour hitherto unequalled ; Christ is to come and reign on
an earthly throne; Christianity is to go back into Judaism
instead of Judaism being transfused into Christianity ; and
the Jews are to be the authors of the complete conversion
of the human race.

18 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LBCT. I.
What then becomes of the woes of the Apocalypse ? In
that case we must suppose that the language of this Book,
not one word of which was to be taken from or added to,
was ironical. We must reverse the dirge of this Book of
blood into the Te Detim of thrilling victory. We must say
"Peace, peace, peace!" and not " Woe, woe, woe to the in-
habiters of the earth !"
But not to pursue this chain of thought further, I shall
hope it may be considered proved that the woes of the Apo-
catypse descend upon a particular people, princes, and city.
That this particular people, princes, and city, are contrasted
with heathen nations, heathen princes, and heathen cities.
That one only people, rulers, and city, claimed this isolated
and peculiar position ; and this people, dynasty, and city, are
the people, dynasty, and city of Jiuhen.
That the whole argument may fairly be resolved into this :
~ «/ j
either the woes of the Apocalypse have fallen, or have yet to
fall, upon this particular people, princes, and city ; that there
is evidence complete and satisfactory that the woes of the Apo-
calypse have fallen upon this land, princes, and city ; that there
is not evidence to justify the expectation they have yet to fall
upon this particular people, princes, and city, inasmuch as the
people are no more a people, and the city no more the holy city
of God ; and that even on the supposition the holy city and
people should be once more restored, the whole foundation of
such restoration proceeds on the principle riot of their being
subject to such woes as are predicted in the Apocalypse, but of
their being once more the favoured people of God ; their city
once more the joy of the whole earth ; the Saviour, whom
they once rejected in their obstinacy, proclaiming from Zion
his universal law; and the throne of the new and earthly
Jerusalem filled by Him who is " King of Kings and Lord
of Lords."
3. 8t. John speaks of the Jeirs as still e.vistiny as a people,
and of the temple and city of Jerusalem as still standing, wl^cli
was not the case in the days of JJomitian.
In Rev. vii., the 144,000 are said to be sealed from the
twelve1 tribes of Israel. This supposes that Israel had not yet
1 Jt may be objected, tbat ten of the twelve tribes did not return from the
Assyrian captivity. But it is an answer to this to Bay, that in our Lord'sLECT. L] BATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 19

been led away captive into all nations ; for how could they be
sealed from the twelve tribes of Israel, after the complete dis-
persion and annihilation of the Jewish people, which took place
at the close of the Jewish dispensation ?

In Rev. xi. John is commissioned to " measure the temple,
the altar, and the worshippers." The outer court he is to leave
out, for it is to be " given unto the Gentiles, and the holy city
shall they tread under foot forty and two months/'

This places the date of the book anterior to the destruction
of the temple under Titus ; it is impossible that such a com-
mand could have been given, if "not one stone of the temple
had remained upon another which Lad not been thrown down.'*
liev. xi. 8.—The bodies of the two witnesses are said to
" Jie in the street of the great city, spiritually called Sodom
and Egypt/' Even this is not sufficient for St. John ; to re-
move all possibility of doubt as to what city is meant, he adds,
" Where also our Lord iras crucified" l

Hovv can we avoid the conclusion, that Jerusalem was the
city specified, and that the prediction was written before its
desolation.

It is no answer to say, this is a " petitio principii" begging
the question, as it is called,—and that we are assuming that
St. John means a literal people who are to be sealed, a literal
temple, and a literal city. They ley the question, who, in de-
fiance of plain statements to the contrary? assume that St. John
does not mean the twelve tribes, or the Jewish temple, or the
city " where our Lord was crucified/' True, the Apocalypse
is an allegorical and symbolical composition, but under that
symbol and allegory there is always a literal meaning. It is

time the Jewish people were still spoken of under the name of the twelve tribes.
Thus we find him saying to his disciples, " Ye shall sit on twelve thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel." " Unto which promise our twelve tribes,
instantly serving God day and night, hope to come."— Acts, xxvi. 7.
* The figurative language of the Apocalypse is often explained in the Apo-
calypse itself. Thus the city spiritually called Sodom and Egypt is defined
as the u city where our Lord was crucified." Thus the woman spiritually
called f< Babylon the Great/' is defined as " that great city which reigneth
over the kings of the earth.'' Thus "the Great Red Dragon," is defined as
that " Old Serpent called the Devil and Satan.*1 To my mind, it is as impious
to doubt the literal meaning of these explanations, as to doubt the literal
meaning given by our Lord of some of his parables

20 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.
nothing more or less than a revelation of things shortly to
come to pass, clothed in a symbolic dress ; and how absurd it
would be to look only for a symbolic meaning in such a reve-
lation. This view, if fully carried out, would reduce all truths
and duties indicated by symbolic teaching into mere tropes and
figures.
4. Rev. xvii.—The date of the Apocalypse is defined with
great clearness and precision.
A woman is seen sitting on a " scarlet- coloured Beast." That
scarlet-coloured Beast is Rome.
The Beast has seven heads, which are explained to mean
seven mountains, and also to signify seven kings.
" Five of these kings are fallen," says St. John, " and one
?,v,"—one was in existence at the time of the writing of the
Apocalypse.
This fixes the date of the book to the reign of Nero. Five
emperors had fallen when St. John was banished to Patmos by
Nero, and St. John wrote the book during the reign of the
sixth. It is worthy of notice, that, according to the Jewish
mode of reckoning the emperors of Rome, Nero was the sixth
emperor. Josephus tells us (and his testimony is very valuable,
because it shows the manner in which the Jews of that day
reckoned the Roman emperors) that "Augustus was the second
ernperor.5>
Julius Caesar, then, was the first; Augustus the second ;
Tiberius, third ; Cains, or Caligula, fourth ; Claudius, fifth :
these were the five who had fallen, " anil one. is,"—Nero, the
sixth, under whose reign of terrible persecution the Apocalypse
was written.
This fixes the date of the Apocalypse completely.
Nero died A. D. 68 ; Jerusalem fell A. I). 70 > consequently
the Apocalypse must have been written previous to the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem.
5. Another argument which serves to corroborate the Neronic
date of the Apocalypse may be drawn from the circumstances
under which the book was written.
The most superficial reader of the book must see it was
written in times of great and terrible persecution ; and that
one of the prominent designs of the book was to animate, en-
courage, confirm, and strengthen the Church under those per-
secutions.

LECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 21
The author of the book sets out with the statement, that he,
their " companion and brother in tribulation," " was in the isle
that is called Patmos,for the word of God and for the testi-
mony of Jesus Christ"
The addresses to the Seven Churches are full of exhortations
to persevere under their fiery trials, and abound with promises
of victory.
The Church of Ephesus is commended for its "patience"
and because it had " iw\, fainted." That of Smyrna is told to
" fear none of those things which it should suffer" and to be
" faithful unto death" Pergamos is praised, because it had
not " denied the faith even in those days wherein Antipas the
faithful martyr teas slain amony them" Thyatira is lauded for
its " faith and patience." Sardis is bid "to watch" It is
promised to Philadelphia, that it should be kept from " the
hour of temptation, which should come on all the world." The
warning is given to Laodicea, "as many as I love I rebuke
and chasten;" and the Epistles to each of the Seven Churches
conclude with a promise connected with the glories of the first
resurrection to " him that ovcrcometh," an expression evidently
alluding to martyrdom.
Nor are these encouragements to patience, and promises of
victory, confined to the Seven Churches: the same views are
everywhere scattered throughout the book.
Chap. vi. 9. discloses " under the altar the souls of those
slain for the If^ord of God, and for the testimony which they
held."
Chap. vii. 14. unfolds the glorious condition of those who
had come out "ofyreat tribulation, and had washed their robes,
and had made them white in the blood of the Lamb."
Jn Chap, xvii., Great Babylon is said to be " drunken with
the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of
Jesus."
Chap. xx. represents the " souls of those beheaded for the
witness of Jesus, and for the word of God," living and reigning
wUh Christ 1,000 years.
It is plain from these encouragements to perseverance, and
from these promises of reward to those who should be "faithful
unto death," that the Apocalypse was written in the midst of
a furious and savage persecution, and that one of its principal
c 3

22 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LKCT. I.
objects was to support and animate the Church under this per-
secution. Now were these the circumstances of the Church
nnder the reign of Nero f
Orosius says :—" Nero first persecuted the Christians at
Rome by torture and death, and he commanded that in all the
provinces1 they should be tormented with the like persecution/'
—Historic, vii. 7.
Tertullian :—"Consult your edicts, (commentarios vestros,)
there you will find that Nero was the first who savagely perse-
cuted this sect, then chiefly springing up at Rome, with the im-
perial sword.—Apol. v.
Eusebius : — "Nero . . . began to take up arms against
that very religion which acknowledges the one supreme God.
he was the first of the emperors that displayed
himself an enemy of piety towards the Deity. . . . thus
Nero publicly announcing himself as the chief enemy of God,
was led on in his fury to slaughter the Apostles ; Paul is there-
fore said to have been beheaded at Rome, and Peter to have
been crucified under him/'—Eccles. Hist. ii. 25.
Sulpicius Severus speaks of Nero as first endeavouring to
extinguish the name of Christians : "The (Christian) religion
was forbidden by the enactment of laws (datis Jegihus) and by
edicts published (edictfs propositis, the commenfarios vesfros of
TertulJian), it was lawful for no one openly to be a Christian."—
Historhe Sacra*, ii. 28.
Observe. — No Roman emperor had hitherto persecuted
Christianity'; no public edicts had been issued against the dis-
ciples of Jesus. But now the "fiery trial " began in earnest —
"the hour of temptation came which was to try all that dwell
on the earth." According to our Lord's prediction, the furnace
was heated seven times more than it was wont to be heated, in
the period immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem.
Apostacy, the consequence of this furious persecution, rose up
of so horrid a kind, that the ties of nature were forgotten in the
severity of the affliction,— the apostacy which our Lord said
should precede his advent, and to which St. Paul refers
(2 Thess. ii. 2.) : "For that day shall not come except there
1 This is an answer to the statement that Nero's persecution was confined
to the city of Rome, and which would make out that St. John could not have
been banished to Patmos during the reign of Nero.

LECT. I.] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 23
come a falling1 away first"—9Eav pr) t\0r) ^ diroKarao-ia
TrpwToV) the falling away—the well-known apostacy respect-
ing which the Lord had forewarned his Church.
" And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one
another, and shall hate one another, and many false prophets
shall rise and shall deceive many, and because iniquity shall
abound, the love of many shall wax cold."—Matt. xxiv. 10,
11, 12.
" Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the
father the son ; and children shall rise up against their parents,
and cause them to be put to death, and ye shall be hated of all
men for my name's sake, but he that shall endure unto the end
the same shall be saved."—Mark, xiii. 12, 13.
It is no wonder that the later epistles of the New Testament
should abound with premonitory warnings and exhortations to
courage and perseverance under the coming sorrows, and that the
Christian converts should b(j admonished "not to think it strange
concerning the fiery trial which was to try them, as though
some strange thing happened to them."—1 Peter, iv. 1£.
(j. To this it may be added, that reference appears to be
made to the Revelation in the Epistles of St. Peter, St. Paul,
and St. James.1 It is supposed that allusion is made to the
1 " The Apocalypse seems to be alluded to in the Epistles of Peter and that
to the Hebrews, and therefore to have been written before them. Such allu-
sions in the Epistle to the Hebrews I take to be the discourses concerning the
high priest in the heavenly tabernacle, who is both priest and king, as was
Melehizedec ; and those concerning the Word of God, with the sharp two-
edged sword ; the Sfibhutiauioji, or millennial rest; the earth, whose end is to
be burnt, suppose by the lake of fire; the judgment and fiery indignation
which shall devour the adversaries; the heavenly city which hath foundations,
whose builder and maker is <»od ; the cloud of witnesses; Mount Sion ;
Heavenly Jerusalem ; general assembly ; spirits of just men made perfect —
namely, by the resurrection ; and the shaking of heaven and earth and re-
moving them, that the new heaven, new earth, and new kingdom, which
cannot be shaken, may remain. In the first of Peter occur these—f The
Revelation of Jesus Christ/ twice or thrice repeated : f the blood of Christ,
as of a lamb fore-ordained before the foundation of the world ;' (the spiritual
building in Heaven;' ' an inheritance incorruptible and undetiled, and that
fadeth not away, reserved in Heaven for us, who are kept unto the salvation
ready to be revealed in the last time;' ' the royal priesthood;' * the holy
priesthood;' 'the judgment beginning at the house of (Sod;* and * the
Church at Babylon/ These are, indeed, obscurer allusions ; but the second
Epistle, from the l<)th verse of first chapter to the end, seems to l)e a con-
c 4

24 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE, [LKCT. L
Apocalypse, 2 Peter i. 19., where it is said :—" We have also
a more sure word of prophecy, whereunto ye do well that ye
take heed as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the
day dawn and the day-star arise in your hearts.'7 It is singu-
lar that St. Peter is speaking of the second advent, " the power
and coining," 8iW/uz> KOL TrapovcrlaV) of the Lord Jesus, and
he says that not only were they, Peter, James, and John, eye-
witnesses of the glory which he displayed on Tnbor, but that
they had a " more sure \v,ml " of prophetic development of His
tinued commentary upon UIP Apocalypse. There, in writing to the Churches
in Asia, to whom John was commanded to send this prophecy, he tells them
they 'have a more sure word of prophecy,9 to be heeded by them { as a light
that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise in
their hearts;' .... ami then, in the second, he proceeds to describe, out
of this sure word of prophecy, how there should arise in the Church false pro.
phfcts or false teachers, expressed collectively in the Apocalypse by the name
of the false prophet, who should * bring in damnable heresies, even denying
the Lord who bought them,' which is the character of Antichrist: ' and
many,' saith he, ' shall follow their lusts ;' they that dwell on the earth shall
be deceived by the false prophet, and be made drunk with the wine of the
whore's fornication, ' by reason of whom, the way of truth shall be blas-
phemed;' for the beast is full of blasphemy; * and through covetousness
shall they, with feigned words, make merchandise of you ;' for these are the
merchants of the earth, who trade with the great whore, and their merchan-
dise is all things of price, with the bodies and souls of men ; ( whose judg-
ment lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not."......f These,
as natural brute beasts/ — the ten-horned beast, and two-horned beast, or
false prophet— ( made to be taken and destroyed,' — in the lake of fire,—
* blaspheme the things they understand not;' ' they count it pleasure to riot
in the day-time, sporting themselves with their own dcceivings while they
feast with you, having eyes full of adulteries;' for the kingdoms of the
beast live deliciously with the great whore, and the nations are made drunk
with the wine of her fornication. They ' are gone astray, following the way
of lialaam, the son of Beor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness/
4 These are/ not fountains of living water, but 'wells without water;' not
such clouds of saints as the two -witnesses ascend in, but ( clouds that are
carried with a tempest/ £c. Thus doth the author of this Epistle spend all
the second chapter in describing the qualities of the Apocalyptic beasts and
false prophet; and then, in the third, he goes on to describe their destruc-
tion more fully, and the future kingdom. lie saith, that because the coming
of Christ should be long deferred, they should scoff, saying, ' Where is the
promise of his coming ?' Then he describes the sudden coming of the day
of the Lord upon them, 'as a thief in the night/ which is the Apocalyptic
phrase ; and the millennium, or thousand years, which are with God but as a
day ; the passing away of the old heavens and earth, by a conflagration in the
lake of fire; and our looking * for new heavens and a new earth, wherein
dwelleth righteousness/— Sir I. Newton.

LECT. L] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 25
powerful coming1, and that this was to be their guide " until the
day dawned and the day-star, (frajcr^opos (used of the first re-
surrection, Rev. ii. 28.) arose in their hearts." It is true this
may refer to the prophetic declarations of our Lord in the Gos-
pels, but it applies more closely to " the revelation," 'ATTQKOL\V^L<;,
of Jesus Christ made known unto John.
So Cor. xv. 52.:—"Behold I shew you a mystery,—we
shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed in a moment, in
the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump." We turn to the
Apocalypse, and find that the sounding of the seventh and last
trump is "the time of the dead that they should be judged, and
that tJiou shouhlest give reward unto thy servants the prophets,
and to (he saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great."
— Kev. xi. 18. >Six trumpets had already been sounded, but
not till the sounding of the seventh and last is the mystery
of God finished, — the mystery spoken of by St. Paul:
" Behold I shew you a mystery ; we shall not all sleep, but
we shall all be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of
an eye, at the last trump." How did St. Paul know this
should take place at the last trump, except from the Apoca-
lypse, for it is no where else revealed in Scripture. So St.
James speaks of " the crown of life which the Lord hath pro-
mised to them that love Him." (James, i. 12.) And as this is
not mentioned by our Lord in the Gospels, it is by no means
improbable but that St. James learnt this from the Apocalypse,
(Rev. ii. 10.).
This reference to the Apocalypse in the Epistles, like the
evidence afforded to the existence of the true Apocalypse by the
false Apocalypses1 ascribed to Peter, Paul, Cerinthus, and others,
not only confirms the position of the early date, but shows that
it was highly prized in those last and perilous times, and that as
1 "The Neronic date is confirmed also by the many false Apocalypses, as
those of Peter, Paul, Thomas, Stephen, Klias, and Cerinthus, written in imi-
tation of the true one. For, as the many false Gospels, false Acts, and false
Epistles, were occasioned by the true ones,—and the writing many false Apo-
calypses, and ascribing them to Apostles and Prophets, argues that there
was a true Apostolic one in great request with the first Christians,—so this true
one may well be supposed to have been written early, that there may be room
in the Apostolic age for the writing of so many false ones afterwards, and
fastening them upon Peter, Paul, Thomas, and others, who were dead before
John." — Sir 1. Newton.

26 BATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. [LECT. I.
a prophetic vision of coming events, it answered those purposes
of warning and encouragement which it was intended to serve.
There cannot be the slightest doubt but that the warnings of the
Apocalypse were perfectly intelligible to the Jewish Christians
of those days. They could not fail to understand that its woes
were about to descend upon that particular people, and princes,
and city, so unmistakeably distinguished from the people,
princes, and cities of the Gentiles. They could have had no
misgivings as to who were meant by " they that dwell on the
earth," " the kings of the earth," " the merchants of the
earth," arid " the city which reigneth over the kings of the
earth." If we add to this the extraordinary fact that the pro-
phecies of our Lord relative to the destruction of Jerusalem are
not recorded by St. John in his Gospel, although he was one of
those four who asked him privately "Tell us when shall these
things be," which can be best accounted for by the circum-
stance of a special Revelation having rendered such a detail un-
necessary,— the abundant JJc/>raisms of the Apocalypse proving
that the writer had only JateJv come out of Jti<l«pa,— the con-
tinual mention of a city, defined as " the /io/y cff//>" " t/n' fac-
tored city" which can only mean Jerusalem,—the desolation of
this city so graphically foretold, which corresponds with the
desolation of no other city so completely as Jerusalem,—and, not
least of all, the utter impossibility of any intelligible system of
interpretation being found (as the history of the exegesis of this
Book abundantly testifies), except that which proceeds upon the
principle of the Neronic date, — this combined, will, it is hoped,
form so strong a phalanx of internal evidence respecting the
question of the date, as to leave no reasonable doubt but that
the Apocalypse was written previous to the destruction of
Jerusalem.
To recapitulate this evidence. It appears certain that the
book was written before Christ came to destroy Jerusalem ;
that it was written only just bfforc that event took place, for
the Saviour continually repeats the expression, " Behold I come
quickly;" that it is a description of calamities which either have
fallen, or are yet to fall, upon a particular people and city, and
those the people and city of the Jews ; that it was written before*
the dispersion of the Jewish people, for 144,000 arc* sealed
from the twelve tribes; before the destruction of the Temple,

LECT. I] BATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 27
for John is commanded to measure the Temple ; before the de-
solation of the city, for the bodies of the two witnesses lie in the
TrXareta, the Broad Street of the city "where our Lord was
crucified;" that it was written during the reign of the sixth
Roman emperor Nero, and tinder circumstances of unwonted
and terrible persecution, such as characterised Nero's reign. If
you add to this, the interpretation about to be laid before you,
in which every symbol of the Apocalypse finds an explanation
more or less clear, not roaming over thousands of years, but
confined and narrowed down to the three years and a half of the
Jewish war, I trust you will be disposed to acknowledge that I
have not rashly adopted the theory of the Neronic date, and
that instead of seeking in the Apocalypse a history of the
world and of the Church, from the commencement of Christi-
anity down to the end of time, I have sufficient reason for
preferring to regard the book in the light in which it is pre-
sented to us by the unerring* Spirit of God.
"The revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave unto him
to shew unto his servants things ivhich must shortly come to
pass."—Rev. i. 1.
"The Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew
unto his servants the things which must shortly be done"—.
Rev. xxii. ().
" Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book, for
the time is at hand"—Rev. xxii. 10.
" I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify these things unto
you in the churches"—Rev. xxii. 16.
" He which testifieth these things, saith, surely I come
quickly"—Rev. xxii. 20.
" Blessed is lie that readeth, and they that hear the words
of this prophecy, and keep the things which are written
therein, j#>r the time is at hand"—Rev. i. 3.
And here at the very outset I would call attention to the
fact recorded in the Apocalypse itself, that the book opens
with a declaration that it is the revelation of events " ir/iich
must shortly come to pass" and closes with the most clear and
positive statements to the same* effect.
I desire this point may be kept in mind. If the explanation
offered be not one and continuous, if the prophecy cannot be
interpreted as a whole, and if the explanation given, not of

28 DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE, [LECT. I.
particular chapters, but of the whole book, is not found to suit
the date and age of the Apocalypse, and no other, the prin-
ciple of such interpretation must be defective, and the right
chord has not been struck. If, on the other hand, an interpre-
tation can be offered, not of isolated passages, but of the whole
subject, and that interpretation not scattered over many
centuries, but referring solely to "the things which were
shortly to come to pass," I do not see how the conclusion is to
be avoided that such an interpretation is more in character with
the aim and object of the book, than any other which includes
the history of distant periods.
Oh that such an interpretation may now be found—that
truth may prevail above error, and fact above fiction ; that
prejudice, especially prejudice against the errors of the Romish
Church, and if possible, aUpreviously formed opinions, might
be laid aside, and \ve migtit now examine this book as it \ve
had never heard of it before I
Let us not be overwhelmed because f/reat names hare pro-
nounced the book unintellit/ible. Let us not be frightened at
the saying of Scaliger, " Calvinus sapit, quod in Apocalypsin
non scripsit"—Calvin showed his wisdom in not writing on the
Apocalypse. Great names often hide great errors. The truth
may yet be found. I can never believe the Apocalypse was
unintelligible to those to whom it was addressed. I could
never suppose, with Moses Stuart, that all Christians belonging
to the seven Churches of Asia did not understand it. I think
they must have done so. If it was a revelation, it must have
been intelligible. If it was addressed to Christ's servants, it
must have been intelligible to them and if it was a revelation
" of things shortly to come to pass," it must have had a
specific reference to t\\v peculiar circumstances of the Church
at that period.
Many of our Lord's parables were difficult to be understood
even by the disciples ; many of them he was obliged to ex-
plain to them privately. But at the period of which we are
now speaking, the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit were
still abundant, and surely tliat Holy Spirit would enable them to
understand their Lord's words. These visions were among
" the mysteries of the kingdom of (jod," the knowledge of
which was given to the disciples; and "visions" like these

LECT. I.] DATE OF THE APOCALYPSE. 29
may have not been uncommon, during the miraculous out-
pouring of the Holy Spirit upon the Church.1
May that Holy Spirit guide and direct us in our attempt at
the further elucidation of this wonderful book, — the book of
which Luther once said, there was no Christ in it, but which
he afterwards found to be all Christ from the beginning to the
end ! I do not believe any one will ever have a clear under-
standing of the New Testament till he has studied the Apo-
calypse ; and by studying the Apocalypse I do not mean
studying the Apocalypse by the help of the Apocalypse, but by
comparing the Apocalypse with the rest of the New Testament
Scriptures.2
And the more such an one studies it, the more he will bless
God that such a glorious revelation of Christ's "appearing* and
kingdom " has been made known unto men, the higher he will
rise in Jifs aspiration to share its transcendent, joys, the deeper
in Jiis own mind will he realise the blessedness especially
promised to students of this book: — "Blessed is he that
readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and
keep those things which are written therein, for the time is
at hand."
1 (( It must be considered that though such visions, being no longer continued
to these latter ages, may warrantably be despised in the pretenders of the present
days : yet we cannot doubt but that at the time this book (Shepherd of St.
Hennas) was written, the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were very
frequent, and we need not question but that such revelations, too, among the,
rest, were communicated to holy men for the benefit of the Church." — Arch-
bishop Wake's Preliminary Discourse on the Shepherd of St. Hernias, p. 383.
2 " Scripture itself seems to have wanted some epitome which should con-
nect its predictions with their final fulfilment with regard to the new dispen-
sation, and thus to present an entire whole to the reader of those and future
times. Such a work, as the Book of the Revelation, therefore, seems not only
to have been wanted for the Churches of those times, but also for those of
every future period, a work in which the believer could view the whole coun-
sel of God completed, and himself made a member of that household whose
foundations had been laid by God himself from the very beginning." — Lee
on Prophecy, p. 2})3.

LECTURE II,
THE SEALED BOOK.
REVELATION, CHAP. v.
1. And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book writ-
ten within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.
2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice,, Who is worthy
to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?
3. And no man in heaven nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to
open the book, neither to look thereon.
4. And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to
read the book, neither to look thereon.
5. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of
the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and
to loose the seven seals thereof.
6. And I beheld, and lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts,
and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having
seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth in
all the earth.
7. And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat
upon the throne.
8. And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty
elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden
<*vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.
9. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book,
and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to
God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation :
10. And hast made us unto our God kings and priests : and we shall reign
on the earth.
11. And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the
throne and the beasts and the elders : and the number of them was ten thou-
sand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands :
12. Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to re-
ceive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory,
and blessing.
13. And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under
the earth, and such as are in the sea, and ail that are in them, heard I saying,
Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the
throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.
14. And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell
down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

LKCT. II.] THE SEALED BOOK. 31
OUR first Lecture embraced the subject of the date of the
Apocalypse. We endeavoured to show that the voice of
antiquity left the question respecting the date an open one, and
one that could only be decided by the internal testimony of the
book itself. We then proceeded to prove that the internal
evidence of the book establishes the date as anterior to the
destruction of Jerusalem.
It is of the greatest importance to understand this clearly,
for the question of the date settles the interpretation of the
Apocalypse ; it is the key-stone of the arch, the chief corner-
stone of the whole foundation. If the Domitianic date be the
true one, the Beast may be the Pope, Great Babylon may
be Home, the three Frogs may be France, and the Unclean
Spirit Tractarianisin ; for the book is of so highly figurative
and allegorical a character, and the nature of its imagery
so general, that it may be applied to almost any event which
has affected the world or the Church, and it would be strange
if, in a review of events from the days of Domitian to the
present time, some circumstances could not be found which
seem more or less clearly to coincide with the Apocalyptic pre-
dictions. If the Ne.ronic date be the true one, of which there
is not a shadow of doubt in my mind, and of which the in-
terpretation about to be offered will afford some additional
evidence, then there must be no suppositions, no enigmas, no
probable coincidences. As far as the elucidation of this book
is concerned, we may burn Gibbon, and allow the Pope to rest
in peace.
An interpretation must be found of the symbols of the Apo-
calypse in the brief space of time (whatever that was) which
intervened between the banishment to Patmos and the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem. We must have no roaming over the history
of 2,000 years ; no transferring of the scene of the apocalyptic
predictions from JiuUea to Paris or Constantinople. There
and then every symbol must receive its accomplishment—there
and then a meaning must be found for every figure. This ren-
ders the task all the more difficult; but if that difficulty can be
overcome, it brings us to the conclusion that we have found the
right clue.
Should a person conversant with the motions of the heavenly
bodies predict the .appearance of a cornet, on a certain day of a.

32 THE SEALED BOOK. [LECT. II.
certain year, and should his predictions be realised, we should
give him credit for knowledge of the principles of his science,
which Jed him to fix accurately the time of the predicted pheno-
menon. But should some person make a rong-Ji guess that a
cornet would be visible during the next fifty years, even if his
prediction did come to pass, we should not give him credit for
any extraordinary sagacity.
So with regard to the principle of the interpretation of the
Apocalypse. According to the one system, every symbol must
meet with its fulfilment at a certain fixed time ; according to
the other, the period during which the symbols are to receive
their fulfilment is almost unlimited. The one is the predic-
tion of the comet on the certain day ; the other the predic-
tion of the same phenomenon at any time during the fifty
years.
Before entering upon the subject of our present Lecture, I
would wish to define the principle upon which I shall endeavour
to be guided in the interpretation of the Apocalypse. It needs
no argument to show that the Apocalypse is a highly figurative
and allegorical composition. Now, the great fault of interpreters
in explaining allegory is the attempt to carry minute explana-
tions too far. This has been the cause of irremediable mischief,
and has originated a host of absurdities and errors.
There is always a Divine truth under eaek symbol,—there
is always a Divine basis under the alleyory, — and this is
the truth to be prominently brouaht forward, the remain-
ing parts of the symbol beiny only helps to finish out the
picture.
This is the case with all allegorical composition.1 Take for
instance the vision which told Nebuchadnezzar of his coming
degradation and dethronement. Dan. iv. 10.
How absurd it would be to insist on a literal interpretation
of every particular of this vision—to compare Nebuchadnezzar
to a literal tree reaching to heaven, in which was meat for all
—to suppose that the beasts of the field must literally get away
from its branches—that the literal stump was to be left in the
1 Take an instance of this in the description of our Lord, chap, v., as " a
Lamb which had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes." Mow ab-
surd it would be to render this symbol literally, or to suppose that the hea-
venly appearance of our Lord was that of a Lamb.

LECT. II,] THE SEALED BOOK. 33
earth—that a literal band of iron or brass was to be bound
round him—that his heart was to be literally taken from his
body, and changed into the heart of a beast.
The general idea is clear enough, that for his pride he should
be condemned to lose his kingdom and his reason, and to fancy
himself a beast for seven years.
" If in Zedekiah's horns of iron we are to understand not
only their strength, which is intimated by the iron, but also the
nature of the iron, whether it be cast iron or steel, and the like,
and also their shape, their mode of fixture to the head, &c.
Then there will be no unity of design in the subject, and by
dwelling on these inferior particulars, we shall diminish or de-
stroy the effect evidently intended by the whole, and finally
perhaps lose entire sight of the intention of the prophet. In
the great image of Daniel no objection can be made to the con-
sideration of the toes being partly of iron, and partly of clay,
for this was evidently intended to show that a mixture of
strength and weakness should exist in the thing predicted, but
we contend that this was the main and principal thing incul-
cated, and not that these toes should be counted and dissected
so as to intimate a definite number of other particulars."—Lee
on Prophecy, p. &23.
Take again our Lord's allegories or parables,—for instance,
that of a " certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and
hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built
a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far
country."
The general idea of God's choice and protection of his fa-
voured people is sufficiently clear ; but if you push and strain
the allegory, and endeavour to find a particular meaning for
each individual expression, for his " planting the vineyard,
hedging it round about, digging the winepress, building the
tower," you force the parable, and are in danger of losing
the main and prominent truth it was intended principally to
convey.
It is just as if some person explaining the parable of the
good Samaritan were to insist chiefly on the direction the tra-
veller took, viz. from Jerusalem to Jericho ; the minute cir-
cumstances of his falling among thieves, and being robbed ; the
Samaritan's setting him on his own beast, and taking care of
D

34 THE SEALED BOOK. [LBCT. U.
Wmf &c.f instead of the great principle of benevolence to our
fellow-creatures which is therein inculcated. ** It is just as if
some person, contemplating a beautiful picture, were to put
aside the main features of the portrait, and to consider the
trees and the water and mountains which make up the back-
ground, and fill up the sketch, as the chief objects worth his
consideration."
So with regard to any explanation of this book ; it is a book
of symbol and allegory: the basis of each symbol is the point
to be aimed at, the rest is merely subsidiary. This is the
principle upon which we shall proceed—under each symbol we
shall hope to find a literal fact which is the basis of that sym-
bol ; it does not follow, because the clothing of the symbol is
figurative, that the basis of the symbol should be figurative
also: most of our Lord's parables were highly figurative, yet
there was no mistaking the literal sense they were intended to
convey. Let us then expect to find in this book, just as in our
Lord's parables, literal truths clothed in a symbolic dress ; let
us treat them in the same way as we should treat our Lord's
parables ; let us have no surmises, no queries, no enigmas ; let
us not set ourselves afloat upon a boundless ocean of coniecture
without rudder, compass, mast, or sail. If it was deemed ne-
cessary that the Apocalypse should be written, we may suppose
it was necessary that the Apocalypse should be read ; and if it
was necessary that the Apocalypse should be read, we may
suppose that it was perfectly intelligible to those to whom it
was addressed-, we cannot suppose that it was necessary to
send a key with the Apocalypse. If it is mysterious and
unintelligible to us, one principal reason is, we cannot put
ourselves in the situation of those to whom it was addressed,
and we are destitute of that contemporary information which
would explain its difficulties.
It is not my intention to explain the three first chapters of
the Apocalypse, containing the vision of the glorified Saviour
to St. John in Patmos, and the Epistles which John was com-
manded to send to the Seven Churches of Asia. It must not,
however, be thought, because of this omission, that any system
of chronology is supposed to exist in the Apocalypse. Nothing
can be more evident than that the Epistles to the Seven
Churches are closely interwoven with the rest of the book,

LBCT. II.] THE SEALED BOOK. 35
and I may also observe that the vices condemned in the
Churches, particularly those of Pergamos and Thyatira, when
compared with the first general council of Acts, xv., command-
ing the Gentile Churches to " abstain from pollutions of idols,
and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from
blood/* while no mention is made of the later gnostic heresies
alluded to in the Gospel and Epistles of St. John, give evi-
dence of a very normal state of the Church. All I shall attempt
to do is to give a brief summary of these chapters, with a view
of showing that the Epistles to the Seven Churches are not an
isolated portion of the Book of Revelation distinct from the rest
of the prophecy, and that the Apocalypse does not embrace a va-
riety of subjects, but is one grand and continuous whole.
Now it is remarkable, that to each of the Seven Churches
there is a warning given of our Lord's immediate advent,
and a promise, connected with the glories of the first resur-
rection, held out to him that overcame.
Ephesus.—(t I will corne unto thee quickly."
u To him that overcometh will I give to eat of
the tree of life." Kev. ii. 5. ?.
Smyrna.—" I will give thee a crown of life." l
" He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the se-
cond death." Rev. ii. 10, 11.
Pergamos.—" I will come unto thee quickly."
" To him that overcometh will I give to eat of
the hidden manna." Rev. ii. 1(>, 17-
TJiyatira.—" Hold fast till I come."
" He that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto
the end, (compare " Then shall the end come,"
Matt. xxiv. 14), to him will I give power
over the nations." Rev. ii. 25, 26.
Sardis.—" I will corne on thee as a thief."
" He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed
in white raiment." Rev. iii. 3—(i.
1 " The crown of life" was to be given " at that day/' and " his appear-
ing." — Compare 2 Tim. iv. 8.

36 THl SEALED BOOK. [L»CT. II.
Philadelphia. — " Behold I come quickly."
" He that overcometh will I make a pillar in
the temple of my God." Rev. iii. 11, 12,
Laodicea.— " Behold I stand at the door and knock.'1
" To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with
me in my throne." Rev. iii. 20, 21.
And to each of the Seven Churches these warnings and pro-
mises are declared to be the voice of the Spirit. " He that
hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
Churches/'
This is the one only theme pursued throughout the Boole.
It begins by saying that Christ is coming immediately; it ends
with the same theme, " Surely I come quickly/' It begins by
warning the Seven Churches of this speedy advent ; it closes
by saying, " I, Jesus, have sent mine angel to testify unto you
these things in the (Jhiirchi's" It begins by promising to the
martyrs, to them that overcame, the glories of the first re-
surrection ; it ends by disclosing the vision of " the souls of
them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus and for the
word of God .... and they liv;vd and reigned with Christ a
thousand vears." Rev. xx. 4.
«'
This is the key to the whole book. Our Lord appears
to St. John, directs him to te!J the ( hmrhes that he is about
to come irnmediatelv, and then details the object and nature of
his coming. Brar this in mind as the scope and the aim of the
Revelation, arid every difficulty will vanish. The book will
be no longer unintelligible. Its meaning will be as evident to
you as it must have been to those who first heard its warnings.
They must have perfectly known that " the earth" meant Ju-
da»a; " the dwellers in the earth," the Jews ; " the kings of
the earth," the princes of Palestine ; " the merchants of the
earth/' the traffickers of the Holy Land ; " the great city
which reigneth over the kings of the earth," the metropolis,
the royal city. They nmst have thoroughly known, that " the
whole world" signified the Roman Empire; "the kindreds,
and tongues, and people, and nations/7 the Gentiles who were
not Jews; " the kings of the whole world/' the Roman
princes; " the kings of the East/7 the monarchs about Eu-
phrates. Not a doubt could have occurred to their minds as to

LJSCT. II.] THE SEALED BOOK. 37
what was intended by the " cities of the nations," i. e. Gentile
cities; or what city was unmistakably distinguished from every
other city, as " the great city/5 ** the holy city," " the beloved
city," the city which the Gentiles should tread down. Bear
this in mind, and much of the difficulty of the Apocalypse will
disappear. You will discover that its apparent obscurity is the
result of a want of sufficient attention to the habits of thinking
and speaking of that age, an imperfect apprehension of the aim
and scope of the book, and an indistinct and confused percep-
ception of the persons to whom its warnings were addressed.
This, added to the mass of crude commentaries with which
the book has been overlaid, has well nigh extinguished every
particle of truth.
Bear then in mind the simple fact that the woes of the Apo-
calypse descend upon a particular people, princes, and city, and
you will soon discard as untenable the infatuated theory that a
Revelation revealed nothing, and that a portion of those Divine
scriptures which were written for our learning, and to the
readers of which a peculiar and especial blessing was pro-
mised, has never been intelligible. You will scout the mon-
strous idea, that the interpretation of a prophecy of events
" which must shortly come to pass," should have been kept
in abeyance until the nineteenth century. You will perceive
that the Apocalypse not only does not aim to be a record of
civil and ecclesiastical history down to the end of time,—not
only affords no theme for the fabulous expositions which are
a disgrace to the Biblical knowledge of our generation, and
which, it is to be feared, are deluding' the souls of thousands,—
but that it was the Revelation of our Lord's immediate com-
ing vouchsafed in mercy to the Church of that day. That
its warning voice was clear, distinct, and perfectly intelligible
to those to whom it was addressed ; that the difficulties which
have so long encompassed the book are of man's creating,
and not of the Spirit of Cod ; that its notes of deep and
solemn terror must have found an echo in the hearts of " them
that dwelt on the earth,'1 " the kings of the earth," " the
merchants of the earth," and in the palaces of that "great
city which reigneth over the kings of the earth ;" that the
Jew of that day and generation must have listened to its call
of watchfulness and preparation, as to a call pregnant with

38 THE SEALED BOOK. [LECT. IT.
significant meaning to him especially:—" Blessed is he that
readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and
keep those things which are written therein, for the time is
at hand.9' Rev. i. 3.
With this brief notice of the three first chapters let us pro-
ceed to examine chapters iv., v., and these can only briefly be
touched upon, the real difficulty of the Apocalypse commencing
with the opening of the first seal, chapter vi.
After the exhortation to the Seven Churches respecting the
immediate advent of Christ, the nature of that advent is next
disclosed to St. John. He is caught up to heaven, or rapt in
a trance, and sees the vision of the Almighty, and hears the
opening of the Sealed Book, which unfolds that advent under
seals, trumpets, and vials. " After this I looked and behold a
door was opened in heaven, and the first voice which I heard
was as it were of a trumpet talking with me, which said, Come
up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be here-
after."
There is a point of great moment with regard to the system
of future interpretation, involved in those words which are
translated by the word "hereafter." l The original is "/x€ra
ravra," " after these things." Now the question is not, what
do these words signify as they stand in our English translation,
but what do they signify in the sense in which they are used in
the Apocalypse ? In the very same verse, these words occur
again, and they also occur frequently elsewhere in the Apoca-
lypse, and they always have one arid the same signification,
and that is, they refer to something which was to happen con-
secutively and immediately.
The words, which in the beginning of this verse are trans-
lated, " after this," are the same which in the end of the verse
are translated " hereafter." Should it be objected that the
last clause translated "hereafter" is qualified by the expression
" things which must be hereafter," the very same clause is
explained in Rev. xxii. (>. as " things which must shortly be
done."2
1 " Postea inquit vidi; post ipsam utique visionem, se alteram memorat
vidi&se, non gextorum ext diversion tcmpus aed vwionum, ac giquis unarn rein
diversis inodis enarret.*' — Prirna«iu8.
2 Compare " « ctl ytvtaOai ptTtt rai/ra" — Hcv. iv. 1., with " ft 5u y«-

LECT. n.] THE SEALED BOOK. 39

Dr. Gumming tells us, that the whole of the Apocalyse was
seen by St. John in one literal Lord's day of twelve hours,
and that Lord's day, he says, was a " miniature chronology of
the world." But if the words translated "after this" and
" hereafter " are the same, as undoubtedly they are, we cannot
interpret one of a period of twelve hours, and the other of a
period of 2,000 years.

In the very verse, then, in which the words translated " here-
after" are met with, we have the same words signifying an
event which happened immediately, or at any rate at no great
interval of time.

No argument can be built on the notion that the words
translated "hereafter," mean events about to happen in fu-
ture ages ; on the contrary, they are always used in the Apo-
calypse to signify events immediately about to take place.

This cuts at the very root of that interpretation which sup-
poses the Apocalypse to be a prophecy extending to remote
ages ; on the contrary, it asserts that it is the revelation of
events soon about to take place : it assists to overthrow the
fallacy that because " the Church under the Christian dispen-
sation is higher in dignity than the Church under the Mosaic
economy," that therefore it ought to "enjoy equal counsel and
consolation of a prophetical character" l But, it may be asked,
if it was necessary in order to the perfection of the new dispen-
sation that " it should enjoy equal counsel and consolation of a
prophetical character ;" why then does it not enjoy equal con-
solation of a miraculous character ? How is it that miracles
are no longer known, although prophecy is supposed to exist ?
How is it that "tongues" have ceased, although "prophecy"
has not foiled? What argument can be advanced to show
that the exercise of one extraordinary gift should outlive the
rest ? If prophecy is not lost, then what has become of that
angelic interference once so visible in the affairs of men, or of
the voice of the Eternal, heard at intervals, amidst the hushed
awe of wonder-stricken mortals ? And above all, how comes
it that these prophetical declarations were not understood in
the ages to which they are supposed to have referred ? One

iv ra^fi" — Rev. xxii. 6.; " /ura ravra. tlcW" — Rev. vii.
trc Sirv omit pmi raura" — Rev. ix. 12.
1 Wordsworth's Babylon.
r> 4

40 THE SEALED BOOK. [L»CT. IL
would imagine the scope and aim of prophecy would be to give
premonitory warning and consolation until fulfilled ; and when
fulfilled, to establish in the minds of those who witnessed its
fulfilment a sense of the Divine power and wisdom which
could " see the end from the beginning." But if the ages to
which the prophecies of the Apocalypse are supposed to refer
saw nothing of the adaptation of these prophecies to their own
case; if, before their accomplishment, they neither answered
the end of warning or consolation ; if, after their accomplish-
ment, they did not serve to manifest the prescience of the Al-
mighty ; if the Christians, who lived before the days of Luther,
never discovered that the Beast was the Pope, or that Great
Babylon was Papal Rome ; if those parties, who ought to
have been much more interested in the question than we can
possibly he, knew nothing of the irruption of the Mahometan
locusts, and of the Turks battering down the walls of Constan-
tinople ; if no one, nowhere, before the age of llishop jNewfon,
Merle, and the JtJliotts and C'mnnim^s who have expanded
them, had the slightest idea of that system of interpretation,
which is unhappily so much in vogue in the present day, it
may well be questioned whether such prophecy be not an iso-
lation in the general tenor of Divine pre-coimmmications, or
whether such prophecy has answered the end that prophecy
generally was intended to serve.
With the closing scenes of the Jewish dispensation, all ex-
traordinary gifts, and amongst the rest prophecy, appear to
have ceased. "The prophet and the unclean spirit" simul-
taneously "passed out of the land," Zech. xiii. '2. "The law
and the prophets were until John, from that time the kingdom
of God was to be preached." The Holy Spirit was to be
given, not to solitary individuals at great intervals of time, but
to be poured out upon all flesh, and on tin* disciples, among
the rest, riot with a view of making- them prophets, but of
bringing "all things to their remembrance whatsoever Christ
had said unto them ; " and of showing them things to come,"
(ra €p\6^€va^ the coming things,) John, xvi. KJ. Our
Saviour's prophecies referred chiefly to the destruction of
Jerusalern9 and the events which should accompany his
corning. No such an idea appears to have entered his
rnind as to chronicle down in prophetic visions the fortunes of

LBCT. IL] THE SEALED BOOK. 41
his Church to the end of time. Moreover, had prophecy been
a characteristic of the New Dispensation, it would not have
ceased with the predictions of the Apocalypse, A. succession
of prophets raised up from time to time, as under the Mosaic
economy, would have been the guides and comforters of the
Church. The foreshadows of coming events, as under the
old dispensation, would have been prophetically announced by
men who immediately preceded the times to which the events
referred. Impending calamities and approaching deliverances
would have found their contemporaneous predictors. A Jere-
miah or an Ezekiel would have spoken of a captivity near at
hand ; or a Haggai or a Zechariah of a restoration soon to
be accomplished. Adequate supplies of prophetic inspiration,
suited to the times which called them forth, would have met
national emergencies ; and the fallacy need not have been pro-
pounded, which, claiming for the Christian Church " equal
counsel and consolation of a prophetical character " with that of
the Jewish Church, is driven to transmute a prophecy of
" things which must shortly be done," into the history of the
world and of the Church down to the end of time ; and to
claim for a highly allegorical book, like the Book of the Reve-
lation, only intelligible when viewed in the light of a past
economy, the unenviable and the unhappy distinction that it
is the only "e</ua( counsel and consolation of a prophetical
character" which a superior dispensation is supposed to
possess.
I must now very briefly introduce the scene depicted in this
vision, and a glorious scene it is. The first object whom St.
John beholds is the Deity. " Behold a throne was set in
heaven, and one sat on the throne ; and he that sat was to
look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone : and there was a
rainbow round about the throne in sight like unto an emerald."
The jasper, a stone of various colours — purple, green, ceru-
lean; the sardine, a blood-red stone; and the iris, or rainbow,
round about the throne softening, by its many-coloured hues,
the light which none might look upon. It is impossible for
human language to describe more impressively the glory of the
Godhead.1
1 Compare Ezekio), i. 2(>, 27, 28.

42 THE SEALED BOOK. [LECT. II.
" Round about the throne were four and twenty seats, and
upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in
white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold."
Bat why twenty-four? Some say, because there were
twelve tribes of Israel, and twelve Apostles; and the number
twenty-four would represent the Jewish and Christian Church;
some, because the worship of the Jewish temple was divided
into twenty-four courses of priests, and the temple on earth was
made after the pattern of the heavenly temple.
One point alone is clear : they owe their high position to the
redemption that is in Christ Jesus ; for they are represented as
saying, "thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of
every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation." x
** Out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and voices, and
thunderings." The scenery is exceedingly grand and terrific ;
indicative of the glory and presence of God. So, when God
descended upon Sinai, there were "thunders and lightnings,"
"and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud."
" Seven lamps were burning before the throne, which are
the seven spirits of God."
Some suppose that the Holy Spirit is here designated, "the
number 7," as Josephus says, "being a number of dignity
among the Jews." Others think they refer to the "seven angels
which stand before God" (the angels alluded to by our Lord),
" Whosoever will confess me before men, him will I also con-
fess before the angels of God." So St. Paul to Timothy—"I
charge thee before God and the elect angels." In the Apo-
cryphal Book of Tobit, the angel Raphael says, " I am one
of the seven angels that enter into the presence of the Holy
One." " The sea of glass before the throne like unto
crystal," the same as "the sea of glass mingled with fire,"
of chap, xv., is, possibly, the lucid and shining pavement before
the throne. " There2 was under his feet, as it were, a pave-
ment of sapphire, and, as it were, the body of heaven in its
clearness*"
" And, in the midst of the throne, and round about the
throne, were four beasts3, full of eyes, before and behind."
1 Rev. v. 9. 2 Exodus, xxiv. 9, 10.
3 Zwa, " living creatures/'

LECT. IL] THE SEALED BOOK. 43
These correspond with the four living creatures seen in the
vision of Ezekiel, supporting the throne of Jehovah, going and
returning like a flash of lightning.
It is supposed by some, that these four beasts cannot repre-
sent angelic beings, because they join with the twenty-four
elders in the ascription of praise. " Thou hast redeemed us to
God by Thy blood.'* But, independently of these four living
creatures being seen in EzekiePs vision, where they evidently
represent angelic beings, there is no great impropriety in sup-
posing angelic beings joining in the song of the redeemed in
heaven. For aught we know, the blessings of redemption
may have extended even to them. St. Paul tells us, that
" unto principalities and powers in heavenly places is to be
made known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God;"
that, " through the blood of his cross, he hath reconciled all
things unto himself, whether they be things in heaven or
things on earth ;" and that " at the name of Jesus every knee
shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things
under the earth/7 There is no reason why we should not in-
terpret these four beasts as corresponding with the vision of
Ezekiel, and praising God for the blessings of redemption.
St. John sees " in the right hand of him that sat upon the
throne a hook written within and on the back side, and sealed
with seven seals."
This vision still seems to correspond with the vision of
Ezekiel, ii. After Ezekiel had seen the vision of the Most
High, agreeing in many respects with the vision of God
seen by St. John, "an hand was sent unto him, and lo!
a roll of a book was therein ;" " and it was written within
and without, and there was written therein lamentation, and
mourning, and woe/' So, in the vision before us, " the
throne" is disclosed, and " he that sat on it;" and in the right
hand of him that sat on the throne is a book, written like
Ezekiel's book, " within and without," " within and on the
back side," and " sealed with seven seals."
The form of the book we may suppose to have been that of
the ancient manuscript, " the roll of a book " seen by Ezekiel,
—not sealed with all the seals on the outside, for then no part
of the book could be read until all the seals were broken;
but so sealed, that when one seal was broken, the MSS.

44 THE SEALED BOOK. foxcr. II.
could be unrolled, till they came to the second seal, and so on
to the end.
And here let me observe that the idea of breaking the
seals intimates that the prophecy contained in the book was
about to be fulfilled immediately.1
The prophet Daniel is commanded to seal up his prophecy,
because a long period of time was to elapse between the
prophecy and its fulfilment.
" Shut up the words, and seal the book unto the time of
the end." " The words are closed, and sealed unto the time
of the end;" "the time of the end" meaning, as I have
shown in Lecture X., the time of the destruction of Jeru-
salem, and the close of the Jewish dispensation.
On the other hand, St. John is directed to leave his pro-
phecy unsealed. " Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of
this book, for the time is at hand." The events disclosed
in the book are about to take place immediately; it is a
revelation of things " which must shortly conic to pass."
It is then evident that the breaking of the seals of the
book would, upon the principles of scriptural interpretation,
signify the disclosure of events about to receive an imme-
diate aeco in pits It m en t.
The vision next discloses "a strong angel, proclaiming with
a loud voice, who is worthy to loose the book, and to open the
seals thereof; and no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither
under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look
thereon."
It was the book, which, in his human nature, the Son
himself was unable to unfold — the book containing the de-
velopment of those " times and seasons" which " the Father
had put in his own power"—the book of which he said, "of
that day, and of that hour, knoweth no man ; neither the angels
of God in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father;" or, as St.
Matthew expresses it, "but my Father on/t/." 2
1 " And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is
sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, Baying, read this, 1 pray
thee, and he saitli I cannot; for it is sealed."—Isaiah, xxix. 11.
2 This shows that there was in our Lord a capability of accessive know-
ledge even after his ascension. Hence, " the Revelation " is said to be " the
Revelation of Jesus Christ which God yavc unto him."LJSCT. II.J THE SEALED BOOK. 45
There seems, then, a marked propriety why that knowledge,
which was withheld from the Son in his human nature, should
now be given to him as the reward of his sufferings and death.
Accordingly we find that it is so given : " Thou art worthy
to take the book, and to open tbe seals thereof; for thou wast
slain,) and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood."
The Evangelist is overwhelmed with grief because the book
cannot be opened, or the seals loosed.
" And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to
open and to read the book, neither to look thereon ; and one of
the elders saith unto me, Weep not: Behold the lion of the
tribe of Judab, tbe root of David, hath prevailed to open tbe
book, and to loose tbe seven seals thereof/*
No one can doubt to whom the epithet—" the lion of the
tribe of Jmlal^ refers. In tbe benediction of tbe patriarch
Jacob, Judab is compared to a lion : " Judab is a lion's whelp ;
be stooped, be couched do\vn as a lion, and as an old lion, who
shall rouse him up." And, " it is evident," says St. Paul,
" that our Lord sprang out of Judah."
lie is also called " the root of Darid" " I am tbe root
ami the offspring of David"—David's son awl David's Lord
— " the rod out of the stem of Jesse, and the branch growing
>ut of his roots ;" and David's Lord, of whom David says in
spirit, " The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right
hand until I make thy foes thy footstool.''
But lest we should have any doubt to whom the epithets
" the lion of the tribe of Judah" and "the root of David "
belong, the Saviour is next described by that title which belongs
to him alone of all the intelligent universe.
" I beheld, and lo, in the midst of the throne, and of the
four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a LAMB as it
had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are
the seven spirits of (iod sent forth into all the earth. And
he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that
sat upon the throne."
I must not pass by the name by which lie is described —
" a .Lamb." In the Apocalypse Christ is designated by this
name some twenty-five times. This is a valuable confirmation
of the authorship of this book. St. John is the only Evan-
gelist who calls our Lord bv this name. In his Gospel alone

46 THE SEALED BOOK. [LECT. II.
we read, that John the Baptist, " looking upon Jesus as he
walked," exclaimed, " Behold the Lamb of God which taketh
away the sin of the world."
The Saviour appears, moreover, as " a Lamb that had been
shin" The marks of his holy passion are discernible in the
midst of his exaltation and glory. The print of the nails upon
his hands and feet, and the gaping chasm rent by the spear,
and the marks of the crown of suffering upon his brow, sparkle
still more gloriously than the many crowns of divine glory
which rest upon his head. His previous ignominy is the cause
of his present exaltation. It is because he is " the Lamb slain/'
that he prevails to open the hook.
" He humbled himself unto death, even the death of the
cross; wherefore God hath highly exalted him." He was
"made lower than the angels for the suffering of death/' that
he " might be crowned with glory and honour."
Observe, also, the glorious position occupied by the Redeemer
of the universe. He is said to be " in the midst of the
throne:77 "and he came and took the book out of the right
hand of him that sat upon the throne."
He is in the " midst of the throne/7 sharing divine honours
and divine adoration. " To him that overcometh will I grant
to sit with me upon my throne, even as I overcame and am
set down with my Father upon his throne."
"No man in heaven, or in earth, or under the earth77 — a
Hebrew expression for no created being—is able to "open
the book or to look thereon."
He, by virtue of his eternal Sonship, and in virtue of that
work of redeeming love which hits caused " all power to be
given to him in heaven and in earth," " came and took the
book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne."
And then follows that magnificent burst of praise and ado-
ration recorded in the concluding verses of this chapter. It
commences with the four living creatures and the twenty-four
elders. It is taken up by the angelic hosts round about the
throne, and is re-echoed by the whole created universe of God.
" And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to
take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou wert
slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every
kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation ;

LBCT. II] Tim SEALED BOOK. 47

" And hast made us unto our God kings and priests : and
we shall reign on the earth.

" And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round
about the throne and the beasts and the elders : and the
number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and
thousands of thousands ;

" Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was
slain to receive power, arid riches, and wisdom, and strength,
and honour, and glory, and blessing.

" And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth,

and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are

in them, heard I saying", Blessing, and honour, and glory, and

power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the

Lamb for ever and ever.

" And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty
elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and

ever."1

Such is the glorious opening and introduction to the Apo-
calyptic symbols which follow. It looks more like a drama
than a description — a scene to be acted and performed, rather
than to be read or written. But under this magnificent
imagery the meaning is very plain.
Things which are to take place " hereafter," /xera raGra,
are to be unfolded to the seer. He is caught up to heaven in the
spirit, whether bodily or mentally is of no consequence. He
beholds the throne of the Deity surrounded by hosts of adoring
intelligences. In the hand of Omnipotence is a book sealed.
No creature in the universe of God can open it, or look thereon.
St. John laments that no one can unfold its meaning. When,
lo, an Interpreter is found ; a prophet, priest, and king appears.
The Lamb slain takes the book out of the right hand of him
that sat upon the throne, and prepares to break the seals.
And then from heaven and earth, and under the earth, and
in the sea, peals forth the triumphant burst of acclamation —
[in the highly poetical language of one2 from whose interpre-
tation I am compelled to differ most materially, but whose elo-
quent and gifted style no man of heart and feeling can dispute]
1 Rev. v. 9—14.
2 Dr. Cumming's 4t Apocalyptic Sketches.*1 Lecture in

49

LECTURE III,
OPENING OF THE FIRST FOUR SEALS.
REV. vi. 1—8.
1. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it
were thtj noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.
2. And I saw, and behold a white horse: arid he that sat on him had
a bow : and a crown was given unto him : and he went forth conquering, and
to conquer.
3. And when lie had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say,
Come and see.
4. And there went out another horse that was red : and power was given
to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill
one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.
5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say,
Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him
had a pair of balances in his hand.
6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of
wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny ; and see thou
hurt not the oil and the wine.
7. And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the
fourth beast say. Come and see.
8. And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him
was Death, and hell followed with him. And power was given unto them
over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and
with death, and with the beasts of the earth.
WE have hitherto done little more than speak of the prepara-
tions for the scene which is to follow. We have as yet only
touched upon the prologue of this grand spiritual drama. That
it is a grand spiritual drama, in which the actors are — the
angels ; the hero of the subject — Christ; the heroine — " the
bride the Lamb's wife ; the consummation—the destruction of
all enemies, and the marriage of the Lamb;—is what few would
like to deny. It is impossible to read the book without being
struck by the grandeur and sublimity of its disclosures. I be-
lieve no mind, but one enlightened from on high, could have
entertained the majestic representation of the Deity unfolded in
E

50 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.
chapter v.—no tongue, but that of an inspired man, could have
compassed that sublime, unearthly song with which that chapter
closes ; and that no heart, but one deeply impressed by God's
Holy Spirit, could have imagined its glorious conceptions. I
want no scholastic proof of the inspiration of the Apocalypse ;
on its front it bears the impress of Divine authorship. I need
no other evidence of the book being written under the direc-
tion of God's Holy Spirit, beyond that which the book itself
affords.
We now come to the real difficulty of the Apocalypse. The
seals of the mysterious book are opened by the Lamb. Had we
been Christians of those days, we should have had no difficulty
in comprehending these symbols. The distance of time, and
age, and country, and situation, and habits of thought and ex-
pression, give them their real unintelligibility.
I shall, as I have already premised, seek for their explanation
at the time when the Apocalypse must have been written. The
plan which I shall adopt will be to give first the opinions of
Dr. Gumming4, as fairly as the mere statement of his views
will allow, and then to subjoin my own.
I need not say we move on different lines, — that whilst he
contends for the Doinitianic date of the Apocalypse, we shall as
earnestly combat for the Neronic date,—that whilst he affirms
the Apocalypse is a prophetic history of the world and of the
Church down to the end of time, we shall endeavour to main-
tain that it was a revelation of things " which must shortly
come to pass," and which received an immediate accomplish-
ment. The principles for which we contend are as antagonistic
as light and darkness ; not so, I trust, however, the feelings
with which these differences are viewed : in conducting this
inquiry, I desire to remember that God's holy word is the sub-
ject concerning which this diversity of opinion exists, and I pray
that the heat of discussion may never lead to the substitution of
invective instead of proof, or of acrimonious and hasty censure
in the place of argument,
1 Dr. Gumming does not profess originality. In page 1. of Ins Apocalyptic
Sketches he says: " I candidly tell you that I shall beg and borrow from the
book of Mr. Elliott all I can ; " his book is only a condensation of Mr.
Elliott's views, wrapped up in that pleasing dress which no one can render
more delightful than Dr. Cumming.

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 51
As I have said, then, I shall first state the views of Dr. dim-
ming", after which I shall subjoin my own, and leave the decision
to those who may examine them.
FIRST SEAL.
Chap. vi. 1-2.—"And I saw when the Lamb opened one of
the seals, and I heard as it were the noise of thunder, one of the
four beasts saying", Come and see. And I saw, and behold a
white horse : and he that sat on him had a bow: and a crown
was given unto him ; and he went forth conquering, and to
conquer."
I give Mr. Elliott's explanation condensed by Dr. Gumming.
" The colour of the first horse, white, indicates a state of pros-
perity, victory, and expansion, as the characteristic of the Roman
empire during the period comprehended during this seal. Now
was there any period, beginning at the date of this vision,
signalised by such marked prosperity ? There was: during
the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, and the two Antonincs,
a period commencing A. D. 97> and closing A. D. 180, the
Roman empire experienced a condition of almost unclouded
national prosperity." This is further illustrated by Trajan's
victories and column.
" The crown upon the rider's head indicates that imperial
agency was the source of this state of happiness ; and that we
are right in fixing the rera in the first and second centuries, is
made still more clear by reference to the Greek word here
translated crown, * art^avos' wreath or laurel crown. The
8taS^/xa was not worn till centuries afterwards."
" Ju the rider's hand was a bow,—a symbol which long per-
plexed apocalyptic commentators. Crete was the chief ancient
place that was celebrated for the manufacture of bows : so much
so, that Cretan bows were as popular at Rome as Sheffield cut-
lery or Staffordshire earthenwares are throughout Europe. One
proof of the meaning of the bow employed as a symbol is found
on a Greek epigram on a female, which assigns to her a magpie
to denote her loquacity, a cup, her drunkenness, and a bow, to
show that she was a Cretan by birth."
44 Nerva was the first emperor of Cretan family and origin,
and his immediate successors icere Cretan a/so."
K2

52 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.
The first seal is made to extend over a period of eighty-three
years, from A. D. 97 to A. D. 180.
I point out a few difficulties in this interpretation.
When it is said that the seal extends from A. D. 97 to A. D.
180, you will perceive there is no proof of such a statement
whatever, beyond the supposed prosperity of the Roman empire;
for any thing* said in the Apocalypse, the seal might have ex-
tended 1000 years as well as eighty-three, or six months as
well as 1000 years. All the rest is mere assumption, and
entirely destitute of argument. I am not so sure that all was
prosperity with the Roman empire during these reigns ; for
in the reign of Adrian the northern barbarians began to de-
vastate the frontier provinces of the empire,—so much so, that
Adrian had thoughts of contracting the limits of the empire, by
giving up its least defensible provinces.
And how could the successors of Nerva be called Cretan ?
Trajan was a Spaniard; Adrian was the nephew of Trajan, and
the family of Titus Antoninus came from Gaul. There must be
something faulty in the positive statement, " Nerva was the first
emperor of Cretan family and origin, awl Ids immediate suc-
cessors were Cretan also."
The absurdity of the bow in the hand denoting that the
emperors were of Cretan origin is too preposterous to need
comment.
I proceed to give a somewhat different interpretation. I must
premise here that the first four seals having each the emblem of
a horse and horseman, being each introduced by one of the four
living creatures who support the throne of God, and being each
prefaced with the emphatic words, " come and see," seem to
demand a similar interpretation, /. c. if the first seal be appli-
cable to any one individual or power, the other seals set forth
by similar emblems must correspond.
That all four seals refer to scenes of invasion, blood, and
warfare, is evident from the contents of each: —
To the first horseman is given a " crown," a " victor's
crown," " crTe^ayds,"—he is to go forth conquering and to
conquer.1
1 2r£^avoc» " a laurel crown." Mr. Elliott'*} argument respecting the
laurel crown applies with equal force to the crown given to Vespasian and
Titus.

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 53
To the second, "a sword,"—he is to take "peace from the
earth."
To the third, " a pair of balances," indicative of the pressure
of terrible famine following in the footsteps of war.
In the fourth, the horseman is Death on a pale horse, and
hell ($8779) follows him ; "and power is given unto them over
the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger,
and with death, and with the beasts of the earth."
To whatever period these first four seals refer, they refer to
a time connected with conquest, battle, famine, pestilence,—
to a period not separated by long intervals of time, for the first
horseman goes out " conquering and to conquer,"1 i. e. to com-
mence a series of victories which should end in triumph.
Let us proceed to analyse the emblems of this first seal. " /
saw, and behold a white how."
The horse is emblematical of the Roman power. Such em-
blems are common in Scripture. The emblem of Judali is a
lion, of Persia, a ram, of Grecia, a he-goat. The national em-
blem of Koine was a horse. The Roman nation is called
"Gens Mavortia," the people sacred to Mars, and a horse
was yearly offered to. Mars in the Capitol. Mr. Elliott gives
a medal, with a figure of a horse and the word Roma un-
derneath.
The colour of the horse, — white, — denoted conquest and
victory. Kings and conquerors Were drawn by white horses.
Domitian rode a white horse at his father Vespasian's tri-
umph. Josephus says, " lie rode on a horse that was worthy
of admiration."2
" He that sat on him had a bow" The bow 3 was a coni-
1 ""Ira viMi<ni." A Hellenistic idiom—tl that he should gain victory after
victory."
2 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap. 5.
3 Mr. Layard thus describes Sennacherib before Lachish, as depicted in the
Nineveh marbles: " The throne of the king stood upon an elevated platform ;
in his right hand he raised two arrows, and his left rested upon a bow, over
his head was written the inscription, ' Sennacherib, the great king, the king
of Assyria, sitting in judgment on the city of Lachish, 1 give permission for
its slaughter/" In another passage, Mr. Layard connects the emblem of the
bow in the king's hand with victory and triumph: <f Behind them is the
king, carrying in one hand his bow and in the other two arrows, the position
in which he is so frequently represented in Assyrian monuments, and pro-
bably denoting triumph over his enemies."— Layard, vol. i. p. SIM. Thus54 OPENING OF THE \_LECT. III.
mon emblem of a victorious warrior—particular]/ of a warrior
devoting a city to destruction.
"A crown teas given unto him" — his success would be
rewarded with regal dignity.
" And he went forth conquering and to conquer" — to per-
severe in his victories till he should overcome all opposition.
Did such a conqueror proceed from the Roman power at
that time ? Joseph us tells us, " that when Nero was deliberating
to whom he should commit the affairs of the East, and who
might be best able to punish the Jews for their rebellion, he
found no one but Vespasian equal to the task — he was a man
that had long ago pacified the JFest, when it had been put
into disorder by the Germans ; he had also recovered to them
Britain by his arms, which had been little known before." 1
The crown given to him2 is explained by the extraordinary
coincidence that whilst Vespasian, a Roman general, was fight-
ing in Judrfa, the Emperor Nero committed suicide at Rome,
and Vespasian was declared emperor by the legions ; and when
he refused the empire, " the commanders insisted the more
earnestly upon his acceptance, and the soldiers came to him with
drawn swords in their hands, and threatened to kill him, unless
he would live according to his dignity, till lie at length yielded
to their solicitations, and allowed them to salute hint Ein-
peror" °
" Perhaps also there was* some interposition of Providence
which was paving the way for Vespasian's being himself
Jumper or afterwards" 4
** So Vespasian's good fortune succeeded to his wishes every-
Jacob blesses Joseph, (Gen. xlviii. 22.), fi I have given thee one portion
above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my
ffwordf and with my bow." Should it be objected that the vision depicts a
European and not an Eastern king, it must be remembered that the symbols
are purely of Eastern origin.
1 Bell. Jud. lib. iii. cap. 1.
2 If it should be objected that it was not Vespasian but Titus who took
Jerusalem, it may be answered, that the crown was given to Titus as well as
to Vespasian; Titus was saluted emperor after the taking of the temple, and
both Vespasian and Titus wore the imperial crown. Josephus admirably
forestalls this objection, where he says: " That government which had been
newly conferred upon them (Vespasian and Titus) by God/' — Bell. Jud,
lib. v. cap. 1.
'* Bell. Jud. lib. iv. cap. 10. 4 Ibid, Jib. iii. cap. 1.

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 55
where; upon which he considered that lie had not arrived at
the government without Divine Providence, but that a righteous
kind of fate had brought the empire under his power; for as
he called to mind the other signals, so did he remember what
Josephus said to him when he ventured to foretel his coining
to the kingdom while Nero was alive." l
His going forth " conquering and to conquer" is abun-
dantly proved by Josephus, who has shown in his Jewish War,
that victory everywhere followed the irresistible legions of
Rome. The war from the commencement to the end was a
succession of victories, closed at last by the destruction of Jeru-
salem. Those victories are commemorated to this day in the
triumphal arch of Titus at Rome, and by the medal struck in
honour of those conquests, representing a female figure weep-
ing under a palm tree, with the motto, " Judtea devicta,"—
Judaea conquered.
Observe then, at that time a mighty conqueror went forth
from Rome on his mission of victory; the bow in his hand
was emblematical of previous success, and also of his parti-
cular mission as the destroyer of a city — " a crown was given
unto him," for he was saluted Emperor — " and he went forth"
"conquering and to conquer," till Jud&a lay prostrate at his
feet.
And this took place, not in the eighty-three years of the
reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, and the two Antonines ; but
in the three and a half years of the Jewish war.
SECOND SEAL.
" And when he had opened the Second Seal, I heard the
second beast say, Came and see, and there went out another
horse that was red, and power was given him that sat thereon
to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one
another, and there was given unto him a great sword."
Dr. Gumming says: — "In this seal also the Roman Em-
pire, the horse, is the subject of description. Red is the symbol
of bloodshed. The sword when presented to any one within a
circuit of 100 miles of Rome, at the era referred to in this seal,
1 Bell. Jud. lib. iv. cap. 10.

56 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.

was equivalent to his appointment or investiture to be Pnetorian
Prefect. This therefore would indicate that the agency em-
ployed under this seal was Pr&toriau.

" 'Killing one another/ is the language of civil war. The
peace taken from the earth has in the original the definite
article1, and this shows that the commission issued to the rider
was to take away the peace that was created or prevailed during
the First Seal. Is there anything recorded in history which
exhausts and illustrates these symbols ? We appeal to Gibbon
— he shows that the bright and happy era which we have just
referred to was succeeded by intestine and incessant civil wars.
Dion Cassius calls it ' a transition from a golden to an iron
age.'"

" The Praetorian guards, under their chief, murdered nine
Roman emperors in succession, and during a period of sixty
years, that is, from die close of the First Seal, A.P. 180, to the
close of the Second Seal, A.D. 214), they exercised extermi-
nating cruelties, and created a Roman reign of terror. Gibbon
writes: — * Their licentious fury was the first symptom and
cause of the decline of the Roman Empire.' "

I shall explain this seal of civil war, but with a great variety
of date. I have observed that the first four seals have one
characteristic in common ; viz., the symbol of a horse and
horseman, which is the basis of each. We must look, then, for
the interpretation in some*events connected with the Roman
conquest of Judaea.

The colour of the horse, red, is the colour of blood.
The sword in the hand of the horseman denotes slaughter, and
the peculiar feature of this slaughter is, that it is to be domes-
tic slaughter, civil strife,—that they should "kill one another."
Now let us ask was this the case during the Roman invasion
of Juda*a ? was peace taken from the land of Judaea? and
did the inhabitants of the land kill one another ?

1 If the force of the definite article l>e BO great with regard to the pre-
viously existing peace, what must the force of the same definite article with
regard to (( the earth" " ix rfjr y'lc>" the land of Judtca? Compare " Trdcrut
at </>v\ai rfjc y*?c»" ornnes tribus terra? Israeliticsc, Rev. i. ? > u fiarrtXtlr
rvJG y»K>" principes Paliestinjc, Rev. vi. 15.; ""Korea yap urayiri? /icy 11X17
iiri rye y7}c KUI opyr; tr ry Xaw rour^i," Luke xxi. 23., where by the correla-
tive phrase o X/coc TOVTOC, the ?/ yfj is defined to be the land of «Tuda'a

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 57
Of all plain and well-known historical facts, this is the plainest;
any one who has read the history of those miserable times
knows that the principal feature in that history was the intestine
factions and civil struggles which, wore than foreign foes, anni-
hilated the Jewish people.
I might quote volumes upon this subject. Josephus tells
us : — "There were three treacherous factions in the city, the
one parted from the other. Eleazarand his party came against
.John ; those that were with John went out with zeal against
Simon."1 In their mad fury they destroyed all the corn laid
up for the siege, and destroyed the " nerves of their own
5) O
power. w
" Accordingly it came to pass that almost all the corn was
burnt, which would have been sufficient for a siege of many
years. So they were taken by the means of the famine, which
it was impossible they should have been, unless they had thus
prepared the way first by this procedure."
" And now, as the city was engaged in a war on all sides
from these treacherous crowds of wicked men, the people of
the city, between them, were like a great body torn in pieces ;
the aged men and the women were in such distress by their
internal calamities, that they wished for the Romans, and
earnestly hoped for an external war, in order to their delivery
from their domestic miseries." " God," said Vespasian to his
officers, " acts as a general of tin* Romans better than lie
could do, and is giving the Jews up to them without any pains
of their own ; that therefore it is their best way, 'while their
enemies arc drstroi/int/ each other with their own hands to sit
still as spectators, rather than to fight with men that love
murdering, and are mad one against another."3
We need not put this horseman's sword into the hands of
1 " Tres Duccs, totidcm cxcrcitus: extrema et latissima momium, Simon,
mediam urbem> Johannes, quern et Burgioram vocabant, Templum, Eleazarus,
loco pollebat. Sed pnclia, clolus, incendia inter ipsos, et magna vis f rumen ti
ambusta."—Tacit. Hist. v. 12.
2 Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 1.— u The corn burnt." Observe, the
seal denoting famine follows the seal emblematical of civil war. Had they
not burnt their magazines of corn, and thus destroyed " the nerves of their
own power," in the fury of their civil strife, this famine could not have taken
place.
3 Bell. Jud. lib. iv. cap. 6\

58 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.

the Praetorian prefects ; we need not refer these intestine
troubles to sixty years of Roman history. There and then —
at the time — the coming of the Romans led to intestine
troubles among the Jews; and this cml slaughter depopulated
Judaea more than the sword of foreign invasion. " Oh, most
wretched city," said Josephus, " what misery so great as this
didst thou suffer from the Romans, when they came to purify
thee from thine intestine hatred ; for thou couldest be no longer
a place fit for God, after thou hadst been a sepulchre for the
bodies of thine own people, and hadst made the holy house
itself a burying-place in this civil war of thine."

THIRD SEAL.

" And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third
beast say, Come and see ; and I beheld, and lo a black horse,
and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand ; and
I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure
of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny,
and see that thou hurt not the oil and wine." l

This is referred by Elliott and Gumming to the oppressive-
ness of the provincial governors during the reign of Garacalla,
which Gibbon states to be one of the principal causes of the
decline of the Roman Empire. It is needless to observe, that
this oppressiveness is no more true of the Roman provincial
governors during the reign of Garacalla than during any other
reign ; most of them, amongst whom I may instance Festus,
Albinus, and Florus, being guilty of terrible exactions.2

1 Wheat, barley, oil, and wine, the especial productions of Palestine;
(' A land of wheat, and barley, and vines,......a land of oil olive, and
honey."—Deut. viii. 8.
2 Character of Albinus and Florus.—" Albinus, who succeeded Festus, did
not execute his office as the other had done, nor was there any sort of wicked-
ness that could be named but he had a hand in it. Accordingly, he did not
only in his political capacity steal and plunder every one's substance, nor
did he only burden the whole nation with taxes, but he permitted the relations
of such as were in prison for robbery, to redeem them for money ; and nobody
remained in the prisons as a malefactor, but he who gave him nothing."—
Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 14.
" But although such was tin- character of Albinus, yet did Gessius Florus

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 59
I hope to arrive at a more satisfactory explanation. The
colour of the horse, Mack, is indicative of mourning and dis-
tress.1 The rider holding in his hands a pair of balances, for
the purpose of measuring' and weighing food, shows that this
distress is occasioned by want of the necessaries of life. This
is confirmed by the voice saying, " a measure2 of wheat for a
penny, and three measures of barley for a penny, and see that
thou hurt not the oil and wine."
Did events corresponding to this seal take place during the
Roman invasion of Juda>a ? Is it known that famine prevailed
to a great extent ? Were the prices of food raised considerably
Lfg'lier; and was there any occasion which justified the emblems
conveyed under this seal ?
This is no matter of conjecture. The account is given us by
one, who, whilst he was a captive in the hands of the Roman
armies, outside the walls of Jerusalem, had his wife and
children within the walls, a prey to the horrible famine which
lie describes3:—"Many there were/' he says, " who sold
what they had for one measure : it was of icheat if they were
who succeeded him, demonstrate him to have been a most excellent person
upon the comparison ; for the former did the greatest part of his rogueries
in private, hut Gessius did his unjust actions to the harm of the nation, and
as though lie had been sent as an executioner to punish condemned male-
factors, he omitted no sort of rapine or of vexation ; he thought it but a
petty offence to get money out of single persons, so he spoiled whole cities,
and ruined entire bodies of men at once."—Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 14-.
1 (t Wives and families that are in black, mourning for their slaughtered
relations/'—Bell. Jiul. lib. iv. cap. k
- Xo/i'tJ, "a measure." — There is so much difference of opinion with
regard to the meaning of the word translated a measure, that we cannot form
an accurate judgment as to what extent the famine prevailed.
3 f' As for myself, 1 have composed a true history of that war, having been
concerned in its transactions ; for I acted as general with those among us who
are called Galihrans, as long as it was possible for us to make any opposition ;
and when I was taken captive by the Romans, Vespasian and Titus ordered me
to be kept under a guard, but commanded that I should attend to them con-
tinually. At first 1 was in bonds ; afterwards I was set at liberty, and was
sent to accompany Titus when he came to the siege of Jerusalem, during
which time nothing was done which escaped tny knowledge. What happened in
the Roman camp I saw, and wrote down carefully ; what information the
deserters brought out of the city I was the only man who could understand
it."—Jos. Contra Apion, lib. 1. c. {).
c Judjrus Joseph us antiquitatum Jndaicarum vernaculus vindex."—Ter-
uj Apol. ]().

60 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.
of the richer sort, but of larky if they were poorer. When
these had so done, they shut themselves up in the inmost
rooms of the houses, and ate the corn they had gotten ; some
did it without grinding it, by reason of the extremity of the
want they were in ; and others snatched the bread out of the
fire half baked, and ate it very heartily." *
He further adds : —" That a bushel of wheat was sold for
a talent (375/.) ; and that when it was not possible to gather
herbs by reason of the city being all walled about, some persons
were driven to that terrible distress as to search the common
sewers and old dunghills of cattle, and to eat the dung which
they got there; and what they of old could not so much as
endure to see, they now used as food."2
This appears to me to be a more likely interpretation than
that which refers this seal to the cupidity of the Roman go-
vernors during the reign of CaracalJa. Were they the only
avaricious Roman governors, and were they (ill avaricious ?
and did their avarice only commence in the year 210 and
extend over a period of eight years ? We must suppose that,
in the seal, there is sonic mystic intelligence which ordinary
minds cannot fathom, to signify that it begins with the year
210, and ends with the year 248. I confess, I cannot find it,
and that, if it is to be interpreted of the avarice of the Roman
governors, it might as well extend over the whole period of
Roman usurpation and tyranny, as over a particular period of
eight years,
FOURTH SEAL.
The Fourth Seal is ushered in under circumstances of
peculiar majesty and terror. " And when he had opened the
fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come
and see ; and I looked, and behold a pale horse : and his name
that sat on him was Death, and hell followed with him, and
power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth,
to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with
the beasts of the earth."
"This seal," says Dr. dimming, "almost explains itself.
It represents Death riding rough-shod over the length and
1 Bell Jud. lib. v. cap. 10. 2 Ibid. v. cap. 13.

LBCT. III.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 61
breadth of the empire, and Hades, or the grave, following at
his heels to receive the victims as they fell. It was during this
seal, from A.D. 248 to A.D. 268, that there occurred the most
terrible contemporaneous combination of sword, famine, and
pestilence, that ever visited a guilty population."
Gibbon describes it thus : —" Every province was invaded
by barbarous military tyrants ; there was a general famine, a
dreadful plague, so that 4,500 persons died each day at Rome."
And a heathen writer states, " The wild beasts invaded the
cities as the natural consequence of the decay of man."
It is possible that precise period of Roman history might
have been visited with sword, and famine, and pestilence ; but
/ am prepared to show that these punishments of God fell
upon a particular land, and at a particular time: not com-
mencing1 with the year 2-iS, and ending 208, hut immediately
after the Apocalypse was written, and confined within the
period of the Jewish war.
Observe the colour of the horse — pale, cadaverous, livid —
the colour suiting the rider : for his name is Death. Hell or
the grave follows him ; and power is given him to " destroy
with sword, and hunger, and with death (the same word is
often used to signify pestilence), and with beasts of the earth."
The description is highly allegorical ; yet at the same time
magnificently stern and grand. It is
" The Giant steed to be bestrode by Death,
As told in the Apocalypse."
Poets and painters have fastened on the symbol, and gathered
from it sublime, though erroneous, imagery.
However, nothing can be plainer than the meaning which
lies hid under this symbol. Death, famine, and pestilence
follow in the steps of war ; nothing is more natural than that
famine should tread on the steps of war, or that pestilence
should follow famine.
The question is — did such pestilence — such famine — such
wholesale slaughter and destruction, happen at this time ? Did
Death on a pale horse ride rough-shod over his victims, and
did hell and the grave follow him ?
Josephus says that when c< Titus, in going his rounds along
the valleys in front of Jerusalem, saw them full of dead bodies,
and the thick putrefaction running from them, he gave a groan,62 OPENING OF THE [LECT. III.
and spreading out his hands to heaven, called God to witness,
that this was not his doing*." l
In another passage — " The multitude of carcases that lay in
heaps one upon another was a horrible sight, and produced a
pestilential stench." 2
In another statement—" The multitude of tjiose that therein
perished exceeded all the destructions that either man or God
brought upon the world." 3
I might quote innumerable passages besides these, but these
are sufficient. If Death on the pale horse ever had a revel,
and feasted over human victims, his greatest banquet was at
the time of Jerusalem's downfal.
According to our Lord's words (Matt, xxiv, 21, 22.)
" Then shall be great tribulation, such as was not from the
beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.
And except those (lays should be shortened, there should no
flesh be saved ; but for the elect's sake those days shall be
shortened."
Such I conceive is the reasonable and satisfactory interpre-
tation of the first four seals. They have each the common
basis of a horse and Ins rider ; they each refer to scenes of
conquest, war, and bloodshed ; they each have a continuous
signification, for the horseman goes forth " conquering and to
conquer;" they each are introduced by one of the four living
creatures, and each are prefaced with the words demanding
attention, " Come and see." It is natural to look for a con-
tinuous interpretation, and we find one, not by ranging over
the history of 200 years, not by turning over the pages of
Gibbon to find some event likely to suit the seal, but in the
defined and specific period of the Jewish war.
First comes the foreign invader, on his white horse, armed
with his bow, the emblem of previous victories, and going
forth " conquering and to conquer."
Then civil war following in the footsteps of foreign invasion.
Then famine, with its balances and short measures.
Then pestilence bringing up the rear of this terrible array.
All is easy, simple, natural, and all finds an exact and
literal fulfilment in the period which we have assigned.
1 Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 12. 2 Ib. lib. vi. cap. 1.
3 Ib. lib. vi. cap. y.

LECT. III.] FIRST FOUB SEALS. 63
It will, I think, be deemed confirmatory of this exposition
now given of the first four seals, to find in a book of an
almost Apostolical character, generally thought to have been
written by the Hernias mentioned by St. Paul (Horn. xvi. 14.),
in such high estimation with the early Christians that it was
called " the Scripture," and " publicly read in the churches,"
that a beast (the common emblem of the Roman power) is
represented rising " from the sea as a whale," (compare Rev.
xiii. 1. ; Dan. vii. 3.) " having upon its head four colours."
" The beast had upon its head four colours, black ^ then red
and blood-colour; after t\\ttt pale ; last of all, white.....
This beast came on so fiercely as if it could destroy the city at
a blow . . . this beast is the emblem of the wrath which
is about to come."1
It will be observed there is a marked coincidence between
the colours of the four horses mentioned in the Apocalypse
and the colours upon the head of the beast mentioned by
Hermas ; and when to this it is added, that the beast, both in
the Apocalypse and the Book of Hermas " rises from the sea,"
that the object of his terrible approach is to " destroy the city"
and that the beast is defined to be u the emblem of the wrath
which is about to come" (an explanation allowed by the best
commentators to refer to the distress about to come upon
Judeea and .Jerusalem), there will be little doubt but that the
Apocalypse and the Vision of Hennas both prefigure the same
events, and that the application of these symbols to the distress
caused by the Roman invasion of Judaea is correct. This gives
great weight to the exposition which refers the first four seals
to the calamities about to come upon the Jewish people in con-
sequence of the invasion of the Romans. It shows that these
views harmonise with the original interpretations of the symbols
of the Apocalypse, and that the theories of our conjectural age
are a modern myth and a hypothetical novelty. It shows that
Cretan bows were as little likely to be prefigured in those
symbols as Staffordshire earthenware, and that Pruetorian pre-
1 " Ilabebat autem bestia ilia super caput colores quatuor, Digram, ileimle
rubrum et sanguinolentum, indc tureum (^Xwpot;, cu^poc, Xfvk'ov £n>'0<T> //£-
/uyyue'i'ov) deirulc album .... sic autem veniebat bestia ilia ut posset in
ictu civitatem delere .... bestia luce tigura est pressure superventunc" r>7c
<>py>/c.— Hernia; Pastor, lib. i. visio 4.

64 OPENING OF THE [LKCT. III.
fects occupy about as legitimate a place in the Apocalypse as
the rapacious provincial governors of the reign of Caracalhi
whose rapacity lasted neither more nor less than eight years.
It shows that neither Greek epigrams on females, nor the lo-
quacity of magpies, serve to throw much light upon its mysteries,
and that the fable of the Cretan dynasty is worthy of the Cretan
character as given by St. Paul.
In a word, it shows that the principles* on which such inter-
pretation is conducted are false and mischievous, and productive
not only of much negative folly, but of much positive harm ;
and it teaches us, that if we would obtain a solution of the
symbols of the Apocalypse, we must be content to look for it
at a period when symbolic teaching was by no means uncommon,
that men of an Apostolic age were more likely to Lave under-
stood Apostolic mysteries than would-be prophets of later
times, and that the explanation given by them of these sym-
bols is probably more in unison with truth, than the inter-
pretation offered by modern theorists ; in fact, that the reason-
able exegesis of contemporaneous authority is more worthy of
credit than the guess-work of after ages, and the " scriptural "
definition of Apocalyptic symbols, as Irenanis, Origen, .Jerome,
and Eusebius, would have called the exposition of Ilermas
Pastor, more fit to be trusted than the crude hypothesis of the
nineteenth century.
Such, then, the nature of these outpourings of the wrath of
God upon a race of evil-doers. Such the mighty conqueror,
and such the woes that followed in his train ; and to crown
the whole, these distinct and specific miseries, so graphically
portrayed in the first four seals, are made the subject of
previous imprecation. In the period immediately preceding
the coming desolation, innocent blood ascends reeking up to
heaven, and cries for vengeance, shaped to the very form and
1 "Ami, first, as to the principles adopted. These, as far as I have been
able to ascertain them, are those only of ingenious conjecture, supported in
detail by what may be termed the doctrine of rw.mblnm-M ; for example, the
meaning of a prediction of Scripture is, in the first place, guessed at ; in the
second, the event so supposed to be had in view is made to quadrate with it to
a certain extent, just in proportion to the* amount of ingenuity exerted ; the
resemblance so obtained is, as it is then thought, too near to have been un-
designed, and the conclusion is, that the needful has been satisfactorily
ascertained."—Professor Lee on Prophecy, Preface, 181.9.

LECT. HI.] FIRST FOUR SEALS. 65
letter of these Apocalyptical predictions. In the words of that
unconscious witness, from whose unwilling lips we wring the
sublimest confirmation of the truth of our holy religion, these
four terrible visitants, war, famine, civil discord and pestilence,
were invoked at that time upon that guilty nation, and that
awful invocation was confirmed by Almighty God. " Now,
whilst they (the zealots) were slaying him (Niger of Persea), he
made this imprecation upon them, that they might undergo
both famine and pestilence in this war; and besides all that,
they might come to the mutual slaughter one of another, ALL
WHICH IMPRECATIONS GOD CONFIRMED AGAINST THESE
IMPIOUS MEN, and was what carne most justly upon them when,
Hot long afterward, they tasted of their own madness, in
their mutual seditions one against another."1
1 Bell. Jucl. lib. iv. cap. 6.

66

LECTURE IV,
THE FIFTH SEAL. THE JEKA OF MARTYRS.
REV. vi. 9, 10, 11.
p. And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls
of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which
they held :
10. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and
true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the
earth ?
11. And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said
unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellow
servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be
fulfilled.
OUR previous lecture embraced the subject of the first four
seals. These were shown to be symbolical of invasion, civil
discord, famine, and pestilence. With the opening" of the First,
a warrior goes forth, " conquering and to conquer/7 He is
described by symbols which make it evident that Rome is the
source of his mission, and that his triumphs would be succes-
sive until they closed in victory. And the overruling provi-
dence of God so accurately fits the fulfilment to the prediction,
that Judrea is for the first time desolated by a Roman conqueror
(for previous reductions of Judsea by the Romans did not
terminate in its destruction), and these desolations are suffered
to continue until, as a nation, the Jews became extinct.
With the opening of the Second, not only is the nature* of the
misery caused by this foreign invasion accurately defined, but the
particular land is pointed out upon which this misery should
come. " The peace is to be taken from the earth " (rrys 7*79)
—Judaea. The previously existing amity between the Romans
and the Jewish people is to be broken up, and Judaea is to be
filled with internal discord and civil slaughter.
With the opening of the Third, the scene of the corning
desolation is still unmistakably defined. Not only is the price

LECT. IV.] THE FIFTH SEAL. 67
to be paid for the "measure of wheat" and the "three
measures of barley," said to be a "denarium,"—the Roman
penny spoken of John, vi. 7. and elsewhere, at that time the
current money of Judaea,—but the peculiar productions of that
land, described as " wheat, and barley, and oil, and wine,"
are smitten by the famine. No language could more clearly
determine the particular land upon which this scarcity was to
come ; whilst the distinct recognition of the current money of
the land, makes it morally certain that Judaea alone must be
intended.
With the opening of the Fourth, the particular land which
death and hell are to cover with their victims is again speci-
fically delineated. " Power was given to them over the fourth
part of the earth," (TTJS yy}s)—Juda>a—" to kill with sword,
and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the
earth/' (7-779 y^/s)—Judaea. I need not say how faithfully this
symbol received its accomplishment ; how at that particular
time there was " great distress in the land," (CTTI rrjs y^s)—
Judaea—" and wrath upon this people,"—the Jews ; or how
the dead bodies " were cast out naked, and seen to be the food
of dogs and wild beasts." l
Indeed, the first four seals present a combined and connected
view of what would naturally happen under the circumstances.
Nothing would be more likely than that foreign invasion should
be followed by civil war, famine, and pestilence. We have
ample testimony that such was the case at that time, and that
the invasion of the Romans was the signal for the commence-
ment of those heart-rending desolations which exterminated the
ancient people of God,—an extermination which the lapse of
^,000 years has not obliterated, and which the historian of that
age has forcibly described as " exceeding all the destructions
that either man or God brought upon the world."
A new picture is presented to us under the Fifth Seal. The
Roman horse and horsemen fade from our view,—war, strife,
famine, and pestilence, recede. The actors in this seal are no
more connected with conquest and battle,—and a new vision
opens upon us,—a vision of plaintive martyrs and mourning
saints.
1 Bell, Jud. lib. iv. cap, 5.

68 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.

FIFTH SEAL.
" And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the
altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God,
and for the testimony which they held :
" And they cried with a loud voice, saying", How long-, O
Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood
on them that dwell on the earth ?
"And white robes were given unto every one of them ; and
it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little
season, until their fellow-servants also and their brethren, that
should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled."
I ask you to observe the grandeur and majesty of this vision.
Invasion, civil discord, famine, and pestilence, are about to
fall upon the enemies of the Church,—when to heighten and
enhance the terribleness of this spiritual drama, the temple of
God is disclosed in heaven. Under the altar, /. <. at the foot
of the altar, the place where the bodies of the victims would be
laid, are seen the souls of the murdered martyrs.
That these souls do not represent invisible or immaterial
spirits is evident from the circumstance that St. John sees them,
and that " white robes are given unto them." They are de-
scribed as the souls of martyrs for their religion ; for they are
" .slain for the n'ord of God and for the testimony ichick thei/
held" They are, moreover, represented as invoking the ven-
geance of God upon their murderers. " How long, (.) Lord,
holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on
them that dwell on the earth?"
It is impossible to conceive a more majestic picture than this
invocation, of his own "elect crying' day and night unto him,"
beseeching him to " finish the work, and cut it short in right-
eousness." " And shall not God avenge his own elect? 1 tell
you that He will avenge them speedily ; nevertheless when the
Son of Man cometh shall he find faith on the earth." *
1 By comparing this passage with Luke, xxi. 22, 23, it will be found that
the vengeance predicted was to be executed by our Lord's coining to the land
of Juda-a. " These be the days of vengeance, ///i/^at EVcuu/o'ewc' .... for
there shall be great distress in the land, f.ir\ rr/c yj/c> and wrath upon this
people."

LECT. IV.] THE ^ERA OF MAETYIIS. 69

" And it was said unto them that they should rest yet a little
season1, until their fellow-servants also, and their brethren,
which should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled ; " and,
as it were, to stay their impatient desire for vengeance upon
their enemies, "white robes are given to them"—the same
honour as that promised to the faithful martyrs at Sardis,—
" they shall walk with me in white, for they are worthy." The
white robes were particularly the insignia of the martyrs. So
in Chapter vii., one of the elders asks St. John, " What are
these which are arrayed in white robes, and whence came they ;"
and the answer is, " These are they which have come out of
great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them
white in the blood of the Lamb."

The whole figure is of a highly poetical character. The ghost
of Patroclus imploring Achilles to avenge his death, or the spi-
rits described by Ossian, shrieking on the clouds and demanding*
blood, sink into insignificance, ns far as mere poetry is con-
cerned, when compared with this magnificent symbol. It is
true of the Bible generally, and especially of the Apocalypse,
that as a poetical composition, independently of its saving
truths, it has never been equalled by any writing in the world.

Mr. Elliot and Dr. dimming refer this seal to the persecu-
tions commencing* with the reion of Diocletian until the intro-

I notice here an unfair translation of the original. It was impossible to
avoid the force of the words t'rri ri/c yt~j(j in Luke, xxi. i2'3., for they are
qualified hy the accompanying clause, " upon this people," which can only
mean the land and people of Jiuhea. By what rules of criticism are the
words tTTt r»/c y»/c translated 4' in the land," Luke, xxi. '23., rendered "on the
earth " in Luke, xviii. .'>. ? It is most evident that one idea was intended
under both passages. The elect cry for vengeance, tKcixtjcrtr ; that vengeance
is promised soon, iv ra^tt ; the Son of Man coineth to execute that vengeance,
and hardly findeth faith on the earth, trrl ri/c yvc« —Judaea. Luke, xviii. 8.
So Luke, xxi. 1M. The days of vengeance, ///up«t t^tK/jo-tair, arrive;
there is great distress in the land, i-xi r?7c yj/c,—Juduea,—and wrath upon this
people, and then shall they see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power
and great glory."
There is no evading the conclusion that the same vengeance is spoken of
in both texts, that it was to come upon " the land," i. c. Judira, and to he
accomplished at the period of the coining of the Son of Man.
1 "Krt yjpurov ^m^or, **' a little season." This is a confirmation of the
date of the Apocalypse. God avenged the blood of his servants only on
those that dwelt in the land of Judira, and the period of that, vengeance was
the time of the destruction of Jerusalem — they had not to wait font/.

70 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.
duction of Christianity by Constantine, A. D. 300. I give Dr.
Cumming's interpretation :—
" This seal comprehends, as its language plainly enough
proves, the rera beginning at the close of the third century,
justly and universally called the /Era of Martyrs. The Chris-
tians were slaughtered in vast numbers,—their blood was poured
out like that of victims at the foot of the altar,—and there, like
Abel's, it sent its piercing cry into the heavens, saying, * How
long! ' The churches were overturned, the congregations
scattered, their Bibles burnt, the holiest and best ' tortured,
not accepting deliverance.' To the cry of these martyrs in their
agony a response was given from on high ; they received * white
robes/ the evidence of acquittal and justification before God ;
and they were told that they must rest until subsequent mar-
tyrs, the victims of anti-christian, that is, papal persecution, the
complement, of the noble army, should be numbered with them,
that both might thus rejoice together."
It is needless to observe, that if the sole reason of applying
this seal to the Diocletian persecution is because of the martyr-
doms which then took place, there are many other periods in
the history of the Church to which it would equally refer. And
how, it may be asked, was the Diocletian persecution avenged
"on them that dwell on the earth"—Judiea ; for judgment
against the betrayers and murderers of the martyrs of Jesus
came on no other people but the Jews, and no other city but
Jerusalem ? Or how could the sufferers under the Diocletian
persecution be said to wait " a little swtson" for their fellow
" victims of anti-christian, that is, papal persecution ? Surely
a period comprising a third part of die world's existence (for
I presume the Austrian and Italian martyrs of our day are
included in the " complement of this noble army") cannot well
be called " a little season."
Or, how again could these martyrs, who should soon be
slain, and who stood in the contemporaneous relationship of
"fellow servants and brethren" to those who were killed
already, be made to suffer in a persecution which had not then
an existence?
I trust to be enabled to show that the Fifth Seal refers to the
period when the book was written, and not to a period 250
years after. That there were martyrs then whose blood cried
for vengeance, that their blood was terribly avenged, that this

LECT. IV.] THE JERA OF MARTYRS. 71
vengeance took place soon, and that they had but to rest a " little
season'* before the vengeance came.
Our first point must be to show that the Christian Church
suffered extraordinary persecution about this time, and that the
vision seen by St. John " of souls under the altar slain for the
word of God, and for the testimony which they held," was
abundantly realised.
Let us consider, first, our Lord's predictions with reference
to this subject. Luke xxi. 12.: " But, before all these (i. e.
before the signs which preceded the destruction of Jerusalem),
they shall lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering
you up to the synagogues and into prisons, being brought before
kings and rulers for my name's sake ;" " and ye shall be be-
trayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolk, and friends ;
and some of you shall they cause to he put to death"
Matt. xxiv. 9- * " They shall deliver you up to be afflicted, and
shall kill you ; and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's
sake."
Such were the prophecies which predicted that our Lord's
disciples just at this time (/. c. the time immediately preceding
the destruction of Jerusalem), should meet with unwonted trials
and persecutions ; that the furnace should be heated seven times
more than it was wont to be heated; that whatever affliction
they had previously endured should be light in comparison
with that which they were about to suffer; that an "hour of
temptation" was coming upon the earth, during which " many
should be offended, and should betray one another, and hate one
another ;" and because " iniquity should abound, the love of
many should wax cold."
Now did the Christian Church meet leith unwonted perse-
cution at this particular time ?
Persecution had followed the Church from its earliest days;
but that was rather the outburst of popular feeling than or-
ganised, systematic persecution. Stephen had been martyred
in such an outbreak; and with a view of rendering himself
popular with the Jewish people, " Herod the king stretched
forth his hands to vex certain of the Church, and he killed
James, the brother of John, with the sword."l
1 Acts, xii. 1, 2.
r4

72 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.
But in the period immediately preceding* the destruction of
Jerusalem, persecution sanctioned by imperial authority took a
more definite shape, and regal mandates were stereotyped in acts
of savage cruelty.
St. Paul says of the extraordinary trial of that period, " I
think that God hath set forth us the Apostles last, (" ^/xas,
TOV$ d,7rocrToXov9 ecr^arou?," us, the last apostles, —alluding
possibly to the circumstance that preceding apostles had already
"gone to the place due to them from the Lord") " as it were
appointed unto death ; for we are made a spectacle unto the
world, unto angels and unto men." 1
He records with much feeling his defence before Nero : " At
my first answer, no man stood with me, but all men forsook
me. I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.5'2
St. Peter warns his converts of a season of unusual trial
which was fast approaching: "Think it not strange concerning
the fiery trial that is to try you, as though some strange thing
happened unto you/'3
St. James : " Behold we count them happy which endure.
Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of
the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy."4
Nothing is more certain from the testimony of the sacred
books themselves, that the period immediately preceding the
destruction of Jerusalem was one of cruel and savage perse-
cution.
The next point is,—Is this confirmed by testimony indepen-
dent of the Scriptures ? Did the Christians thus suffer in the
reign of Nero—in the period for which we contend.
Tacitus0, speaking of the fire at Home wantonly kindled by
Nero, says : " To do away with the foul disgrace of having set
the city on fire, Nero laid the guilt, and inflicted the most ex-
quisite tortures on those men, who, under the vulgar appellation
of Christians, were already branded with deserved infamy.... At
1 1 Cor. iv. 9. 2 g Tjm< jv> lo\
* 1 Peter, iv. 12. 4 jaineS) v. u.
5 " Ergo abolendo nimori Nero subclidit reos, et qiucsitissimis pcenis affecit,
<[uos per flagitia invisos, Christianos appellabat.....Igitur primo
correpti qui fatebantur, deinde indicio eorum multitudo ingens, baud perinde
in crimine incendii, quum odio humani generis convicti sunt. Et pereuntibus
addita ludibria, aut ferarum tergis contecti, laniatu canum interirent, aut cru-
cibus affixi, aut flamrnandi, atque ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni luminis
ureretur."— Tacitus, Ann. xv. 44.

LBCT. IV.] THE JERA OF MARTYRS. 73

first those only were seized who confessed their persuasion; and
afterwards, by their information, a vast multitude were appre-
hended and condemned, not so much for their crime of setting
the city on fire, as for their hatred of all mankind. Their suf-
ferings at the place of execution were embittered by derision
and insult. Some were disguised in the skins of wild beasts,
and torn to pieces by dogs ; some were crucified ; while others,
smeared over with combustible matter, were used as torches to
illuminate the night."

Suetonius, speaking of Nero's reign : " The Christians, a
race of men of a new and impious superstition, were severely
tortured." l

Juvenal 2 says of the same reign, speaking of a creature of
Nero's whose name was Tigellinus, —

" If you dare to speak of his enormities, you shall suffer as
the Christians do. You shall suffer the same punishment with
those who stand burning in their own flame and smoke ; their
heads held up by a stake fixed to their chins, till they make a
long stream of blood, and melted sulphur on the ground."

Another ancient writer 3 turned their sufferings into ridi-
cule, and mocked the heroic firmness with which these noble
missionaries of Christ went to their death. I attempt a para-
phrase : —

" Look into the arena. You will see a Christian ; his name
is Mucius. He is about to place his own limbs on the burning
pyre. Do not be so dull as to consider him a hero or a martyr ;
it is nothing more than obstinacy ; for when he is offered the
choice of wearing his shirt steeped in pitch, or of sacrificing to
the statue of the emperor, he says, I cannot do it ; I prefer to
die."

1 <f Afflicti suppliciis Christian!, genus hominum superstitionis novte et
malefica\" — In vita Ncronis, l().
2 a Pone Tigellinum, tjedzi lucebis in ilia,
Qua stantes ardent, qua fixo gutture funiant,
Et latum media, sulcum deducis arena." — Sat. i. 155.
3 Martial : " In matutina nuper spectatus arena
Mucius, imposuit qui sua membra focis,
Si patiens, fortisque tibi, durusque videtur
AbderitaiiR' pectora plebis babes,
Nam quuni dicatur tunica pruesente molest a,
Ure inanuni, plus cst dicere, non facio." — Lib. x. Ep. %5.

74 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LBCT. IV.

To this testimony I shall add that of the Christian histories
themselves.

Eusebius1 says : " Nero, having the government firmly esta-
blished under him, began to take up arms against that very
religion which acknowledges the one Supreme God. He was
the first of the emperors that displayed himself an enemy of
piety towards the Deity. Thus Nero, publicly announcing him-
self as the chief enemy of God, was led on in his fury to
slaughter the Apostles. Paul is therefore said to have been
beheaded at Rome, and Peter to have been crucified under him."

Tertullian :— "Consult your edicts, there you will find that
Nero was the first who savagely persecuted this sect, springing up
everywhere, and especially at Rome, with the imperial sword. But
we even glory in such a leader of our punishment, for whoever
knows who he was, can understand that there could be nothing
great and good but what was condemned by Nero."2

I beg you to observe from this accumulation of evidence, that
the period immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem
was one of savage and fiery persecution to the Christian
Church ; and that, although the Fifth Seal may be referred to
any period of suffering when martyrs have cried from beneath
the altar, it can refer to none with greater perspicuity than to
Nero's reign. Persecutions, indeed, arose under Domitian and
Diocletian ; martyrs have been found in every age and dispen-
sation of the Church ; but the point for which we contend is
this, — we have named a certain date as the date of the writing
of the Apocalypse — we find, from the internal evidence of the
book, that it was written when the martyrs' blood was poured
out like water ; and we want proof to show that at that period
such martyrdoms took place.

That evidence I consider we have in large abundance. No-
thing can be more clear or convincing. The prophecies of our
Lord — the facts related in the Scriptures — the testimony of
Heathen writers — and the evidence of Christian Fathers—all

1 Eus. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 25.
2 " Consulitc commentaries vestros ; illic reperietis primum Neroncm in
hanc sectam, cum maxime Roma; orientern, Ctesariano gladio ferocisse. Sod
tali dedicatore damnationis nostnc etiam gloriamur. Qui eniin scit ilium,
intelligere potest, non nisi grande aliquod bonum a Nerone darnnatum."—
Tertull. Apolog. 5.

LECT. IV.] THE -&RA OF MARTYRS. 75
go to prove that this particular period was a period of great
and terrible persecution, when Christian blood flowed in tor-
rents ; and that the Fifth Seal is a confirmation of our Lord's
own words — "The time cometh when whosoever killeth you
will think that he doeth God service."
Having shown that the period immediately preceding the
destruction of Jerusalem was an *era of martyrs, above that of
any period which preceded it, I invite your attention to the
appeal of these martyred saints to God, to "judge and avenge
t/ieir Mood on them that dwelt on the earth."
" How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and
avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth."1
Now this vengeance can only refer to that avenging wrath
which fell upon JucUea and Jerusalem. No other vengeance
came down upon any persecutors at any other age of the Church.
Domitian and Diocletian persecuted the Church, but Rome
Pagan did not fell in consequence of their persecutions. When
Home Pagan had merged into Rome Papal, the Waldenses and
the Albigenses were hunted down like wild beasts by the edicts
of Pope Leo X., bat Rome Papal only reared her head the
higher because of these exterminations, Protestants died by
thousands on St. Bartholomew's day ; but the Te Deum was
chanted forth at Rome in honour of that slaughter, as if Rome
had achieved some mighty victory.
Not so with the persecuting Jewish Church. That Church
drank deeply of Christian blood, and deeply was that blood
avenged. The souls of martyrs from beneath the altar implored
vengeance, and that vengeance was at hand. The hour of
retribution against those whose unrelenting hatred had followed
the disciples "from city to city" had arrived, and the pre-
diction of the Saviour was about to receive its accomplish-
ment:— "Wherefore behold I send unto you prophets, and
wise men, and scribes; and some of them ye shall kill
and crucify, and some of them shall ye scourge in your
synagogues, and persecute them from city to city, that
1 Observe the expression " on them that dwell on the earth "—CCTTO TWV vei-
roiKovi'TMv £7ri Ti/c, yfjc—**n expression only used in the Apocalypse of the
inhabitants of Jiulsca, which is abundantly proved by the many passages in
which it is found in contrast to "every kindred, and tongue, and people, and
nation ;" t. e. heathen who were not Jews.

76 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.
upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the
earth, from the blood of righteous Abel, unto the blood of
Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple
and the altar ; verily I my unto you all these things shall come
upon this generation" 1
Eusebius2, in a wonderful manner, illustrates this vengeance
as coming in consequence of the shedding of this righteous
blood. He gives us an account of the martyrdom of James
the Just ; not James the brother of John slain by Herod, but
James the son of Alpheus, the brother, or near relation, of our
Lord, the first bishop of Jerusalem, called James the Just, on
account of his pre-eminent justice.
The Jewish people corne together unto James, and desire
him to persuade the people not to be led astray after Jesus as
the Messiah. They place him upon a wing of the temple, and
say to him, " O thou just man, whom we ought all to believe,
since the people are led astray after Jesus that was crucified,
declare to us what is the door to Jesus that was crucified," and
he answered with a loud voice, " Why do ye ask me respect-
ing" Jesus the Son of Man : he is now sitting in the heavens,
on the right hand of great power, and is about to come, — /zeXXei
€p)(€o~0ai, is soon about to come, — in the clouds of heaven."
At this they cast him down from the wing of the temple,
and began to stone him, saying, " Let us stone James the
Just;" arid one of them, a fuller, beat out the brains of Justus
with a club that he used to beat out clothes.
Clement, whose words are quoted by Eusebius, adds, " Im-
mediately after this, Vespasian invaded and took Judaea."
Hegesippus, quoted also by Eusebius, " So admirable a man
was James, that even the wiser part of the Jews were of opinion
that this was the cause of the immediate siege of Jerusalem,
which happened to them for no other reason than the crime
against him."
Josephus declares, " These things happened to the Jews to
avenye James the Just, who was the brother of him that is
called Christ, whom the Jews had slain, notwithstanding his
pre-eminent justice."
It is impossible to imagine more satisfactory proof than
this. One would almost imagine that the writers iu question
1 Matt, xxiil 34% 36. 2 Euseb. Ecclcs. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 23.

J.ECT. IV.] THE JERA OF MABTYRS. 77

must have read the prophetic statement before us,—must have
heard the martyrs' cry, " How long, O Lord, dost thou not
judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?"
This blood is poured on the earth like water—it ascends
reeking up to heaven — it brings back its response.

" Immediately after this Vespasian invaded and took Judcea."
" This was the cause of the immediate siege of Jerusalem."
" These things happened to the Jews to avenge James the
Just."

Then was the martyrs' cry answered, — then was the mar-
tyrs' blood avenged, — "when all the righteous blood, from the
blood of Abel to that of Zacharias came upon that genera-
tion, " when the " Lord sent forth his armies, and destroyed
those murderers1^ and burnt up their city," — when " Jerusa-
lem that killed the prophets, and stoned them that were sent
unto her," — when the " city drunk with the blood of the saints
and of the martyrs of Jesus/' received double at the hand of the
Lord for all her iniquities, — when the prediction had its full
accomplishment, "Rejoice over her ye holy apostles and
prophets, for God hath avenf/ed you on her."

I have yet one more point to establish, winch is that this
vengeance came soon. The martyrs are bid to rest for a " little
season, until their fellow-servants also, and their brethren that
should be killed us they were, should be fulfilled " ("ol /xe'XXoi>-
Te? cxTTo/cret^ecr^at," that should soon be killed—the invariable
force of the verb jme'XXco being to designate something soon
about to happen).

This is a powerful argument for the Neronic date of the
Apocalypse. The only people and city upon which vengeance
was taken for the blood of the martyrs were the people of
Judtea and the city of Jerusalem.2 That people and city perished

1 Matt. xxii. 7«—In this parable the Jews are called murderers, because of
their persecution of God's holy apostles and prophets ; " The remnant took
his servants, and intreated them spitefully, and slew them."
2 If it he objected, why should vengeance come upon Jerusalem for per-
secutions which took place at Rome, it must be answered that the Jews in
every land were the ringleaders of persecutions against the Christians ; they
were so at Antioch, Iconium, Corinth, and elsewhere. Jerusalem, moreover,
was the only city threatened with vengeance for persecution, and upon her
" came all the righteous blood shed on all the earth."

78 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV,
almost as soon as the prophetic statements of the Apocalypse
were uttered—there was no long interval of time between the
prophecy and its accomplishment; the martyrs had only to wait
44 a little season," and their number was complete.
How that little season is made to extend from the days of
Diocletian to the days of Papal persecution, is what I cannot
understand. I am not aware of any passage in Scripture where
the expression a " little season," can be made to signify so
long an interval of time. Take, for instance, the corresponding
clause of John xvi. 16., " A little while and ye shall not see me,
and again a little while and ye shall see me, because I go to the
Father/' Here the expression " a little while," is not used of a
long interval of time extending over hundreds of years, but of the
interval of time between Christ's ascension and his coming again
to receive his servants unto himself; that it is not used of the
period between his death and his ascension, when he was seen of
his disciples for forty days, is evident from the clause, "Because
I go to the Father." /// that interval of forty days he had not
gone to the Father. His words to Mary Magdalene sufficiently
account for this :—"Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended
wito my Father" And not till those forty days were ex-
pired did he ascend unto " his Father and their Father, to his
God and their God."
The expression, then, "a little season," cannot he well used of
any lengthened interval of time ; on the contrary, it stains to
define a short period, such as elapsed between Christ's ascen-
sion to heaven and his coming again to destroy Jerusalem —
such as intervened between the martyrdom of Stephen and the
martyrdom of James the Just, or that of the last of those, who-
ever he might have been, who, at the period immediately before
Christ's corning, was faithful unto death, and sealed his testi-
mony with his blood.
It would seem also that Christ's martyrs were slain up to the
very time of his coming to destroy Jerusalem, and that the fire
of persecution waxed hotter as the time drew nigh.
We have seen James the Just slain immediately before his
coming. "Immediately after this, Vespasian invaded and
took Judaea." It is also remarkable that Nero's persecution
was most violent at this particular time. It was during the
latter part of Nero's reign that two apostles, Peter and Paul,

LECT. IV.] THE JEEA OF MARTYRS. 79
suffered martyrdom at Rome, and James suffered martyrdom at
Jerusalem.1 With what severity that persecution was carried
on, we learn from St. Paul's own writings, where we find that
they who had been his companions in a thousand dangers, and
who had braved with him a thousand perils, quailed before the
tribunal of that merciless tyrant; here Demas left him—here
Crescens and Titus were not present with him, only Luke was
with him ; and he, too, seems to have trembled before the
wild beast, Nero. " At my first answer, no man stood with
me; but all men forsook me ; I pray God that it may not
be laid to their charge."2 It is not unlikely but that during
the invasion of Judaea by the Romans, during the three and
a half years of the Jewish war, witnesses for Christ were
found who proclaimed his immediate advent, and who were
faithful unto death. This is confirmed by the statements of
Rev. xi. 3., "I will give power unto my two witnesses,
and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and three-
score days, clothed in sackcloth. And when they shall have
finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the
bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall over-
come them, and kill them."
I see no difficulty in comprehending why it should be said to
the martyrs already slain, that they should u rest yet for a little
season, until their fellow-servants also and brethren, which
should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled;" on the
contrary, it would seem that their number was not complete
till those were slain who almost saw his coining, and who, like
James the Just, stood so near unto his kingdom as to say,
1 " Let us now suppose, what was only the fact, that as the time of the
end drew near, the persecutions and trials of the Christians would become
more and more terrible ; that not only the Jew with his hierarchy, but even
the Roman powers, would join in the tragedy ; that the betraying of brother
and brother, father and son, and the like, would he still more frequent and
more fatal,, and in short that iniquity would more and more abound. Under
such circumstances it would perhaps seem necessary that some further in-
struction and encouragement should be afforded to the Church, yet only in its
infancy, and harassed in a manner never before witnessed by any human
society."—Lee on Prophecy, 292.
" Discipuli quoque diffusi per orbern . . qui et ipsi a Judans inse-
quentibus multa perpessi. . . llomuc, postremo, per Neronis ssevitiam,
sanguinem Cbristianum seminavennu."—TcrtulL, ApoL 81.
2 2 Tim. iv. 16.

80 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.
" Why do ye ask me respecting the Son of Man ; He is now
sitting on the right hand of great power, and is about to come
in the clouds of heaven"
To recapitulate. I have found no necessity for referring
this seal to the persecutions commencing under the reign of
Diocletian and reaching to the age of Constantine. I have
been unable to recognise any authority beyond that of the
merest arbitrary assumption for the date A.D. 300. If the
sole reason assigned for the settlement of this date be that
the age of Diocletian was an ajra of martyrs, why should
not the Marian age be fixed upon as well as the Diocle-
tian ? or if we are at liberty to make guesses on a sub-
ject of this kind, why not a future date, A.D. 3000 (if
Dr. Gumming will suffer the world to exist so long), as well
as A.D. 300? I cannot think that in a prophecy, purporting
to be one of " things which must shortly come to pass," St.
John would have looked for an (era of martyrs beyond his own
immediate age, and I have been unable to find that Theodosia,
Pamphilus, and other martyrs of the Diocletian persecution,
had any idea that their sufferings were prefigured in the
Apocalypse, or that they should have to wait for Anne Askew
or Sir John Oldcastle. I have not discovered that the Dio-
cletian persecution was avenged on " them that dwell on the
earth," /. f?. the Jewish people,—for long ere this persecution
commenced, Hadrian had extinguished the last spark of their
nationality: neither has it appeared as clear as it ought to do,
that the martyrs under the Diocletian persecution could be said
to rest " a little season," say 1000 years or ,vo, while they
waited for their brethren who should be the victims of " Papal
persecution"!!! Mutato nomine! Say rather, Protestant
bigotry, Protestant uncharitableness, and Protestant persecution.
Why what would Dr. Cumming and all his school have done
but for this "Papal persecution." Had there been no Beast in
the Book of Revelation, no Scarlet Lady, all decked with
gold and precious stones, no popes and cardinals flaming in
scarlet-coloured vestments, he and they would have been starving
long ago. Their very means of existence have depended upon
the supposed recognition of the subject of " Papal persecution "
in the Apocalypse, and the shibboleth of their party ought to
be, " Waldenses and Albigenses." It makes one fairly sick to
think of their ingratitude. It is this "Papal persecution/'

LECT. IV.] THE JERA OF MARTYRS. 81
this odium theologicum, this intense abomination of Rome and
the Roman Catholic religion, founded upon the unscriptural and
absurd belief that Rome Papal occupies a place in the Book
of God, which has raised them into (on this account) an
undeserved reputation, and which continues to exalt them in
the scale of popular favour. I desire to denounce this rank in-
justice against an erring*, yet still a cognate Church, with all the
energies of my being, and I shall not consider my life wasted if
I can loosen the bands of this insensate clamour; not that I have
the slightest sympathy with what I consider the manifold errors
of the Church of Rome ; the only sympathy I have is one which
is dear to all English hearts,—sympathy with the oppressed
against the oppressor, with Papal dignified patience against
Protestant undignified persecution. Papal persecution !!! Why
they know, or they ought to know, that there is not one single
word from Genesis to Revelation, which by any reasonable man
can be tortured into the remotest recognition of a system which
then had not even its existence. I repeat it, they know, or
they ought to know, that Papal Rome and Roman Catholics
are not even hinted at in the Scriptures, and that every tirade
fulminated against them from arguments drawn from the Apo-
calypse, is as harmless as "sounding1 brass or a tinkling cym-
bal." And what if this statement should be true ? What if the
sacred writers never contemplated the remotest allusion to popes
and synods ? What if Great Babylon should turn out to be Jeru-
salem after all (as I believe it will), and a closer and more critical
examination of the sacred text should roll back the mass of
deep-seated prejudice, and blind aggression ? What if " Papal
persecution" should be found a theme wholly foreign to the
time, age, habits of thought, and circumstances of those for
whose warning the Apocalypse was written ? Then what be-
comes of that theological bugbear which has been evoked to
gratify popular antipathies, and to fan the flame of popular
indignation ? What becomes of the undignified clamour of
Exeter Hall, and the anathemas of its distinguished ornaments ?
And what also becomes of the immortal interests of those
whose ears have been "turned away from the truth unto fables/'
who have been taught to believe that their everlasting salvation
is bound up with an irreconcileable hatred of the Church of
Rome? Papal persecution !!! But I have done with it — as
G

82 THE FIFTH SEAL. [LECT. IV.
have not the parties alluded to, as if only to show that enlight-
ened Protestantism of the 19th century shall not be much behind
the intolerance of a past age. But if ever a time comes, as I be-
lieve it will ere long, when darkness shall not be put for light, or
light for darkness; when bitter shall not be put for sweet, or
sweet for bitter; when error shall not occupy the seat of truth, or
blind conjecture usurp the place of legitimate deduction ; when
unfounded assertion shall grow pale and dim before the fruits
of patient study, and guess-work shall be thought less worthy
of credit than valid argument and logical inference ; whenever
that day shall begin to dawn, (and may God in His mercy
hasten the time), then the reign of these short-sighted inter-
preters will be near its close, and the dreams of these would-be
Apocalyptical prophets will be over. Visions of Popes and
Councils, Turks and Railways, Mahometans and Russians,
Armageddon and Sebastopol, will only serve to provoke the
smile of scorn and pity, and authorised exponents of Holy
Scripture will feel constrained to be more cautious how they
advance such conjectural systems of interpretation, lest haply
they might he found offering wanton and indefensible insult to
reason, to Scripture, and to God.
To return from this digression to our recapitulation of the
Fifth Seal. I have found no necessity whatever for referring
this seal to the Diocletian persecution. I have not been able to
discover that the Diocletian persecution was avenged on " them
that dwell on the earth," «'. r., the Jewish people, or that the
martyrs under that persecution rested a " little season," when
they waited for their fellow-servants who suffered under Papal
tyranny. I have not been able to recognise any authority for
the assumed date, A.D. 300.
But I have found an a*ra of martyrs at the period when the
book was written — that their blood allied to heaven for ven-
geance, and that the vengeance came — that the vengeance did
not come immediately upon their cry, but it came soon — that
they had to rest " a little while," during which " little while "
the fire of persecution raged more terribly than ever against
their fellow-servants and brethren " which should be killed as
they were ; " and that when that time was expired, " Jerusalem,
which killed the prophets, and stoned them which were sent
unto her," " was rewarded as she had rewarded them," " and
the cup which she had filled, was filled unto her double."

LECT. IV.] THE MKA. OF MARTYRS. 83

Then was the martyrs' blood avenged, — then was the cry of
those "slain for the word of God and for the testimony which
they held" i. e.9 of those slain for the public preaching of Chris-
tianity [a state of things referring palpably to Apostolic tiroes,
and not to a subsequent age of the Church] answered — "The
Lord sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and
burned up their city."

a 2

84

LECTURE V.

THE SIXTH SEAL.

REV. vi. 12—17.
12. And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was
a great earthquake ; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the
moon became as blood ;
13. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth
her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.
14. And the heaven departed as a scrowl when it is rolled together; and
every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
15. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and
the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free
man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains ;
16*. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the
face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:
17- For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to
stand ?
WE interpreted the Fifth Seal of the persecutions of the
Christian Church under the reign of Nero. We showed that
the cera immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem
might justly be called an a?ra of martyrs ; and that the vision
might well he seen of souls under the altar "slain for the word
of God, and for the testimony which they held/' We proved
that these persecutions became more violent and decided as the
period advanced towards the consummation, and that the
" perilous times " of " the last days," developed in the apostary
which those times induced, afforded satisfactory reason why
the martyrs of that age should be told to " rest yet for a little
season, until their fellow servants also, and their brethren
which should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled."
We then proceeded to show that the blood of these martyrs
cried to heaven for vengeance. " How long, O Lord ! dost
thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on
the earth," i. e. the Jews. And we were enabled to prove not

LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 85

only that a response was given to the cry of God's elect, but
that at the hands of no other people but those emphatically
distinguished as "they that dwell on the earth" was this ven-
geance required. " That upon you may come all the righteous
blood shed upon the earth . . . Verily I say unto you,
all these things shall come upon this generation" l

We then went on to establish the position that the vengeance,
for which the elect cried day and night, came soon. The
martyrs had but to rest ** a little season" before their fellow
servants and brethren, which should be killed as they were,
were fulfilled. No long interval of time elapsed between the
martyr's cry and the answer to that cry. With the death of
James the Just, the brother of our Lord, that vengeance began
to arrive. Those were " the days of vcnyeance that all things
which are written may be fulfilled." 2

I am content to leave this interpretation to the judgment of
every candid and dispassionate mind. The Apocalypse itself
offers no reason why the Fifth Seal should be referred to the
Diocletian persecution beyond that of the " Doctrine of Resem-
blances," which it is evident would apply with equal force to
any other persecution. History does not say that any retribution
was exercised upon the dwellers of Judani for the cruelties of
Diocletian ; nor does the common use of language justify the
idea that " a little season " can, with any propriety, be ex-
panded into hundreds of years. A critical examination of the
sacred text does not lead us to conclude that the contempora-
neous martyrdom "of their fellow-servants, also, and their
brethren that should — (,ww) — be killed as they were" can be
made to refer with any propriety to sufferers of a distant age
and of a distinct persecution. Neither does a due attention to
the immediate accomplishment of the prophecy warrant our
placing the victims of Jewish enmity and Papal tyranny in
the same calendar.

On the other hand, History does say that the times for which
we have fixed the interpretation of this seal, were times of
great and hitherto unheard of persecution.3 History does say

1 Matt, xxiii. 35, :H>. * Luke, xxi. *2.
3 It is worthy of observation that as the persecution under Nero was the
rst authorised persecution of Christianity, so the war under Nero was the

86 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.
that this persecution was avenged on the dwellers in a parti-
cular land ; and that land, the land of Judtea, History does
say that this vengeance came soon, " So that they who peruse
the history may know, in some measure, that the divine ven-
geance did not lone/ delay to visit them for their iniquity
against the Christ of God."1 History does say that "The
divine justice for their crimes against Christ and his Apo-
stles, finally overtook them, totally destroying the whole gene-
ration of these evil doers from the earth/'2
And here let me call attention to the narrow limits within
which the system of interpretation which we have adopted
compels us to restrict, not simply the exposition of this parti-
cular seal, but the exposition of the entire book. We cannot
claim for ourselves the liberty which is taken by those from
whom we differ. We dare not make a leap of "200 years, and
explain this seal of the Diocletian persecution. An interpre-
tation must be found suited to the day and age of the Apoca-
lypse, or our system falls to the ground. There must be no
roaming over one century after another to discover some event
to agree with the prediction ; there must be no turning over
the leaves of Gibbon, or any other historian of subsequent times,
to find some coincidence which may suit the seal ; there must
be no treating hundreds of years as if they were so many days,
and establishing a system of chronology of which the book
itself does not say one word.
But we have laid down certain premises, which confine our
interpretation within very narrow limits. We assert that the
book was written previous to the destruction of .Jerusalem ;
and we must find an interpretation for it within those limits ;
and what t.s ?//o;v, we. must fi/td ftn interpretation for the tehnte
of it within those (units. If this cannot be done, our system is
good for nothing, and falls to the ground. But if this can be done,
the inference is unavoidable, the interpretation must be right,
Add to this, if we are enabled to present an intelligible and con-
commencement of ihe extermination of the Jewish people ; and as in that
war Jewish Christians were not recognisable from .Jews, inasmuch aa both
followed the temple service, not only would the Jewish Christians be required
to worship the gods of their conquerors, but they would he exposed to the
persecutions of the Romans, as well as of their own countrymen.
1 Eus. Eccles. Hist., lib. iii. cap. 5. 2 Ibid. lib. Hi, cap. 5.

LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 87

sistent explanation of the whole book upon this principle, we may
take it for granted that we are correct with regard to the
question of the (late of the Apocalypse ; for if, according to our
opponents, the whole history of the world and of the Church,
from the commencement of Christianity down to the end of
time, is not too wide a sphere in which to find a suitable
interpretation ; and if, according to the premises we have laid
down, an interpretation can be found concentrated within the
limits of a very few years, (such a space as elapsed between
St. John's banishment to Patrnos, in the latter part of Nero's
reign, and the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 70), there is no
resisting the conclusion that we are proceeding upon a correct
principle. In other words, if we are able to compress within
the history of three or four years what they with extreme
difficulty, and oftentimes by means of fanciful interpretation,
scatter over a period of {2,000 years, the "probability amounts
almost to demonstration that we are not in any grievous error
with regard either to the date or the interpretation of the
Apocalypse.

SIXTH SI:AL.
" And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and lo,
there was a great earthquake ; and the sun became black as
sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood.
" And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig
tree casteth her untimely tigs, when she is shaken of a mighty
wind.
" And the heaven departed as a scrowl when it is rolled
together ; and every mountain and island were moved out of
their places.
" And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the
rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and
every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens
and in the rocks of the mountains.
" And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide
us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from
the wrath of the Lamb.
u 4

88 THE SIXTH SEAL. [Leer. V.
" For the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be
able to stand?7'1
According- to the plan which I have adopted, I give first the
substance of Dr. dimming"'s exposition.
" This language, strong as it is, cannot describe the day
of judgment, for the sequel, as well as the whole chronology2
of the Apocalypse disproves this." lie then gives texts to
show that similar language is used of less awful events than
the day of judgment.3
" We may, in fact we must, therefore, apply the language of
the Sixth Seal to SOUK; great revolution less conclusive than the
final judgment. That revolution we believe to have been the
final downfal of Paganism and the adoption of Christianity by
the Emperor Constantine, in the fourth century. Our chro-
nology also confirms this application. We can scarcely con-
ceive a transition more stupendous ; the champions of Pa-
ganism, Maximin, (ialerius, and Diocletian, were crushed.
Its sun set, its stars were quenched, its firmament covered witli
blackness ; and before the majestic progress of the Christian
religion, lifted from the depths of depression to the very highest
platform of imperial grandeur and national power, literally and
truly the opposing kings, and generals, and soldiers, and free-
men fled ; Christianity reigned at that day without a rival."
" These seem to me," he adds, " rational, consistent, and
historical illustrations of the symbols referred to. I have read
nothing at all to disprove my interpretations."
Now, does any intelligent and reasonable man see any indi-
1 Rev. vi. 12—17-
2 This is the stumbling-block in the way of these expositions. I am not
aware of any system of chronology in the Apocalypse: whatever there is must
be of the briefest kind, for it is a prophecy of things which " must abort ly In'
done." Added to this, the same events are treated of in the last equally with
the first pages of the Apocalypse. Take, for instance, the coming of Christ,
which is the exordium, the middle, and the finale of this mysterious volume ;
the New Jerusalem spoken of, chap. iii. 12., as well as in chap. xxi.; the
" great city," devoted to destruction, everywhere mentioned throughout the
Revelation ; the woes of the Apocalypse everywhere spoken of as falling upon the
princes, merchants, and inhabitants of Jvuhca. This reiteration of the same
events, interwoven as it is with every page and line, makes it morally certain
that no more fatal hindrance to the legitimate interpretation of this book was
ever devised than that which supposes the existence of a system of chronology.
a Jen iv. 23, 24. 28, 29.; HOB. x. 8. LECT. V.J THE SIXTH SEAL. 89

cation of the triumph of Christianity over Paganism in this
seal ? Such a triumph would he more fitly shadowed forth hy
emblems significant of victory, than hy figures descriptive of
calamity and misfortune. The sun black as sackcloth of hair,
and the moon as blood, arid the stars of heaven falling, and the
heaven departing as a scrowl, and the kings of the earth
hiding themselves and calling on the mountains and rocks to
cover them, are figures which can only be used with propriety
of calamitous events. And the \vhole analogy of Scripture
requires that they should be used only of such events. To ex-
plain symbols expressive of wrath and punishment of events
connected with triumph and victory, is surely a strange inversion
of the legitimate principles of Scriptural interpretation. As
well might we suppose that the symbols under which Isaiah
describes the desolation of Idunia'a, depicted its glory and
greatness, or that the day of the Lord of the prophet Joel was
a delineation of the triumphs of Israel. Besides which, how
can Maximin, Galerius, or Diocletian, be called " the kings of
the earth," Jiuhea; or how can " the wrath of the Lamb" be
transformed into "the majestic progress of the Christian re-
ligion"? I confess I cannot see the faintest allusion either to
Maximin, Galerius, or Diocletian. I can see nothing which
leads me to suppose that this seal represents the Christian
religion " lifted from the depths of depression to the highest
platform of national grandeur/' The only grandeur I can see
in this seal is the grandeur of dismay, and terror, and despair :
if ever language was emblematical of wrath and woe, and
agony and distress, it is the language of this magnificent
symbol. No wonder that a distinguished painter1 should have
supposed that it shadowed forth the awful day of judgment.
No wonder that the imagination should have been betrayed, and
the judgment warped, by the majestic imagery of this superb
figure. It would seem to me that terror, and not Christianity,
reigns under this symbol, "without a rival;" and that the

1 Panby's " Last Judgment." — One of the most striking figures in the
painting is that of a slave bursting his fettered hands asunder, and welcoming
the coining Deity ; we hardly need to l>e reminded that the bondman equally
with the freeman hides himself in the dens and rocks of the mountains90 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LKCT. V.
triumph designated is not the triumph of religion, but the
triumph of desolation and despair.
I proceed to offer a somewhat different explanation of this
seal. And, first, I would observe, in common with those from
whom I differ, that this language, strong as it is, does not
necessarily describe the destruction of material things supposed
to be consequent on the day of judgment. " We must not,"
says Dr. Lee, " understand by such expressions as * the
heaven departed as a scroxvl/ ' every mountain and island
were moved out of their places/ any such physical phenomenon
as the words literally imply; for if the heavens should have so
departed, and the mountains so moved, how could the kings of
the earth have hid themselves within the latter?" Nothing is
more common in the Scriptures, than that great changes,
especially great calamities, should be indicated by earthquakes,
tempests, eclipses of the heavenly bodies, and the falling of
stars to the earth. This is easily accounted for when we re-
member that the ancients were ignorant of the movements of
the heavenly bodies, — that an eclipse threw them into terror,
like the Peruvians, — that they were unable to account for the
meteoric appearances called falling stars, and supposed that
they literally fell to the earth. Hence they employed this
language to denote great events, and especially calamitous
events ; it would be absurd to interpret such language literally,
or to suppose that the sun literally became black as sackcloth of
hair, and the stars literally fell to the earth.
Isaiah, xxxiv. i., thus describes the destruction of Iduma»a :
— "All the host of heaven shall be dissolved; the heavens
shall be rolled together as a scrowl, and all their host shall fall
down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig
from the fig tree ; for my sword .shall be bathed in heaven,
behold it shall come down upon Idumiea."
Joel describes the invasion of a hostile army numerous as
locusts under a similar figure1: — "The day of the Lord
cometh, for it is nigh at hand ; a day of darkness and of
gloominess ; a day of clouds and of thick darkness ; a great
people and a strong;.....a fire devoureth before
them, and behind them a flame burneth ; the land is as the
garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate
J Joel, ii. 2. Compare the locust arrny, Rev, ix.

LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 91
wilderness, and nothing shall escape them ;..... the
earth shall quake before them, the heavens shall tremble, the
sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw
their shining"1
St. Peter explains the prophecy of Joel respecting the last
days, of the terrific events which should intervene between the
day of Pentecost and " the great and notable day of the
Lord.7' " This is that which was spoken of by the prophet
Joel ; it shall come to pass in the last days, -saith God, I will
pour out my Spirit upon all flesh . . . and I will shew wonders
in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath ; blood, and
fire, and vapour of smoke : the sun shall be turned into
darkness, and tJte moon into blood, before the great and
notable dag of the Lord come" -
These, and many other passages might be adduced, prove
to a demonstration that great and calamitous events are fre-
quently shadowed forth in the Scriptures under the figure of
convulsions of the heavenly bodies, and strange and extraor-
dinary appearances of the sun, and moon, and stars.
Now, did our Lord predict his awful coming to destroy
Jerusalem under similar emblems? The language of the three
Gospels, St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, is almost identical
with that of the seal under our consideration.
Matt,, xxiv. £{), 80___" Immediately after the tribulation
of those dags shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall
not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the
powers of heaven shall be shaken, and then shall appear the
sign of the Son of Man in heaven : and then shall all the
tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man
coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.'*
Mark, xiii. 121< — CJ(). —" Rut in those days, after that
tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not
give her light, and the stars from heaven shall fall, and the
powers that are in heaven shall be shaken, and then shall they
see the Son of Man coming in the clouds, with power and
great glory."
Luke, xxi. I2i<—f2/'. — "Jerusalem, shall be trodden doirn
1 Joel, ii. 1, 2, a—10. a Acts, ii. 10.

92 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.

of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles shall be ful-
filled, and there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and
in the stars, and upon the earth ('7775 yfjs ' the land of
Judaea), distress of nations with perplexity, the sea and the
waves roaring ; men's hearts failing them for fear, and for
looking after those things which are coining on the earth ; for
the powers of heaven shall be shaken, and then shall they see
the Son of Man coming in a cloud, with power and great
glory."

It is evident that these grand and terrible descriptions refer
to events which were to take place at the time of the destruction
of Jerusalem. It is impossible, without doing the most gross
and painful violence to honest criticism, to interpret them of
any future time. If words have any meaning, these events
took place " Immediately after the tribulation of those days"
"In those days, after that tribulation," — at the period when
" Jerusalem was trodden down of the (J entiles."

They took place, moreover, during the lifetime of the gene-
ration to whom these words were addressed ; no disquisitions on
the meaning of the word " ytvza" " generation," can weigh
against the positive truth here stated. The whole subject of
Matt, xxiv., Mark xiii., Luke xxi. is connected wifli the time of
our Lord's coming. In each of the Gospels his disciples ask
Him to tell them when that time should be.

Matt. xxiv. 3 -- "Tell us when shall these things be, and
what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end1 of the
world ? "

Mark, xiii. 4. — "Tell us when shall these things be, and
what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?"

Luke, xxi. 7- — " Master, Imttchen shall these things be, and
what sign shall there be when these things come to pass?"

And then He told them the time, that it should be within the
lifetime of that generation, that when they saw the woes coining
upon Jerusalem, they might know that "it was near, even at
their doors." Nothing but determined prejudice and an un-

1 'StWTtKiia, TOV uiwvov — the end of the age, i. e. of the Mosaic economy.
Compare 11 eb. ix. C2G. " rvv ct u7ru£, ITT\ trvyrtXtia TUJV alwviitv" — but NOW
once in the end of the world/' t. c. the end of the Mosaic economy.

LBCT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL, 93
conquerable clinging to previously formed opinions can resist
the evidence.
Matt. xxiv. 3C2—34----"Now learn a parable of the fig
tree ; when his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves,
ye know that summer is nigh, so likewise ye when ye shall see
all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors : verily
I say unto you, this generation shall not pass away till all these
things be fulfilled."*
Mark, xiii. 28—30. — "Now learn a parable of the fig
tree ; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye
know that summer is near : so ye in like manner, when ye shall
see these things come to pass, know that it is niyh, even at the
doors. Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not
pass, till all these things be done."
St. Luke1 has a little variation, but the time when all this
should take place is unmistakably declared.
Luke, xxi. 2(J—32. — "And he spake to them a parable;
Behold the fig tree, and all the trees; when they now shoot forth,
ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh
at hand. So likewise ye, when ge see these things come to pass,
knoiv ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand. Verily 1 say
unto you, This generation shall not pass away till all be ful-
filled."
It is poor theology to explain this primarily of our Lord's
second advent at some yet distant period. For my own part I
feel heartily ashamed of the way in which I have often inter-
preted many of these passages in my public teaching ; in what-
ever sense they may be regarded as referring to an advent yet
to come, there can be no reasonable doubt but that they refer in
their primary sense to the advent which then took place.
Neither can I believe that in St. Matt. xxiv. it will be found
that "two distinct sets of predictions run together in artless
parallel," and that " while a period for the fulfilment of the first
1 The only variation of any importance between St. Luke and the other two
Evangelists, is that St. Luke calls the coming of our Lord to destroy Jerusa-
lem the coming of the kingdom of God ; the inference is, that kingdom was
established at his coming. Compare 4i His appearing and his kingdom,"
(2 Tim. iv. 1.); *' The Son of Man coining in his kingdom," (Matt xvi. 2S.);
" Lord remember me when thou comest in thy kingdom/' iv T?I ptun\ft$
aov (Luke, xxiii. 42.).

94 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.
series, the human judgment, is fixed within the lifetime of a
generation, we, on the contrary, are told of the last judgment,
" Of that hour kuoweth no man, neither the angels, nor the
Son, but the Father." l
It appears to me, from a careful examination of Matt, xxiv.,
Mark xiii., and Luke xxi., that one plain simple question is an-
swered by our Lord. T'hat question is a question of time.
In reply to the request of the disciples that He would tell them
the period of his coming, his answer was that it should take
place during the lifetime of that generation, that they should
recognise its approach by the foregoing signs, but that the day
and the hour were hidden even from Him. Hence " the times
and seasons" are said to be put in the Father's power. (Acts i. 7«)
Hence the Father is said to show the manifestation of the Son
in "his own times," KCU/DOIS, tSiois, «' e., times known only to
himself.2 Hence God is said to (/ire unto his Son the know-
ledge of his speedy Apocalypse.3
Now St. Luke shows satisfactorily that our Lord's answer
embraced no " artless parallel " of homogeneous predictions,
but referred only to one period and to one event; for after
" the fulfilment of the first series, the human judgment,
(which) is fixed within the lifetime of a generation," and
during the supposed period of the last judgment, the disciples
are bid to pray that they might escape the desolation impending
over them, and which was immediately about to take place.
"Take heed to yourselves, &c. . . . and so that day come
upon you unawrares, for as a snare shall it come on all them that
dwell on the face of the whole earth; watch ye therefore and praij
always that ye maybe accounted worthy to escape all these tliinqs
that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of Man." 4
How could it be said of the day of universal judgment, "as
a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the
whole earth," Tracr^s rfjs yfjs, Jud&a; or how could the words ex-
pressive of the predicted calamities on Jerusalem be applicable to
the future judgment of mankind, " Watch ye therefore and pray
always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these
things that shall come to pass, (TO. /^eXXoz/ra yivtcrOcu, that shall
goon come to pass,) and to stand (as in judgment) before the
1 Rational Godliness, Sermon 23., Rev. Rowland Williams.
2 1 Tim. vi. 15. 3 Rev. i. 1. * Luke, xxi. 34—LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 95
Son of Man " ? How could the warnings, particularly ad-
dressed to the disciples—" Take heed to yourselves . . . lest that
day come upon you unawares . . . watch ye therefore . . .
that ye may . . . escape," &c. be supposed to refer to a general
judgment in the far distant future ; or how could it be thought
that the imaginary division of the prophecy commencing at
the words " of THAT day and of THAT hour" could be
made to relate to any other day than the day before
alluded to ? Be it then remembered, that had there been any
distinguishing emphasis attached to the words " That day "
(as implying a day distinct from the corning of Christ
to destroy Jerusalem), which there is not, and had there
been a period assigned for the fulfilment of the one parallel
of the homogeneous prophecy, whilst no period is assigned for
the other, (ichich is not the case, for the prophecy is one and
the same throu(/hout}, all this would have been completely
unsettled by the fact, that after the supposed fulfilment of the
Jirst prediction, and duririf/ the supposed scenes of the last judg-
ment) even on "that day" of which no man knew, and which
was to come upon them " unawares," the disciples are bid to
pray that they might " escape all these thim/s that shall come to
pass, and to stand before the Son of Man."1 I cannot think,
then, if " all prophecy has a primary contemporaneous applica-
tion," that this prophecy of our Lord, so guarded with respect
to the time of its accomplishment, and which the disciples and
first Christians evidently believed to be of immediate fulfilment,
would in its primary sense be intended by our Lord to refer
partly to the destruction of .Jerusalem, and partly to the day of
judgment, partly to the events of A.D. 7^> partly to the events
of A.D. . I cannot think that " two distinct sets of predic-
tions " would thus have been mixed up by our Lord in inex-
tricable confusion, or that his love and consideration would have
prompted Him so to mislead his disciples and his Church of
future times ; nor do I imagine that an argument of this kind
would be put forward as conclusive, was it not felt that some
1 That the words " all these things that shall come to pass" refer to the
scenes accompanying the desolation of Jerusalem, is not only certified by the
expression ra /LuXXorra yiVitrttai, hut nearly the same words are used in verse
31. during the period which is thought to he marked out by the lifetime of
that generation, " So likewise ye when ye see these things come to pass,"
orar tcfyrt raOra yu'o/itra— an expression evidently identical with the subse*
niwtttt nrui t\V \r Qf\ «* All flijtcii failure ttint

96 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.

great difficulty existed which it was necessary thus to overcome.
But we shall he nothing nearer the truth for any forced and
unnatural construction which we may put upon holy Scripture,
and it is evident that the argument now comhated had no ex-
istence, either in the mind of Him who spake, or of those who
listened to his words.

But to return to the analogy proposed to he instituted he-
tween the Sixth Seal and the predictions of our Lord.

It will he interesting to compare the two accounts as they
stand in the Gospels and in the Apocalypse.

SIXTH SEAL.

et The sun became black as sack-
cloth of hair."

" The moon became as blood."

" The stars of heaven fell unto
earth."

f* The heaven departed as a scrowl."

" Every mountain and island were
moved out of their places."

fc The kings of the earth, and the
great men, and the rich men, and the
chief captains, and the mighty men,
and every bondman, and every free
man, hid themselves in the dens and
in the rocks of the mountains; and
said to the mountains and rocks, Fall
on us and hide us from the face of
him that sitteth upon the throne, and
from the wrath of the Lamb."

ic For the great day of his wrath " There shall Ix- great distress in

is come, and who shall be able to j the land, and wrath upon this people.'*
stand?" Rev. vi. 12—17. ) Luke, xxi. '23.

It will be seen at once from this comparison, that the identity
is perfect between the seal and the predictions of our Lord.
"Now, whether we interpret this language of great changes, or
of calamitous events, or of miraculous phenomena, the point for
us to determine is, did occurrences corresponding to the sym-
bols take place at that time ?

Did any great changes then take place ? A change took

OUR LORD'S PREDICTIONS.
"The sun shall be darkened."
Mark, xiii. j2-k
"The moon shall not give her
light." Mark, xiii. 24.
" The stars shall fall from heaven."
Matt. xxiv. 29.
"" The powers of the heavens shall
be shaken." Matt. xxiv. 2f).
" Upon the earth distress of na-
tions,— the sea and the waves roar-
ing." Luke, xxi. 25.
" Then shall they begin to say to
the mountains, Fall on us ; and to
the hills, ('over us : fur if they do
these tilings in a green tree, what
shall be done in the dry ? " Luke,
xxiii. oO, '51.



LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 97
place then which shook the world — a change compared with
which the revolution occasioned by the final downfal of Pa-
ganism is hardly fit to he mentioned. The change to which
I allude was the breaking up of that dispensation which had
lasted for 2000 years, and which God Himself had given to his
own people. Then, if you will, " the champions of Judaism
were crushed ; its sun set, its stars were quenched, its firma-
ment covered with blackness ; and before the majestic power of
the Christian religion the opposing kings, and generals, and
soldiers, and freemen fled." If this seal is to be interpreted
of change and revolution, [an interpretation not altogether
satisfactory], no change has ever affected the destinies of
mankind so much as the change which was introduced at that
particular time.
Or if you interpret this seal of calamitous events, of wrath,
and terror, and despair, falling upon a particular people, where
will you find so exact, so literal a fulfilment, as in the tribula-
tion of those days — " Then shall be great tribulation, such as
was not from the beginning of the world to this time ; no, nor
ever shall he : and except those days should be shortened, there
should no flesh be saved." " In those days shall be affliction,
such as was not from the; beginning of the creation which God
created unto this time, neither shall be." " These be the days of
vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled ;
but woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give
suck in those days, for there shall be great distress in the
land, and wrath upon this people." Then, indeed, did they call
upon the mountains to fall on them, and on the rocks to rover
them. " The destruction," says Josephus, " which then took
place exceeded all the destructions that either God or man
ever brought upon the world."1
Or if you interpret this seal of those miraculous phenomena
which our Saviour said should accompany his coming [an
interpretation to which I feel most disposed to accede], the
all-directing providence of God has so appointed it, that evidence
independent of the Scriptures should be given, that such mira-
culous phenomena did attend his coming to destroy Jerusalem.
Tacitus2 informs us—"Such prodigies had happened, as
this nation, which is superstitious enough in its own way, would
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vi, cap, y. '2 Tac. Hist, lib. v. cap. IS.
11

,% THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.
not agree to expiate by the ceremonies of the Woman re%iou,
nor would they atone the gods by sacrifices and vows, as they
used to do on the like occasions. Annies were seen to fight in
the sky, and their armour looked of a bright light colour, and
the temple shone with sudden flashes of lire out of the clouds.
The doors of the temple were opened on a sudden, and a voice
greater than human was heard, that the gods were retiring ;
and at the same time there was a great motion perceived, as if
they were goiti£ out of it, which some esteemed to be causes of
terror."
Here, then, you have an historian of those times, who tells
you, in his own heathen fashion, that these prodigies happened
because the Jews would not agree to expiate the ceremonies of
the Roman religion, nor atone the gods by sacrifices and vows.
He points out the character of these prodigies as prodigies
appearing chiefly in the heavens, and especially mentions the
circumstance that "a voice greater than human was heard."
Altogether, his description lends us fairly to conclude that great
and miraculous signs took place at that period ; and that the
Jewish dispensation closed, as it had begun, in the midst of
stupendous and awful miracles.
Josephusl gives us a much more* detailed account of the
miraculous phenomena of that extraordinary period. He
says:—"Thus were the inferable people persuaded by these
deceivers (the false prophets), while they did not attend nor
give credit to tin* st</ns thnt //vvv AY> rr/V/fv//, and did so
plainly foretel their future1 desolation ; but, like men infatu-
ated, without either eyes to see or minds to consider, did not
regard the dvnunriutions that (rod /////<// to them. Thus
there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the
city, and a comet that continued a whole year. Thus also,
before the Jews' rebellion, and before those, commotions which
preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds
to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the
month Zanthieus, and at the ninth hour of the night, so great
a light shone around the altar and the holy house, that it ap-
peared to be bright day-time, which light lasted for half-an~hour.
At the same festival also, a heifer, as she was led by the high
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 5.

LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 99
priest to be sacrificed) brought forth a lamb in the midst of the
temple.
"Moreover, the eastern gate of the inner court of the
temple, which was of brass and vastly heavy, and had been
with difficulty shut by twenty men, and rested upon a basis
armed with iron, and had bolts fastened very deep into the firm
floor, which was there made of one entire stone, was seen to
be opened of its own accord, about the sixth hour of the night.
Now, those that kept watch in the temple came hereupon
running to the captain of the temple*, and told him of it, who
then came up thither, and, not without great difficulty, was able
to shut the gate again.
" Besides these*, a few days after that feast, on the one-aml-
tvventictli day of the month Artemisius, a certain prodigious
and incredible phenomenon appeared ; I suppose the account
of it would seem to be a fable, were it not related by those
that saw it, and were not the events that followed it of so con-
siderable a nature as to deserve such signals, for before sun-
setting chariots and troops of soldiers, in their armour, were
seen running about among the clouds and surrounding of cities.
Moreover, at that feast, which we call Pentecost, as the priests
were going by night into the inner court of the temple, as their
custom was, to perform their sacred ministrations, they said
that, in the first place, they felt a quaking, and heard a great
noise, and after that they heard a sound as of a great multitude,
saying, * Let us remove hence.'
" Now, if any one consider these things, lie will find that
(iod takes care of mankind, ami, hy all ways possible, fore-
shows to our race what is for their jtreserration ; but these
men interpreted some of these signals according to their own
pleasure, and some of them they utterly despised, until their
madness was demonstrated both by the taking of their city and
their own destruction."
It is impossible not to notice the honesty with which these
prodigies are recorded—-the minute particulars, such as the day
of the month, the hour of the night. The fact mentioned,
which many were living to deny, if it could be denied, that the
account of one of these prodigies would seem a fable, were if
not related In/ those that safe //, aud trere not the croits that
followed it of so considerable a nature as to </cscrrc suc/i

THE SIXTH SEAL. [L«cx. V.
The assertion nwdt% //wif these signs were m evident,
and rfirf «o plainly foretel their future desolation. All this
gives weight to this testimony of Josephus, and proves that
the period of the destruction of Jerusalem was a period sig-
nalised by prodigy and miracle.
It gives additional weight to this testimony, that it is con-
finned by Eusebiusl, but as lie does little more than quote
the words of Josephus, I shall not deem it necessary to repeat
them.
Observe then, " these signs which were so evident, and
which did so plainly foretel their future desolation " — " these
denunciations which (rod made to them," which " they did not
consider "— these " prodigious and incredible phenomena, the
account of which would seem to be a fable, were they not re-
lated by those that saw them, and were not the events that fol-
lowed of so considerable a nature as to deserve such signals "
— these " signals," which they " interpreted according to
their own pleasure," some of which they " utterly despised,
until their madness was demonstrated both by the taking of
the city and their own destruction," took place at this time.
Our Lord declared, " there shall be signs in the sun, and in
the moon, and in the stars, and upon the earth distress of
nations with perplexity/* The Sixtli Seal discloses " the sun
black as sackcloth of hair, the moon as blood, the stars falling
to the earth, and the heavens departing as a scrowl ;" and a
Heathen) a Jewish, and a Christian historian, the only histo-
rians of those days whose histories have come down to us,
tell us that great and marvellous prodigies appeared.
They appeared at the downfal of no other city, ancient or
modern. No historian has recorded anything at all similar ;
it is a unique point in history. Babylon, Nineveh, Tyre, fell,
but no signs preceded their destruction. Jerusalem was pre-
viously destroyed by the Babylonians, but without accompanying
signs. Rome was sacked by Alaric ; Constantinople by the
Euphratean Turks; but no miracle heralded in those desolations.
Not so, however, the Jerusalem of our Lord's day. The finger
of God was visible in her destruction. The sun of Judaism set,
Its it rose, amidst stupendous prodigies. The miracle of Sinai
Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. iii. cap. 7.

LECT.V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 101

was reflected in the conflagration of Mount Moriah, and the
conquest of Canaan renewed in the invasion of Judaea. The
" word spoken hy angels " was re-echoed in the " voice greater
than human," and the presence of the Deity on the Holy
Mount repeated in the awful coining of the Son of Man. The
Jewish dispensation closed, as it had begun, in miracle, and
with the last flickering!* of the dying embers of God's holy
house, angelic ministers of vengeance forsook the land they
had so often trod in visits of Jove and mercy. Miracle and
prodigy disappeared from this earth until that day when they
shall once more disclose a present Deity, and a faithful and
avenging God.

In the midst of these scenes of terror, what is the state of
the enemies of our God and of his Christ ? They are repre-
sented as overwhelmed with fear.

" And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the
rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men 1, and
every bondman, and every freeman, hid themselves in the dens
and in the rocks of the mountains, and said to the mountains
and roeks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that
sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, for the
great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be able to
stand." a

/ call your attention to the circumstance, that they /tide
theinwlrex in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains.
Jiuliva was full of such hiding-places. A German commen-
tator has observed, this expression seems to mark out par-
ticularly the rocks and caves of Palestine which afforded places
of shelter for fugitives. Jerusalem especially abounded with
such subterranean retreats. This made Titus surround the
city with a wall, to prevent the introduction of food into the
beleagured city through these subterranean passages.

Now is there evidence of " the kings of the earth,71 the
masters of Jerusalem, with their chief captains and mighty
men hiding themselves at this time in these subterranean
caverns. The city at the time of its heleaguernient was in the
hands of three factions, headed by John of Gischala, Simon,

* M*yi0Tu»'£c *'«* X'^'/'X0** u princes of Judica ;" thus, Mark, vi, 21.:
" Herod made a feast to his lords, high captains," juyiorartc *'«' \t\ttt f>\<n*
2 llev. vi. 15.
u 3

102 THE SIXTH SEAL. [LECT. V.
and Eleazar. These were the kings l of the earth. Of two
of these kings there is evidence to prove that they did hide
themselves in this manner.
Josephus tells us, " The last hope which supported the ty-
rants mt.s in the cares and caserns wider (/round, whither if
they could once fly they did not expect to he searched for.
This was no better than a dream of theirs, for they were not
able to lie hid either from God or from the Romans." 2
In another passage he tells us of the capture of John in these
caverns. " For to speak only of what was publickly known,
the Romans slew some of them, some they carried captives, and
others they made search for under (/round, and when they
found where they were, they broke up the ground and slew all
they met with .... for a great deal of treasure was found in
these caverns. As for John, he wanted food, together with his
brethren, in these caverns, and begged that the Romans would
give him their right hand for his security, which lie had proudly
rejected before." ;;
The historian gives us the account of the capture of Simon,
another of the kings of the earth, in these subterranean pits.
" This Simon, while the Roman army were laying the city
waste, took the most faithful of his friends tritlt //////, and let
himself and them down into a subterraneous cavern that was
not visible above ground,"
Being obliged to come up out of his hiding-place for want of
food, it is added, " this rise of bis out of the ground did also
occasion the discovery of a <jreat number of others icho had
hidden themse/res under yround" *
Here, then, you have the kings of the earth, and the chief
captains, and the mighty men, concealing themselves in terror
in caves and pits. It is expressly said they did so, while *' the
Roman army were laving the city waste," and the vanity of
this attempt at concealment is not unnoticed by the historian,
1 /. e. the rulers of Jufla-a : thi« is explained, Acts, iv. !'()". ; lf The kings
of the earth stow I up, and the rulers were gathered together again Ht the Lord
and against his Christ ; for of a truth against thy holy child JCHUM both Herod
and Pontius Pilate were gathered together/' — ** principes PaleHtinse."—
Sehleiisner.
2 BeiJ. Jud. lib. vi. cap. ? * Ibid. lib. vi. cap. <).
4 Ibid, lib, vii. cap. 2.

LECT. V.] THE SIXTH SEAL. 103
for he says, " this was no better than a dream of theirs, for
they were not able to lie hid either from God or from the
Romans"
I shall merely observe of the cry of terror which, under this
seal, proceeds from these fugitives, where they are represented
as saying" to the mountains and rocks, " Fall on us, and hide
us from the face of him that sitteth upon the throne, and from
the wrath of the Lamb," that it is the very language which our
Lord said would be used at that miserable time.
" Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us,
and to the hills, ('over us ; for if they do these things in a
green tree, what shall be done in the dry?"1
To recapitulate. The seal discloses great and terrible phe-
nomena. The sun black as sackcloth of hair, the moon as
blood, the stars falling to earth, and the heaven departing as a
scroll. If this be merely indicative of mighty revolution and
change, the world has never known so wondrous a revolution
as the chancre from Judaism to Christianity. If it be inter-
preted of calamitous events, " in those days was affliction such
as was not from the beginning of the world, no, nor ever shall
be." If it be interpreted of supernatural appearances, the
history of that time abounds with prodigy and miracle.
Under this reign of terror, the Jewish leaders and the
Jewish people generally flee to hide themselves from the wrath
to come. The strange coincidence is abundantly proved, that
they did so hide themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the
mountains; and to complete the evidence, the very words which
our Lord said they would use proceed from their trembling
lips.
Such I conceive to be the fair and legitimate interpretation
of this seal. I cannot see in it any traces whatever of the
revolution which took place in the Roman empire after the
persecutions of Diocletian. I cannot recognise the faintest
allusion to the change from Paganism to Christianity in the
days of Constantine. 1 cannot suppose that Muximin, or
(Valerius, or Diocletian are kings of the Jewish earth, or that
they can, with any propriety of interpretation, be said to hide
1 Luke, xxiii. 30, :>1.
ii 4

104

* SIXTH SEAL. [LECTt v.

from the wrath of the Lamb. I do not conceive
imagery of this seal is expressive of triumph and
victory ; and us for the date assigned to it, there is not
the slightest proof beyond mere assumption. I can only
\vouder tliat such interpretations could have filled Exeter
Hall witll thousands of attentive listeners, and that persons
possessing* common sense should accede to statements which
have no better foundation than indistinct, and too often, imagi-
nary coincidence.
I commend the explanation now offered to your prayerful
study and investigation, humbly beseeching God to pardon
errors which are unintentional, and to establish us more and
more in the truth of his Holy Word.

105

LECTURE VL
GOD'S SEALED ONES.
REV. vii. 1 — 17.
1. And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners
of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not
blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.
2. And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of
the living God : and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it
was given to hurt the earth and the sea,
3. Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have
sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads.
4. And I heard the number of them which were sealed : and there were
sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the child-
ren of Israel.
5. Of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reu-
ben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve
thousand.
(i. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Nepthalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasses were
sealed twelve thousand.
7. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve
thousand.
8. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed
twelve thousand.
9. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could
number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before
the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in
their hands ;
10. And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sit-
teth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.
11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders
and four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped
God.
12. Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving,
and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever.
A men.
13. And one of the elders answered, say ing unto me, What are these which
are arrayed in white robes ? and whence came they ?

106

OOD'S SEALED ONES. [L*cr. VI.

U And I «aul unto him, Sir, thou knowwt And he Mid to me, These
«ft ttey which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes,
nil made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
15, Therefore are they before the throne of <tod, and serve him day and
night in his temple : and he that sitieth on the throne shall dwell among
them.
Hi. They shall hunjrer no more, neither thirst any more ; neither Khali the
ftun light on them, nor any heat.
17. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and
shall lead them unto living fountains of water*: anil (*od shall wipe away all
tears from their eyes.
WITH a confessedly difficult subject before us, J/fce that in
which we are now engaged, I cannot think the system which
we have adopted of briefly recapitulating* the main points of
the preceding1 Lecture will be altogether unacceptable. In this
Lecture it will be all the more necessary, inasmuch as we are
still engraved in the investigation of the subject of the Sixth
Seal, the seal not being completed until the close of Chap. vii.
We began bv proving that tbe allegorical language of the
seal was identical with that used by our Lord, when describing*
his coming to destroy Jerusalem — that the great earthquake,
the sun black as sackcloth of hair, the moon as blood, the stars
falling to the earth, the heavens departing as a scroll, every
mountain and island removed out of their places, tbe kings of
the earth hiding themselves, and calling upon the mountains
and rocks to cover them from the wrath of the Lamb, was
only a fuller development of our Lord's predictions:—"Im-
mediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun he
darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and tbe stars
shall fall from heaven, and the powers of tin* heavens shall be
shaken, and then shall appear the sign of tbe Sou of Man in
heaven, and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and
they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven
with power and great glory/'1
We went on to show you that these passages could not refer
to some day of judgment yet future, but to our Lord's immediate
coining to destroy Jerusalem. 77/;v/v is that parable repeated,
by St. Matthew, St. Mark and St. Luke* —
" Now learn a parable; of the fig tree, when his branch is
1 Matt xxiv. 2y, 30.

LECT. VI] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 107
tender and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is
nigh, so likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know
that it is near, even at the doors.1
" Now learn a parable of the fig tree: when her branch is
yet tender and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is
near ; so ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things
come to pass, know that ft is nigh, even at the doors."2
" And he spake to them a parable, behold the fig" tree and
all the trees, when they now shoot forth, ye see and know of
your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand, so likewise
ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the
kingdom of God is nigh (it hand."*
Thrice is the precise period defined as a period within the
lifetime of the then existing* generation.
" Verily I say unto you, ilns generation shall not pass till
all these thinys he fulfilled—heaven and earth shall pass away,
but my words shall not pass away."'1
" Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass till
all these thitn/s he done, heaven and earth shall pass away, but
my words shall not pass away."0
"Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not JMSS away
till all he fulfilled, heaven and earth sliall pass away, but my
words shall not pass away."';
We then spoke of the signs which heralded in his coming
—we explained the wonderful phenomena of the Sixth Seal, of
those extraordinary prodigies which then took place. We
proved from the only writers who have given a history of those
eventful times, that at that period miraculous signs and wonders
happened, such as had never happened before — the star re-
sembling a sword which stood over the city — the comet
which continued a whole year — the light at the ninth hour of
the night shining about the holy house — the eastern gate of
the temple opening of its own accord — the chariots and troops
of heavenly combatants in the clouds—the quaking felt, and the
voices heard in the temple. "These were the signs/' says the
1 Matt xxiv. 32, 33. 2 Mark, xiii. *28, 2<).
3 Luke, xxi. '-><)—31. 4 Matu xxiv. 3i, 35.
5 Mark, xiii. 30, 31. ° Luke, xxi, 31, 3v

108 GOD'S SEALED O&ES. [LECT. VI.

historian, " which were so evident, and did so plainly foretel
their future desolation."x

We were enabled to show that two kings of the Jewish
earth, with their chief captains and mighty men,—" a great
number of others,"—hid themselves in fear and terror in the
subterranean caverns with which Jerusalem abounded ; and that
two of these leaders, John and Simon, were taken out of these
dens, where they had concealed themselves, the one to grace the
Roman triumph, and then to be slain, the other to be con-
demned to perpetual imprisonment.

" And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the
rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and
every bondman and every free man, hid themselves in the dens
and in the rocks of the mountains, and said to the mountains
and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that
sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, for the
great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be able to
stand?"

Our subject in this Lecture is the sealing of God's elect pre-
vious to the coming destruction ; and before entering upon the
explanation, I shall endeavour to point out the identity between
the seal and the predictions of our Lord. We have already
compared the identity between a part of the Sixth Seal and
the prophecies of Christ in the Gospels. It will be satisfactory
to find that the remainder corresponds with the same predic-
tions. With a view of presenting the whole in a connected
form, I shall proceed, at the risk of seeming to be fond of
repetitions, to exhibit the whole of the Sixth Seal as strictly
identical with the predictions of our Lord.

1 Is it because these signs are not of a sufficiently majestic character, ac-
cording to our own preconceived notions, that we think the language of our
Lord must be interpreted of scenes yet future? One thing is certain, that
the power and glory of that terrible coming made the kings of the earth, and
the chief captains, and the mighty men, hide themselves in the dens and caves
of the earth — that heavenly and human agency combined struck terror into
the hearts of the princes of Juda-a. If TacitUH, a heathen historian, should
have been beguiled into any tiling like an imitation of the miracles recorded by
Livy, or other heathen writers, this accusation cannot be brought against
Josephus; for he assigns these miracles to the agency of God, and declares that
they were witnessed by many.

LECT. VI.] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 109

SIXTH SEAL.

cc The sun became black as sack-
cloth of hair."

" The moon became as blood."

" The stars of heaven fell to the
earth."

" The heaven departed as a scroll."

" Every mountain and island were
moved out of their places."

t( The kings of the earth, £c. . . .
hid themselves, and said to the moun-
tains and rocks, Fall on us and hide
us from the face of him that sitteth
upon the throne, and from the wrath
of the Larnb."

" For the great day of his wrath
is come, and who shall be able to
stand."

" And after these things I saw four
angels standing on the four corners of
the earth," —

" Holding the four winds of the
earth."

Hurt not the earth, £c.

till we have sealed the servants of
God on their foreheads."—Rev. vi.
and vii.

OUR LORD'S PREDICTIONS.

" The sun shall be darkened." —
Mark, xiii. 24.

" The moon shall not give her
light."— Mark, xiii. 24.

" The stars shall fall from heaven."

— Matt. xxiv. 29.

" The powers of the heavens shall
be shaken." — Matt. xxiv. 29.

" Upon the earth distress of na-
tions, the sea and the waves roar-
ing." — Luke, xxi. 25.

" Then shall they begin to say to
the mountains, Fall an us, and to the
hills, Cover us ; for if they do these
things in a green tree, what shall be
done on the dry?" — Luke, xxiii.
30, 31.

" There shall be great distress in
the land and wrath upon this people."

— Luke, xxi. 23.

"And he shall send his angels.'*—
Matt. xxiv. 31.

(( And they shall gather . . . from
the four winds."— Matt. xxiv. 31.

u And then shall he send his an-
gels and shall gather together his
elect from the four winds from the
uttermost part of the earth to the
uttermost part of heaven." — Mark,
xiii. 27.

The identity is complete, and the vision of the Apocalypse is
only the echo of the predictions in the Gospels :—
The sun black.
The sun darkened.
The moon as blood.
The moon not t/irimf her tiyht.
The stars falling to the earth.
The stars falliny from heaven.

110 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.
The heaven departing as a scroll.
The powers of the heavens shaken.
Mountains and islands moved.
The sea and the waves roaring*.
The en/ to the mountains and rocks.
The en/ to the mountains and hills.1
The great day of his wrath.
The wrath upon this people.
The Amjeh sealing the servants of God.
The Aiufch gathering the eleet.
Holding the four winds.
Gathering the elect from the four winds.
Standing on the four corners of flic earth.
From the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part
of heaven.
Here, to say the least, there is a parallelism of the most marked
character between the Sixth Seal and the predictions of our Lord.
The resemblance is too close to he accidental, too complete to be
fortuitous. Not only is there a perfect identity of language
and figure, but what serves to bind the analogy still closer,
they both relate to the same people, and to the same period.
Nothing1 can be more evident than that the Sixth Seal refers
c?
to the woes about to come upon the .Jewish people.
The angels stand on "the four corners of the earth" —
Jud;ea; they hold " the winds of the earth, that the winds
* mi
shall not blow on the earth "—Jiuhea; the " servants of (iod"
are sealed "from the earth"—Jiuhea; and tins is made matter
of certainty, not only because the twelve tribes are enumerated
by name, but because the 1 M<,O<)(), said to be "redeemed from
the earth" (Rev. xiv. '}.), are put into contrast with " the great
multitude which no man could number of all nations, and
1 If this remarkable identity should be thought demonstrative proof that the
predictions of the Apocalypse and of our Lord relate to the same events, much
light will be thrown upon the expression, "The kings of the earth." There
can be no reasonable doubt what people are alluded to. — Luke, xxiii. 'JO.
In the Apocalypse "the kings of the earth" (Judtea) utter the same cry.

LECT. VI.] GOD'S SEALED ONES. Ill
kindreds, and people, and tongues.'* Making it morally certain
that no other people could be meant but those who always held
themselves distinct from the Gentiles.
I need scarcely observe, that the predictions of our Lord with
which the Sixth Seal has been compared relate likewise to
that peculiar people. As in the Old Testament the Gentiles
are only introduced when their history is interwoven with that
of the Jewish people, so under the New. The Jew, under
both dispensations, is ever the principal theme of the warnings
and promises of Holy Writ, and nothing can be more certain
than that the predictions of our Lord to which I have alluded
relate solely to them.
Dr. Gumming l explains the sealing of the 1-14,000 of the
gathering of the true Ghurch out of the visible Church, which
had become corrupt in the days of Gonstantine; he says,
" Immediately after this exaltation of Christianity (the exalta-
tion which he supposes to be described in the former part of
the Sixth Seal), there follows the sealing of 1-14,000. That,
as I explained to you, signifies that Christianity, in the hours
of its prosperity, suffered more than it did in the days of its
depression ; that the Gospel was a purer and a nobler thing
when crushed by the persecutions of men, than when it nestled
beneath the shadow of the imperial throne of Gonstantine; and
whether it was right or whether it was wrong thus to elevate
the Gospel, it is matter of fact, that in the catacombs and
caves of the earth the ('hurch retained her garments unsullied,
her communion with her Lord unbroken ; but the moment the
heads that were exposed to the tempests were crowned with
mitres, and the catacombs exchanged for cathedrals, she laid
aside her robes of beauty and glory, put on the gorgeous dress
of Ca*sar, became shorn of her real strength and her attributes
of grandeur, and ground, a miserable drudge, at Ca»sar's mill
and at Caesar's bidding."
What this has to do with the seal in question is a point I
cannot solve,—there is not even the semblance of a coincidence.
How could the Christian Church be sealed out of the twelve
tribes of Israel in tlic days of ('omtantinc? \Miat part was
taken by the angelic host in this gathering of the real Israel
1 " Abstract of Lectures,0 p. 508.

112 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VL
out of the nominal Israel ? and what injury fell upon that
nominal Church after the elect were gathered ? It may possibly
be true that mitres and cathedrals are less favourable to the
growth of religion than catacombs and caves, and that even a
prebendal stall is apt to induce the ease, learned or otherwise,
which is said to be inseparable from dignity; but I have yet to
learn, how an apostate Jewish church could have fallen into
this ecclesiastical eccentricity in the days of Constantinc, or
what flour, save flowers of rhetoric, so miserable a drudge could
have been made to grind " at CYesar's mill, and at Gesar's bid-
ding/* Or what again in the name of common sense has this
seal to do with the Puseyism ! of the fourth century ? Can
any one see in it any allusion, however remote, to the efficacy
of the sacrament of baptism ?
And, as usual, the period over which this seal extends is
accurately defined—from A.D. 3£l< to A.D. .'J9.5. What is the
authority for this date ? By what argument is it supported ?
It stands upon the authority of idle assumption. It is based on
an argument of sand : and I trust that a time is coming when
all such unsupported and imaginary hypotheses shall leave
behind them no clearer trace than the same sand affords of the
Arab's path across the wilderness, to-day perhaps impressed by
the feint vestiges of his horse's track, and to-morrow those marks
effaced and obliterated by the sweeping simoom of the desert.
It is time to offer a different explanation. It is probable that
this sealing of God's servants on thctr foreheads refers to the
miraculous preservation of the Christian Church from the wrath
about to fall on the Jewish people. There seems to be an
allusion to Ezekiel ix. 4., where an angel is commissioned to
go through the city of Jerusalem, and mark upon the forehead
of all who should be exempted from the impending slaughter.
"And the Lord said unto him, (jo through the midst of
Jerusalem, and set a mark ujton the foreheads of the* men that
sigh and that cry for all the abominations that are done in the
midst thereof. And to the others he said in mine hearing, (io
ye after him through the city, and smite : and let not your eye
spare, neither have ye pity : but come not near
any man upon whom is the mark ; and begin at my sanctuary/*
1 " What we call Puseyism in the nineteenth century was the predomi-
nating religion of the fourth ; and this explains the reason of Tractarian sym-
pathy with the fourth century."—Gumming.

LECT. VI.] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 113
The time of destruction is now near ; the commotion of the
elements, and the miraculous phenomena of Nature, accompanied
by the terror arid dismay of God's enemies, is indicative of this ;
the destroying angels have their commission, and stand on
the four corners of the earth, ready to execute it. But before
the tornado bursts upon the earth—before the hurricane rushes
along in its fury, the servants of God must be sealed in their
foreheads,—"sealed unto the day of redemption;" and the
four angels, whose province it is to injure the earth, the sea,
and the trees, are forbidden to do so till the elect are safe,
and the servants of God have received that mark by which they
may be known as the people of the Lord.
I shall endeavour to show that the judgments of God did
not fall upon the guilty city until the servants of Christ were
safe. Our Lord had warned them beforehand of these im-
pending judgments, and had urged their flight from the doomed
city.
St. Matt. xxiv. 1<3.—" When ye therefore shall see the
abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet,
stand in the holy place l (whoso rcat/ct/t let him understand) :
then let them which be in .ludtea flee into the mountains ; let
him which is on the house-top not come down to take any-
thing out of his house ; neither let him which is in the field
return back to take his clothes .... and pray ye that
your flight be not in the winter, neither on the Sabbath day:
Behold I have told you before/*
St. Mark xiii. 14—IS.—" When ye shall see the abomi-
nation of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing
where it ought not (let him that readeth understand), then let
them that be in Judcea flee to the mountains : .... and
pray ye that your flight be not in the winter."
St. Luke, xxi. 1JO—" When ye shall see Jerusalem com-
passed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is
nigh. Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains ;
and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let
not them that are in the countries enter thereinto."
1 This may be considered as a proof of the writing of this Gospel previous
to the destruction of Jerusalem.
T

114 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.

Now, was this done?—did they thus escape?

Josephus says, " After the first attack upon the city, many
of the most considerable of the Jewish people forsook it as men
do a sinking s/iijj." l

Eusebius.2— " The whole body of the Church at Jerusalem,
having been commanded by a Divine revelation given to men of
approved piety there before the war3, remored from the city
and dwelt in a certain town beyond the Jordan, called Pella;
here those that believed in Christ having" removed from Jeru-
salem, as if holy men had entirely abandoned the royal city
itself, and the whole land of Judaea, the Divine justice for their
crimes against Christ and his Apostles finally overtook them,
totally destroying the whole generation of those evil-doers from
the earth." Theodoret observes, that a report prevailed in his
day, stating that when Vespasian and Titus were preparing for
their attack on Jerusalem, the Christians left the city by reve-
lation.

And it is worthy of observation, that (luring the siege itself
frequent opportunities of escape were afforded. Upon one me-
morable occasion, Titus relaxed the siege for four clays be-
fore their third and last wall was taken, thereby affording to
such as might be desirous of obtaining it, an opportunity to
escape.

The historian tells us, "A resolution was now taken to re-
lax the siege for awhile, and to afford the seditions an interval
for consideration, and to see whether the demolishing of their
second wall would not make them more compliant.'*

This interval the Romans spent in paying their legions.

" Thus did the Romans spend four days in bringing subsis-
tence-money to their legions; but, on the fifth day, when no

1 Bell. Jud. ii. 20.
2 Eus. Eccles. Hist, lib. Hi. cap. 5.
3 Was this Divine Revelation given to men of approved piety before the
war.—"The Jfavebition of Jesus Christ, which (Jod gave unto him, to show
unto 7ti* servantn things which must shortly come to pass," Rev. i. 1.? Was
it " the more sure word of prophecy " of St. Peter — " We have alxo a more
sure word of prophecy whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto
a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn and the day-star
arise in your hearts," 2 Peter, i. 19. ?

LECT. VI] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 115
signs of peace came from the Jews, Titus began to raise banks,
both at the tower of Antonia and at John's monument." l
Observe, then, frequent opportunities were offered for the
Christians to escape. After the first attack upon the city,
doubtless many Christians obeyed their Lord's command, and
left the city as men do a sinking ship. When the siege had
continued some time, before the taking of the third and last
wall, opportunities were again offered for escape. There is no
mention made of the Christians perishing en masse during this
memorable siege; on the contrary, there is every reason to be-
lieve they were preserved under this terrible calamity.
I call your attention to a circumstance, which I do not ad-
duce as proof by itself, but simply as a confirmation of the
statement before us. The destroying anyels were not suffered
to hurt the earth, the sea, and the trees, meaning the general
aspect of the country, till the Christians irere safe.
I quote a passage from Josephus, which serves to illustrate
this:—
"The Romans raised their banks2 in twenty-one days, after
they had cut down all the trees that were in the country, that
adjoined the city for ninety furlongs round; and truly the very
view of the country was a melancholy thing, for those places
which were before adorned with trees and pleasant gardens,
were now become a desolate country every way, and its trees
were all cut down; nor could any foreigner that had formerly
seen JiuUea, and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, but now
saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a
change." 3
It is worthy of notice that these banks are not raised till the
last opportunity has been given for escape, and then the re-
straining power which had prevented the Romans from "hurt-
ing the earth, the sea, and trees," is relaxed; the country be-
comes a wilderness ; all is desolation and ruin ; strangers who
had seen it in its beauty cannot forbear tears at its lamentable
and altered appearance.
1 Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. J).
2 These banks were made of timber, earth, and stones ; they were equal
in height to the city walls ; their object being to allow the besiegers to right
on equal terms with the besieged.
3 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 1.

116 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.
" Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire ;
your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is deso-
late, as overthrown by strangers. And the daughter of Zion is
left as a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucum-
bers, as a besieged city." l
We are next struck by the precise number of the sealed ones
—144,000—12,000 out of each tribe. There is no more ne-
cessity for believing that a literal number is here intended, than
for believing that the number of the horsemen under the sixth
trumpet means literally 200,000,000,—a number which at that
time probably equalled, if not exceeded, the population of the
entire globe,—or that the 1000 years means literally a 1000
years. Neither is it imperative for us to believe that exactly
12,000 were sealed out of each tribe. Ten of the tribes had
then for many years been absent from Palestine ; two only,
Judah and Benjamin, remained. Yet even in our Lord's time
it was usual to speak of Israel as of the twelve tribes : " Ye
shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the, twelve tribes of Israel."
The idea presented to us is simply that a precise number, in-
cluding probably many thousand Jews, were saved from the
impending calamity.2
They are said to have been sealed upon their foreheads. We
have seen that this is made to refer to the sign of the cross
traced upon the forehead at baptism. " The first seed of the
apostacy," says Dr. Gumming, " was the universal perversion
of the sacrament of baptism ; it was called ' the Lord's mark/
* the illumination,7 < the preservative/ * the investiture of incor-
ruption/ * the salvation.' "
Now at the early period when the Apocalypse was written,
it does not appear that baptism was ever administered except
by complete immersion.
Thus "John was baptising in yEnon, near to Salim, be-
cause there was much water there." Thus Paul and Lydia
" went out to the river side, where prayer was wont to be
1 Is. i. 7, 8.
2 The Jewish Christians amounted at that time to many thousands. At
the Pentecost three thousand were added to the church. Soon after we read
" the number of disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly." After that "of
many thousands (myriads) of Jews which believed." At the time when the
Apocalypse was written, the number must have been considerable.

LBCT. VI.J GOD'S SEALED ONES. 117

made." Thus Philip and the eunuch went " both down into
the water" l

In a panegyric on the building of churches, addressed to
Paulinus, Bishop of Tyre, in the fourth century, by Eusebius2,
he describes the baptismal fonts of sufficient size for the pur.
poses of immersion.

" Here, too, he has placed the symbols of the sacred purifi-
cation, by providing fountains built opposite the temple (nave),
which, by the abundant effusion of its waters, affords the means
of cleansing to those that proceed to the inner parts of the sanc-
tuary. And this is the first place that receives those that enter,
and which presents to those that need the first introduction both
a splendid and a convenient station."

So that, even in the times to which this seal is referred by
Dr. Gumming, it does not appear that baptism was adminis-
tered generally, except by complete immersion. No argument,
consequently can be drawn against the "perversion of the sacra-
ment of baptism77 from the sealing of the elect in their fore-
heads. It is an evident allusion to Ezek. ix., where the angel
is told to " set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that
sigh and cry for the abominations" done in Jerusalem, whilst
the rest are devoted to unsparing slaughter.

It would appear that the 1-14,000 are not only saved from
temporal destruction, but that they are glorified with an ever-
lasting salvation ; for the vision represents them as glorified in
heaven as well as saved on earth.

In chap.xiv -- The same 111,000 having "his father's name
written in their foreheads," are seen standing with the Lamb on
Mount Zion. They are described as "the 144,000 which were
redeemed from the earth," Jud*ea ; they are said to be " re-
deemed from among men, being the first fruits unto God and
the Lamb."

In chap. xv. 2., — " They that had gotten the victory over

1 "Tovro Xtycr on >/

»' rr
*' — Barnabnc Epist. 11.

" — Cyril. Ilieros. 3.
Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. x. cap. 4.

118 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.
the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the
number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps
of God, and they sing the song of Moses the servant of God,
and the song of the Lamb." The new Jerusalem is tenanted by
these risen saints, for " the throne of God and of the Lamb
shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him : And they shall
see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads." l
This is the continuous burden of the Apocalypse ; it is the
gathering together of Christ's saints at his " appearing and
his kingdom," and this "gathering" and this "appearing"
were " things which must shortly be done." There is to be no
delay between the coming of Christ and the gathering of his
elect.
" They shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of
heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels
with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together
his eleet from the four winds. " 2
" And then shall they see the Son of man corning in the
clouds with great power and glory. And then shall he send his
angels, and shall gather together his eleet from the four
winds" 3
" And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud
with power and great glory. And when these things begin to
come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads ; for your
redemption draweth nigh" 4
And this is not to be done at some indefinite or some future
period, not at the general resurrection of the last day, or at the
final judgment of mankind, but at a certain fixed and definite
time, and that within the lifetime of the then existing
generation.
"Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass
till all these tilings be done/'5 " Watch ye therefore, and
pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all
these things that shall e(tme to pass, and to stand before the
Son of man." G
1 Rev. xxii. 3, 4. 2 Matt. xxiv. 30, 31.
*' Mark, xiii. 2fi, 21. * Luke, xxi. 27, 28.
5 Mark, xiii. 30. <> Luke, xxi. 36.

LECT. VLJ GOD'S SEALED ONES. 119
It is a grand and continuous whole, and the key to it is those
words of our Lord, 1 fear but little understood : " Immediately
after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened,
and the moon shall .not give her light, and the stars shall fall
from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken, and
then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and
then shall all the tribes of the earth (the land of Judaea) mourn,
and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of
heaven with power and great glory, and he shall send his angels
with a great .sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together
his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the
other. Now learn a parable of the fig tree, when his branch
is yet tender and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is
nigh, so likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know
that it is near, even at the doors ; verily, I say unto you, this
generation shall not pass till ALL these things be fulfilled:
heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass
away. "
I need riot say how all this is mixed up in a labyrinth of never
ending confusion by commentators. Now, part of it is made
to refer to the destruction of Jerusalem, and part to the Day of
Judgment. Now, part is expounded of the recent convulsion of
European capitals. Now, of the great distress upon the land of
Judaxt, and wrath upon the people of the Jews. Now, of events
which took place A.D. 7^« Now, of events which are taking
place A.D. 18,55. Do you ask for an elucidation of this in-
explicable jargon ? the answer is—Prophecy has a double mean-
ing, and the predictions which revealed the destruction of Jerusa-
lem are applicable, in their second sense, to the end of the world.
Now, if prophecy has a double meaning, it surely would be
modest to allow that double meaning to be applied only by in-
spired men, or else we are liable to the charge of making
ourselves prophets ; and I do not see the difference between
.assuming for ourselves the gift of prophecy, and pronouncing
that a prophecy which has already received its accomplishment,
points to a future event yet to come. Besides which, if the
prophecies respecting the destruction of Jerusalem have a
double meaning, then the prophecies respecting the destruction
of Tyre, Babylon, and Nineveh, must h

120 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LBCT. VI.
likewise. If the precedent is established in one case, it must
be established in all. I do not conceive that the prophecies
which relate to the Redeemer of the human race are analogous
to prophecies relating to the destruction of cities ; for whilst
it would only he natural to find Him the subject of prophecy
from the beginning, it would be unnatural that the destruction
of a particular city should prefigure events to take place at the
end of time. Added to this, our Lord's prophecies in the
Gospels, respecting the destruction of Jerusalem, are so hedged
in by certain fixed limits which restrict their application, that it
seems little short of presumption to extend them beyond the
period which He has defined. I positively maintain that our
Saviour's predictions in Matt, xxiv., Mark xiii., Luke xxi., had
respect to a definite object, and were confined within the fixed
limits of a definite period. J positively maintain that our Lord
did not mean to mix up the scenes of the destruction of Je-
rusalem and the so-called end of the world. That it would
Lave heen unworthy of his divine love and intelligence to have
conveyed so indistinct an answer to die earnest appeal of his
disciples. I unhesitatingly affirm, that of all shallow, weak,
and ridiculous arguments, the shallowest and the weakest is that
which divides the question of our Lord's disciples to their
Masterl into three separate inquiries, as if " the end of
the world," cro^reXeta rov cuaWg, and the coming of
Christ were distinct and separate events. Happily for our
system of interpretation, the Evangelist tells us, in this very
chapter, that " the end " should come when the " gospel of
the kingdom should be preached as a witness unto all nations.
Then shall the end come ;" and that the coming of Christ
should take place before that f/eneratiou had passed away.
Happily for us, the same question, the ynestion repectltu/ the
time when all this should happen, is put to our Lord under
similar circumstances of time and place, by St. Mark and St.
Luke, and put in a shape in which it is impossible for any in-
genuity of man to make three questions of it. " Tell us,
when shall these things be ? and what shall be the sign when
all these things shall be fulfilled?"2 "Master, but when
shall these things be ? and what sign will there be when these
1 Matt. xxiv. 3. 2 Mark, xiii. 4.

LECT. VI.] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 121
things shall come to pass ? "l And the answer in each case is
substantially the same as in the Gospel of St. Matthew.
Why all this labour should be taken to fritter away one of
the simplest and plainest declarations of Holy Writ is more
than I can tell. Do they think we are detracting from the
glory of the Saviour because we say He came at the period He
said He wrould come, and to effect the object He said He would
effect ? Much more do they detract from the Saviour's glory
who lead us to believe that his kingdom is not yet set up, but
that it will be set up at a corning to this earth of which the
Scriptures do not say one word.
Nor is this the only shift to which the supporters of these
views have been driven in order to defend their system. Gro-
tius2 was obliged to deny the inspiration of the writers of the
New Testament, because he could not reconcile the coming of
Christ with the end of the world. He affirmed that God
purposely concealed the knowledge of Jus will from the
Apostles, who were Jed to expect the end of tJie world as im-
mediately about to happen ; an argument, if correct, utterly
subversive of the inspiration of the New Testament; for in
that case they must have uttered positive statements respecting
the immediate coining' of Christ, which proved to be untrue.
For iny own part, 1 can safely say I never understood the
Scriptures, especially those of the New Testament, until I had
studied " The Revelation." I seemed to feel that Scripture
" wanted some epitome which should connect its predictions with
their final fulfilment with regard to the new dispensation, and
thus to present an entire whole to the reader of those and
future times." 1 mixed up, in mysterious confusion, the world
and the land of Juda»a ; the coming of Christ and the day of
judgment; the destruction of Jerusalem and the final sentence
of mankind. In innumerable instances I was compelled to put
forced constructions on passages which had a plain and definite
meaning, and to do gross violence to all legitimate principles
1 Luke, xxi. 7-
2 " Accedat quod etiam hanc qualerncunque famain, nullo moclo durabilem
sibi poterant promittere ; cum (Deo dc ii\du$trid suutn in hoc concilium <v-
lante) mundi totius cxitium, quasi de proximo immiuens, opperirentur. Quod
et ipsorum ct sequentium Christianorum scripta, apertissimum faciunt.'* —
tirotius de Vcr. lib. xi. 6'.

GOD'S SEALED ONES. [Lacr. VL
of interpretation. Of such questions as those of the gathering
of the elect, and the first resurrection, I had not the slightest
conception. Following the routine of " blind leaders of the
blind," I explained the signs which preceded the destruction of
Jerusalem of the signs which should precede the end of the
world, " Nation rising against nation" was interpreted of
modern commotions. " The gospel preached as a witness to
all nations," of the labours of missionary societies ; " the signs
in the sun, moon, and stars," of the tokens of a future advent,
and so on, as tens of thousands do at the present moment.
But, if I may venture to say so without presumption, " when
it pleased God to reveal his Son in me," as already come, and
to open my eyes to the true meaning of his blessed word, there
fell from mine eyes " as it had been scales." I saw the fallacy
with which I had been bound ; a key was preferred which at
once opened the mystical lock ; a clue was found which un-
ravelled the mazy labyrinth ; the "epitome" so long wanted
was at last discovered, and the Scriptures stood forth in new
and intelligible light as "an entire whole." That key, that
clue, that epitome, was realised in the Apocalypse. TVot only
did the Scriptures explain the Apocalypse, but the Apocalypse
explained the Scriptures. As in some perfect piece of me-
chanism, the inoperation of one bolt or wheel deranges the
whole; so also with this winding up of the mysteries of God.
Till understood, it was felt that something was wanting. When
understood, it became evident that the word of God was
complete.
I say to all, study the Apocalypse — study the Apocalypse
not by the Apocalypse, but in connection with the Scriptures
of the Old and New Testament. Floods of light and know-
ledge will burst upon you —you will possess clearer views of
revealed truth than you had before—you will possess more
exalted views of your divine Lord — you will see Him already
come, the footsteps of his awful coming still deeply printed on
the Jew and on Jerusalem — you will recognise his mighty and
powerful kingdom stretching far away throughout the universe
— you will see Him set down with his Father upon his throne,
and his kingdom ruling over all. And when the infidel or
the sceptic shall ask, as of old, " where is the promise of his
coming?" you will point to a world born again under bis

LacT.VL] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 123
sway—you will point to Christianity filling the length and
breadth of the earth—you will point to all enemies being gra-
dually subdued under his feet, and heaven and earth re-echoing
the triumphant song, " Hallelujah, for the Lord God omnipo-
tent reigneth."
Immediately, /zero, ravra, after the sealing of the 144,000
" of all the tribes of the children of Israel," defined chap, xiv.3.
as the " redeemed from the earth," Judaea, St. John beholds
" a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations
and kindreds, and people and tongues." This innumerable
multitude is evidently contrasted with the specific number, the
144,000, as the gathered from "all nations and kindreds, and
people and tongues ;" i. e.9 from nations which were not Jews,
are put in apposition to the " redeemed from the earth," Ju-
dasa. The Church at that time, it must be remembered, was
composed of " devout men out of every nation under heaven."
JVo land so remote or barbarous but had some candidates for
the "white robes," and the "palms " of victory. "Neither
pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on
me through their word ; . . . And the glory which thou
gavest me I have given them ; that they may be one, even
as we are one."1 " Many shall come from the east and
west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob,
in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kingdom
(the Jews, compare Matt. xxi. 43.) shall be cast out into
outer darkness : there shall be weeping and gnashing of
teeth."2 It will be noticed, that they who "shall come
from the east and west to sit down with Abraham, and
Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of God," (and surely this
sitting down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, cannot be re-
ferred to the gathering of the Gentiles into the Christian
Church,) are said to do so at the time of the rejection of
the " children of the kingdom." So St. Luke xiii. 23—£5.
^8—30. " Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that
be saved ? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in at the
strait gate : for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in,
and shall not be able. When once the master of the house is
1 John, xvii. 20—22. 2 Matt. viii. 11, 12.

124 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VL

risen up, and hath shut to the door (evidently referring to his
coming, Matt. xxv. 10.) . . . There shall be weeping and
gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and
Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you
yourselves thrust out. And they shall come from the cast, and
from the west, and from the north and from the south, and
shall sit down in the kingdom of God. And behold there are
last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last."
It is, then, only in accordance with the analogy of Scripture, that
at "his appearing and his kingdom" "a great multitude,
which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and
people, and tongues," should be gathered unto Him, as well as
the elect jewels of his own Israel, should enter into his king-
dom, and should sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
and all the prophets in the kingdom of God.

One class of these risen and glorified saints attracts the pecu-
liar notice of St. John : — " And one of the elders answered,
saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white1
robes? and whence came they ? And I said unto him, Sir,
thou knowest. And he said to me, these are they which
came out of great tribulation ;" ('E/c TTJS 0Xtx|/€cos T7?9 /^eyaX^s,
out of the tribulation, the great one, the tribulation foretold by
our Lord,—" Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and
shall kill you, and ye shall be hated of all nations for my
name's sake,") " therefore are they before the throne, of God."
They are not removed to such an inconceivable distance from
the glory of the Godhead, that through the infinity of space,
that glory seems but like the glimmerings of some distant star,
but "before the throne of God," and serve Him day and night
in his temple, and He that " sitteth on the throne shall dwell
among them ; they shall hunger no more, neither thirst any
more, neither shall the sun light on them nor any heat, for
the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them,
and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters, and God
shall wipe away all tears from their eyes."

1 " Tune nuntius Domini coronas jussit adferri ; allatic sunt autcin corona?
velut ex palmist facta*, et coronavit eos viros uuntius . . . data CM xiyitlo ;
nam vestem eandern habebant, id est, candidam nicut nivern." — llenme
Pastor, Similitude, 8.

LECT. VI] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 125

Oh, what a glorious contrast to the symbols presented in the
earlier part of this seal! From scenes of desolation and terror,
shadowed forth by the sun black as sackcloth of hair, and the
moon as blood, and the stars falling to the earth, from the
confusion and dismay attending upon the dissolution of things
human and divine — from vainly-uttered shrieks addressed to
inanimate Nature to hide the enemies of God from the face of
Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the wrath of the
Lamb — we are caught up to the throne of God, radiant with
glory and strength, to the multitude which no man can number,
clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands — to the
144,000 with lifs Father's name in their foreheads, standing*
upon Mount Sion ; we hear the echo of their chant of victory,
as in strains of deeply flowing and majestic harmony it rever-
berates along the aisles of eternity—"Salvation to our God
which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.'*

Let us now take a brief review of this seal. Miraculous
phenomena indicative of calamity and desolation are the har-
bingers of the wrath of the Lamb. The enemies of God hide
themselves in terror and dismay. Destruction is about to over-
take them. But there are servants of Christ in Judaea and in
Jerusalem of whom the Lord said, " In your patience possess
ye your souls ; there shall not an hair of your head perish."
These are exempted from the approaching slaughter. 141,000
are sealed in their foreheads. The angel ascending from the
liast commands the four angels whose province it is to hurt the
earth, saying, " Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the
trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their fore-
heads."

These sealed ones are not only saved from that desolation,
but they are represented as glorified in heaven ; God not only
did not " appoint them to wrath,7' but to obtain salvation1

1 1 Tliess. v. 9. " to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ/' — That
this salvation does not merely mean temporal deliverance from that wrath to
which the Jewish nation were appointed, but also heavenly glory, is shown
from the consideration, that they who wake, and they who sleep, are equally
to be partakers of it. —Compare 1 Thess. iv. 1.3—18. To this salvation our
Lord alludes (Luke, xvii. 30—3?«) "Even thus shall it be in the day when
the Son of man is revealed......in that night there shall be two men
in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. Two women

126 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.

through their Lord Jesus Christ, who (lied for them, that
whether they wake or sleep, (i. e., whether they should he
" alive and remain unto his coming," or whether they should
be the " dead in Christ") should live together with Him. Christ
sends " his angels, and gathers his elect from the four winds."
They are seen standing before the throne, and before the Lamb,
clothed with white robes, and with palms in their hands; they
are described, chap, xiv., as " the redeemed from among men,
being the first fruits unto God and the Lamb."

For this deliverance, this " better resurrection," they pour
forth the unceasing song of praise: — " Salvation to our God
which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. Bless-
ing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour,
and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever,
Amen."

I submit this interpretation as more reasonable than that
which, in accordance with a supposed system of chronology,
which has no other foundation than the imagination of its ad-
vocates, refers the events of the Sixth Seal to the fourth cen-
tury, — which discovers, under symbols expressive of terror
and despair, the triumph of Christianity over Paganism,—
which gathers a Christian Church out of the twelve tribes, 300
years after the twelve tribes had been scattered to the winds,—
which locates these twelve tribes in the bosom of the Roman
empire,—which discovers the Puseyisrn and Tractarianism of
the fourth century in the circumstance of the servants of God
being sealed in their foreheads,—-to say nothing of the monstrous
leap of seventy years during which the real Church is being
gathered out of the nominal Church. To me it is a marvel
that such statements should be tolerated, and that such books
should be so extensively circulated, and it confirms me in the
supposition, that either very few ever think of the subject at
all, or else follow blindly in the beaten track which others have
laid down.

shall be grinding together; the one shall he taken, and the other left.
Two men shall be in the field ; the one shall he taken, and the other left.
And they answered and said unto him, Where Lord ? And he said unto
them, Wheresoever the body (the Jewish nation) is, thither will the (Roman)
eagles be gathered together."

LECT. VI] GOD'S SEALED ONES. 127
And before I close this Lecture, I desire to express my firm
conviction that the Church has not acted well or wisely in prac-
tically excluding the Apocalypse from her services. It is by no
means improbable that it is mainly owing to the want of en-
lightened critical study with regard to this book, added to the
hesitation with which it has been received, that much of the
folly of modern interpreters is to be traced. Now, if the Apo-
calypse is worthy to occupy a place in the Sacred Canon, it is
worthy of being as frequently read as other parts of Holy
Scripture ; and if permitted to be read in our churches at all, it
ought to be studied by those who minister about holy things.
If it is not worthy of such a position, let it be excluded alto-
gether from the rank of canonical books, but let not the Church
be placed in the anomalous position of recognising a book as ca-
nonical, which she does not read, and of upholding the inspira-
tion of an Apocalypse which she practically rejects.
Now, surely, it does not follow because much that has been
said and done on this book is mere guesswork, much nega-
tively ridiculous, if not positively mischievous, much to the
disgust of reason and common sense, and, not least of all, much
in defiance of the legitimate rules of Scriptural interpretation,
that no meaning is ever to be found, no clue ever to be dis-
covered. If it was necessary for the Apocalypse to be written,
we may suppose it was necessary for the Apocalypse to be read,
and if a special blessing, nowhere else promised to readers of
Scripture, was promised to the hearers and readers of the Apoca-
lypse, we may suppose there was some urgent reason for their
compliance with the terms of the blessing. My impression is,
that the Apocalypse was perfectly intelligible to those to whom
it was first addressed, that the symbols with which it abounds
were of frequent use amongst the Christians of those days, that
the definitions and explanations of these symbols which pervade
the book, must have removed all doubts from the minds of those
who heard and read them, and that its figures and tropes were
not a whit more difficult of comprehension than the allegories
of our Lord in the Gospels. If we have lost the key, just as we
have lost the knowledge of some sciences with which antiquity
was familiar, it is because we do not put ourselves in the situa-
tion of those for whom its warnings were written.

128 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.
It is plain, then, our only chance of understanding this book
will be in some measure to realise the position of those to whom
the Revelation was sent; to place ourselves in imagination in
that land which was immediately to be the theatre of these
predictions; to enter into the deep feelings of those to whom
the worship of the Beast was an awful reality, and the coming
of the Son of Man a present mystery; to stand in the broad
street of that Holy City which was to be trodden down of the
Gentiles, and to see from its lofty walls the myriads of locust
armies gathered together for its destruction; to listen to the
groans of the famine-stricken people ; to see their desolation,
only equalled by their impenitence ; to let one idea stand
prominently forward in our minds, that the Jewish Christian of
those days expected the immediate corning of his Lord to destroy
his city and nation, and to gather his elect from the four corners
of the eartli.
To do this effectually? we must perhaps unlearn what we
have been accustomed to consider established and certain truth,
we must perhaps unteach ourselves what has hitherto rested
on a foundation supposed to be unassailable. We mus^ sift
and try to the bottom principles of which no doubt has
up to this time been entertained, and we must weigh them
carefully in the balance of the Sanctuary. But if, by the grace
of an all-wise and directing Spirit, we are enabled to arrive at
more sure conclusions than those previously formed, our labour
will not be lost. The majesty of Scripture, as a grand and un-
broken whole, will be asserted. The Apocalypse will be found
to utter the same note as the Gospels, and the Gospels will be
found confirmed by the Apocalypse. The Epistles will take up
the same divine sound, connecting the predictions of our Lord
with the nearer announcement of their speedy and immediate
accomplishment. Not one link will be wanting. " By the
greatness of his power not one faileth."
Added to this we shall gain an insight, such as we may rea-
sonably hope is not at variance with truth, into a sublime and
long sealed up portion of Holy Writ—an insight which the first
commentators on the Apocalypse had, and which modern theo-
rists have lost sight of. We shall go back, with Andreas and
Arethas, to the scenes connected with the destruction of the

LECT. VL] GOD'S SEALED O&ES, 129
Jewish polity, instead of going forward with new-fangled spe-
culators to the so-called end of the world. Following the steps
of the earliest commentators, whose expositions were based
upon others which had preceded theirs, we shall discover
that the view taken of these symbols by the early Church, was
in all probability the right one; and that the fables with
which the religious world is now ringing are the creations of
yesterday. In a word, we shall hope to uncover the wrapping
which the ignorance of bygone days has rolled around the
Apocalypse ; proceeding all the while upon the incontrovertible
principle, that the Apocalypse is declared by its author to be a
prophecy of which the fulfilment should take place immediately,
and that if a blessing was promised to the public reader of it1, and
to those who heard him, it must have been intelligible to those
who complied with the terms upon which that blessing was to
be expected. Surely it does not follow because the biblical
student has been led with parched throat and swollen tongue
to one mirage after another of hot and glaring sand, each as
illusory and as unstable as the preceding, that 110 oasis of green
sward and of limpid streams shall ever give rest to his burning
brow and his fainting form. Surely it does not follow that
truth is never to be found because it has been for a long time
overlaid ; or that an interpretation, satisfactory to reasonable
minds, shall never be made out, because error has mystified the
subject for 1,000 years. Surely it does not follow that a book,
once understood, shall never be understood again, or that the
light and knowledge of the nineteenth century shall not be able
to unravel mysteries which to the first century were easy of
comprehension. Nay, may it not be possible, that the time
for the unveiling of this secret volume may be at hand ; that
with a more enlightened and critical study of the Scriptures,
the darkness of former ages may disappear ? Nay, may
not the time have come, in the providence of God, when a
deeper insight into the first principles of the doctrine of
Christ may lead to still more glorious results than those
already accomplished, and a clearer demonstration of eternal
truth produce a more real acceptance of vital religion at the
hands of the spiritual Israel of God ?
Only let us not fear for the truth itself. That will come out
1 o aroytrwfTK'wr. — Rev. i. 3.
K

130 GOD'S SEALED ONES. [LECT. VI.
unscathed and untouched; as it cannot be injured by falsehood,
so it cannot be propped up by sophistry; it dreads no assailant,
as it needs no apology. Like this glorious book, " not one
word of which could be added to or taken from," it derides
every attempt at amplification or detraction. We do not coin-
mend ourselves a whit nearer to God by magnifying predictions
which are defined as relating to particular events (a feeling
natural to man, and the latent cause of all hero-worship);
neither do we estrange ourselves from his favour by represent-
ing things as they are, and not as our taste would lead them
to be.

131

LECTURE VII,

THE FIRST FOUR TRUMPETS AND VIALS.

REV. viii.

1. And when he had opened the
seventh seal, there was silence in hea-
ven about the space of half an hour.

REV. xv. xvi.

5. And after that I looked, and,
behold, the temple of the tabernacle
of the testimony in heaven was

2. And I saw the seven angels | opened :
which stood before (rod; and to | 6'. And the seven angels came

them were given seven trumpets.

3. And another angel came and
stood at the altar, having a golden
censer; and there was given unto
him much incense, that he should
offer it with the prayers of all
saints upon the golden altar which
was before the throne.

4. And the smoke of the incense,
which came with the prayers of the
saints, ascended up before God out
of the angel's hand.

5. And the angel took the cen-
ser, and filled it with fire of the altar,
and cast it into the earth : and there
were voices, and thumlcrings, and
lightnings, and an earthquake.

()'. And the seven angels which
had the seven trumpets prepared
themselves to sound.

FIRST TRUMPET.

7. The first angel sounded, and
there followed hail and fire mingled
with blood, and they were cast upon
the earth : and the third part of trees
was burnt up, and all green grass was
burnt up.

out of the temple, having the seven
plagues, clothed in pure and white
linen, and having their breasts girded
with golden girdles.

7- A nd one of the four beasts gave
unto the seven angels seven golden
vials full of the wrath of God, who
liveth for ever and ever.

8. And the temple was filled with
smoke from the glory of God, and
from his power; and no man was
able to enter into the temple, till the
seven plagues of the seven angels were
fulfilled.

1. And I heard a great voice out
of the temple saying to the seven
angels, Go your ways, and pour out
the vials of the wrath of God upon
the earth.

FIRST VIAL.

2. And the first went, and poured
out his vial upon the earth ; and there
fell a noisome and grievous sore upon
the men which had the mark of the
beast, and upon them which worship
ped his image.

132 THE FIRST FOUR [Lxcr. VII.

SECOND TRUMPET. I SECOND VIAL.

8. And the second angel sounded, / 3. And the second angel poured
and as it were a great mountain burn- I out his vial upon the sea ; and it he"
ing with fire was cast into the sea : / came as the Wood of a dead man :

and the third part of the sea became
blood ;

9. And the third part of the crea-
tures which were in the sea, and had
life, died ; and the third part of the
ships were destroyed.

THIRD TRUMPET. \ THIRD VIAL.

and every living soul died in the sea.

10. And the third angel sounded,
and there fell a great star from hea-
ven, burning as it were a lamp, and
it fell upon the third part of the
rivers, and upon the fountains of

4. And the third angel poured out
his vial upon the rivers and foun-
tains of waters; and they became
blood.

5. And I heard the angel of the

waters; ! waters say, Thou art righteous, O

11. And the name of the star is ! Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt

called Wormwood ; and the third be, because thou bast judged thus,

part of the waters became worm- j (j. For they have shed the blood of

wood : and many men died of the

saints and prophets, and thou hast

waters, because they were made bitter. given them blood to drink ; for they

| are worthy.

7- And I heard another out of the
altar say, Even so, Lord God Al-
mighty, true and righteous are thy

judgments.

FOURTH TRUMPET.
12. And the fourth angel sounded,

FOURTH VIAL.

8. And the fourth angel poured

and the third part of the sun was 1 out his vial upon the sun ; and power

smitten, and the third part of the j was given unto him to scorch men

moon, and the third part of the stars; j with fire.

so as the third part of them was dark- j (). Arid men were scorched with

ened, and the day shone not for a j great heat, and blasphemed the name

third part of it, and the night like- j of God, which hath power over these

wise. j plagues; and they repented not to

give him glory.

We have already explained six of the Seven Seals.
The 1st, indicative of invasion and conquest.
The 2d, of faction and civil war.
The 3d, of dearth and famine.

LECT. VII.] TRUMPETS AND VIALS. 133
The 4th, of wholesale death and pestilence.
The 5th, revealing the impatient cry of the martyrs for
vengeance against their murderers.
The 6th, the miraculous phenomena preceding the coming
vengeance, the terror occasioned by these prodigies, and the
deliverance of the Christian Church from the impending
desolation.
One more seal only remains to be broken ; for the book
written " within and without" is sealed \vith Seven Seals.
This seal must evidently introduce the consummation. This
consummation is not revealed all at once, but is protracted
over a period during which seven trumpets are sounded, and
seven vials are poured out. I am inclined to believe the seven
vials are only a repetition of the wroes denounced by the seven
trumpets — that, as is very common in prophecy, especially
where that prophecy is given under symbol and allegory, the
symbols are doubled — that the subject of the Seventh Seal,
comprising the sounding of seven trumpets, the fall of Babylon,
and the coming of Christ, extending to verse I, of chapter xv.,
is again resumed with verse 5. of chapter xv., comprising the
pouring out of seven vials, which are more or less identical
with the seven trumpets, the fall of Babylon, and the coming
of Christ. I shall be able to show an extraordinary coincidence
between the trumpets and vials — a coincidence so near and
close, and so minute in many particulars, that I think it will be
impossible to resist the conclusion that they both prefigure the
same events. The plan which I shall adopt will be to take the
trumpets and the vials together, and, by so doing, we shall
obtain great assistance in their elucidation ; for it will often be
found that where sometimes the trumpet is less full and explicit,
the vial is more diffuse; or where the vial is less instructive
and complete, the trumpet supplies the deficiency.
One thing is certain: 1 shall look for no far-fetched,
no mystical interpretation. If the symbol be not of simple
and easy exposition, I shall take it for granted that owing
to the lapse of years, and the scanty historical records
of the period, I am destitute of that necessary information
which would give the clue at once, I must believe, if the
book be of a character such as the author has defined in the
preface, viz., "The rewlatioH of Jesus Christ, which Mod

134 THE FIRST FOUR [LECT. VII.
gave unto him to shew unto his servants things which must
shortly come to pass" that it was perfectly intelligible to those to
whom it was addressed; I cannot think for a moment if it was
" The revelation," The unfolding, The unwrapping, " ATTO/CO,-
Xvi/as," that it was necessary to send a key to open the Apoca-
lypse. I cannot think that Christ would have broken the seals of
the sealed book, only to leave those to whom its mysteries were
revealed wrapped in ten-fold ignorance.
And above all I shall look for no chronological history of
the world and of the Church down to the end of time. Of all
fetal prejudices to the interpretation of the book, this is the
worst, — a prejudice which the declared object of the book
ought to have overcome hundreds of years ago, — a prejudice
which has not the shadow of an argument to support it, but
which, like many old opinions, will perhaps require a more
powerful voice than mine to annihilate. What precedent is
there in the book of God for a single prophecy to contain a
civil and ecclesiastical history of the world for 2000 years ?
If the book of revelation be such a prophecy, it stands out in
conspicuous anomaly. Prophecy was ever given under the
old dispensation through a succession of prophets, and holy
men of old, raised up one after another, uttering their predic-
tions with increasing clearness as the time drew nigh, " spake
as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." Moreover, prophecy
generally, especially prophecies relating to the destruction of
particular cities, such as Babylon, Nineveh, Tyre, was uttered
near the period of its fulfilment. There is nothing in the
history of prophecy which answers at all to the monstrous idea
that 2000 years before it could take place the Apocalypse
should contain a prediction of the burning of Papal Koine by
literal fire. Such a chasm between the enunciation of prophecy
and its fulfilment would destroy the nature and object of pro-
phecy altogether, for it would cease to have any effect upon those
it was intended to influence. Were some one commissioned to
foretel that London would be destroyed by volcanic eruption in
2000 years' time, what effect would such a prediction have upon
the merchant princes of our day ? If they did not call in
question the inspiration or the reasonableness of the prophecy,
they would regard it as one with which they in their generation
were little concerned.

LECT. VIL] TRUMPETS AND VIALS. 135
Added to this, prophecy generally, if we except those
prophecies relating to the Redeemer which concern all mankind,
had a distinct and specific reference to the generations of men
then existing. The Jews are forewarned of their seventy
years' captivity in Babylon. Their future deliverer Cyrus is
pointed out to them by name. Their return to their own
land, the restoration of their temple, and its second and
complete overthrow, are legitimate subjects of prophecy, of
deep interest to those who heard them. But the system which
is supposed to be the subject of the woes of the Apocalypse
had no existence when its destruction is so graphically pre-
dicted— the generation of men to whom the Apocalypse was
addressed could not have had the remotest idea that papal
tyranny was the theme of apocalyptical denunciation. Nay, it
is only of comparatively recent date that the amazing discovery
has been brought to light that the Apocalypse contains an
ecclesiastical history of the world and the Church from the age
of St. John down to the end of time, of which the ages that
are past never discovered that one syllable applied to them.
Nay it is the stupendous Eureka of the l[)th century that the
Apocalypse is the unique prophecy in the Book of God in which
not one soul to whom these communications were made could
possibly have been interested, not one word of which could have
been intelligible to those to whom they were addressed, and
which are only to be understood when viewed in the light of
recent investigation. The inspired seer might have said,
" Blessed is he that readeth and they that hear the words of
this prophecy .... for the time is at hand" But if,
according to Mr. Elliott's and Dr. Cumming's theory, its mean-
ing is only now found out, no reader of the Apocalypse in those
days gained for himself the blessing promised. The Giver of
these sublime visions might have denounced the most awful
sentence upon those who should add to or take away from the
words of this prophecy, " I testify unto every man that heareth
the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add
unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are
written in this book ; and if any man shall take away from the
words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his
part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from
the things which are written in this book ;" but if " The End
 

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276 THE RESURRECTION OF [LECT. XI.
atowo? rovroO, — where the use of the demonstrative pronoun
makes it certain that the close of that age must be intended,
" The Son of Man shall send forth his angels. . . . Then
shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of
their Father."1 He continually speaks of an immediate blessed-
ness which he would bestow upon his disciples : " Ye are they
which have continued with me in my temptations, and I appoint
unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me,"
—this kingdom being evidently the peculiar blessedness of those
who continued ivith him in his temptations. So again,—
" Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me be with
me where I am ; " and that this relates primarily to them is
made certain from the preceding clause — " None of them is
lost, but the son of perdition,"2—Judas. So with all those
texts in John vi. in which he said he would raise up those that
' believed in him at " the last day" — the last day being the period
of his coming, and the close of the age.
He positively laid down the time of the resurrection to be
icithin the lifetime of the generation amongst ivhom he lived.
" The Queen of the South shall rise up in the judgment
with the men of this generation, and condemn them ....
The men of Nineveh shall rise up in the judgment with this
generation, and shall condemn it ;" 3 and that the generation
spoken of was the generation of men then living upon earth, is
most clear from the context—" Even so shall it be also unto
this wieked generation" 4
Everywhere in the New Testament the Coming, the Re-
surrection, and the Judgment, are synchronical.
" When the Son of Man shall come in his glory . . . then
shall he sit—in judgment—upon the throne of his glory, and
before him shall be gathered all nations ;"5 and in the descrip-
tion given of that judgment it is remarkable that the plea put iu
before that bar, both of the righteous and the wicked, referring
palpably to the peculiar difficulties of the Apostolic age, tells
unmistakably of the time when that judgment began to be
executed.
" The Son of Man shall come in the glory of his father with
1 Matt. xiii. 43. 2 John, xvii. 12.
3 Luke, xi. 32. ; Matt. xii. 39- 45. ^ 4 Matt. xii. 45.
^ Matt. xxv. 31, 32.

LECT. XT.] THE TWO WITNESSES. 277
his angels, and then he shall reward every man according to
his works,"1 and it is added that this should take place during
the lifetime of that generation ; " Verily I say unto you, there
be some standing here which shall not taste of death, till they
see the Son of Man corning in his kingdom." Indeed the
uniform and continual voice of Scripture is that the Son of Man
is coming to "judge the quick and dead at his appearing, and
his kingdom ;" and the time of this appearing is everywhere
defined to be within the lifetime of that generation.
And does it not appear highly probable,—since "God
who has appointed to all men death did not clearly set forth
the judgment after death, until He had revealed, to try men,
that redeeming love without which judgment would be un-
bearable by any child of man;" that as soon as this demon-
stration of his mercy had been made known, there would remain
no hindrance to the immediate execution of that judgment.
Does it not carry with it the likelihood of serious and solemn
truth, that since "it is appointed unto men once to die, but
after this the judgment," the investiture of a supreme exe-
cutive for the human race would lead to an immediate perform-
ance of his office, If otherwise, why did St. Paul say—" The
times of this ignorance God winked at; but now comrnandeth
all men everywhere to repent: because he hath appointed a day,
in the which he will judge (^te'XXet Kplv€.iv>he is soon about to
judge} the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath
ordained ; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that
lie bath raised him from the dead."2 Nay, does it not appear
a most unaccountable circumstance, that the doctrine of the re-
surrection should have dawned upon the world at that period
— that " life and immortality should have been brought to
light in the Gospel " — that the doubtings of the Sadducees,
"which said there was no resurrection, neither angel nor
spirit," should have been dispelled by the resurrection of
the Lord Jesus — that the disciples wherever they went
should have preached " Jesus and the Resurrection " — that
one of the main points of their teaching should have been that
they which had fallen asleep in Christ had not perished, —
and that this resurrection should have been again delayed to an
1 Matt. xvi. ^7. * Acts, xvii. 30, 31.

278 THE RESURRECTION OF [LECT, XI.
indefinite period. Upon such grounds there appears no parti-
cular reason why Christ should have come into the world when
he did. The resurrection of the Lord, followed by no resur-
rection of his people, seems to allow the force of the old objec-
tion, "Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead,
how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the
dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is
Christ not risen .... and if Christ be not raised, your faith
is vain, ye are yet in your sins."1
St. Paul is very explicit upon the question of a resurrection
at this time. He gives us the order of the resurrection with
regard to time. " Now is Christ risen from the dead and
become the first fruits of them that slept ; but
every man in his own order, Christ the first fruits, afterward
(eTreira, used only of a short interval of time) they that are
Christ's at his coming THEN THE E\D.2
He connected it with the time of the destruction of the
Jewish people. " Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to
recompense tribulation to them that trouble you, and to you
who are troubled rest irith us when the Lord Jesus shall be
revealed from heaven with his mighty angels." 3 He elsewhere
associates it with the coining of the Lord Jesus. u When
Christ who is our life (compare " the last Adam a quickening
spirit") shall appear, then sh.aU ye a/so appear with him in
ylory"* "Looking for that blessed ln>pe[\ and the glorious
appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ."0
" We beseech you brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus
Christ, and by our f/atherint/ together unto him"~
The same Apostle elsewhere describes it as immediately
about to take place. " After the way which they call heresy,
so worship I the God of my fathers, .... and have
hope toward God .... that there shall be a resurrec-
1 1 Cor. xv. 12-17. 2 1 Cor. xv. 20-21-.
3 2 Thess. i. tf, 1. * Col. iii. 4.
5 EATTir, generally used in the New Testament of the resurrection, Upoff-
ceXOjjtvoL rtiv fuiKaptav i\7rica " (Titus, ii. 13.). 'KXTrc'cd £u"7l' aiWiou "
(Tit. iii. 7.)- "'J'j? tXTrtti yjupuvTu^ (Rom. xii. 12.). " Uf.pl t'\7r/£oc Kal
ai/f*<rr«(T£W£ viKpfov tyw Kpivoftai" (Acts, xxiii. ().). "Of p} l\DVTt<;
t\7rua"—1 Thess. iv. 13.
6 Titus, ii. 13. i 2 Thess. ii. 1.

LECT. XI.] THE TWO WITNESSES. 279

tion,—avd(TTao"w /u,e'XXeiz> ccrecrdcu,, that there shall be soon a
resurrection—of the dead, both of the just and unjust."1 He
"reckons the sufferings of this present time as unworthy to be
compared with the glory which shall be revealed,"—TT)J> /xc'X-
\ovcrav Sd£cu>, the (/lory which shall soon be revealed.2

He thought it so close and near, that he supposed some of
those whom he addressed would be alive to witness it. " For
this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which
are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not
prevent them which are asleep ; for the Lord himself shall
descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the Arch-
angel and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ
shall rise first; then we which are alive and remain shall be
caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord
in the air."3

" We shall not all sleep (we shall not all have died, some
of us will be still alive upon earth), but we shall all be changed
in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye at the last trump
(the seventh angel of the Apocalypse)—for the trumpet shall
sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall
be changed."4

He seems to have been uncertain whether he himself should
be quick upon earth or not at the second coming of the Lord.
Hence lie says, " Who died for us, that whether we wake
or sleep,— whether quick or dead,—we might live together
with him." (1 Thess. v. 10.)

"We labour that whether present or absent, (whether absent
from the body and present with the Lord,)—we maybe ac-
cepted of him."5

So near did the Christians of those days believe the resur-
rection to be, that some taught, before the period of the second
advent**, that "The resurrection was past already1, and over-
threw the faith of some."

1 Acts, xxiv. !,">. 2 Rom. viii. 18.
:i 1 Thess. iv. 15, H>, 17. 4 1 Cor. xv. 51, 52.
ft 2 Cor. v. (). ° 2 Tim. ii. 18.
7 Hymemrus and Philetus gare out in St. Paul's clay, that the resur-
rection was "past already"—»'/£>/ ytyoyti'cu, had already taken place,—thereby
overthrowing the faith of some who had been taught to believe that it would
be contemporaneous with Christ's coming. Their error, however, in antici-
T 4

280 THE RESURRECTION OF [LBCT. XI.

So approximate and so impending did they regard " their
gathering together at the coming of their Lord, that St. Paul
besought them by " The coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, and
by their (fathering together unto him, that they should not be
shaken in mind or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word,
nor by letter, as from us that the day of Christ was at hand"
—o>S on €v4crrr)K€,vl r/ ^/xe'pa TOV XpL&Tov, that the day of Christ
was actually upon them and in the, midst of them. For that
day, he said, should not come without its forerunning signs.
And then he gave them the signs, similar to those already
given by the Lord, whereby they might know the time when
that day should arrive.

The first sign mentioned by the Apostle is that, " there
should be a fa flint/ away jirst"—rj aTTOKaracria—THE falling
away—the well-known apostacy respecting" which the Lord had
forewarned his Church.

The next, that before that day came, Antichrist should he
revealed, " and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdi-
tion." But whoever that Antichrist mi^ht be, it was an Anti-
christ then opptmny the Church. When $f. Paul wrote, that
enemy opposed and exalted himself " above all that is called
God or that is worshipped." II7hcn St. Paul wrote, lie was
sitting in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.
The apostle appeals to their knowledge of the facts of the case :
" Ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his
time ; for the mystery of iniquity doth already work, only he
'W/io now letteth will let until he be taken out of the way."
And when that " Man of Sin/' that " Son of Perdition," that
"Wicked" should be revealed, of whose non-revealing they
knew the reason, the Lord should come, and should " consume

paling the time of the resurrection, shows that they not only believed that the
resurrection would immediately take place, but that it would ln> a spiritual
resurrection ; for it is inconceivable that they could have affirmed that a cor-
poreal resurrection, which must have been self-evident, had already taken
place.
If they erred, because they anticipated the time of the resurrection, let us
take care that we do not fall into the opposite error of postponing an event,
the time of which is HO accurately defined by our Lord and his apostles.
1 That this is the force of ivtffTrjKiv may be seen by comparing Rom. viii.
:*8. with 2 Thess. ii. 2.

LBCT. XL] THE TWO WITNESSES. 281
him with the spirit of His mouth, and destroy him with the
brightness of his coming." *
This was the resurrection called by St. Peter " The
grace to be brought to us at the revelation (aTro/caXvi/us) of
Jesus Christ." — " The lively hope" promised to those
who were " kept by the power of God through faith unto
salvation, ready to be revealed at the last time."2 This was
the resurrection of which St. John said, " Beloved, now
are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we
shall be, but we know that when he shall appear, we shall
be like him, for we shall see him as he is."3 It is no wonder,
then, that St. Paul should beseech his Thessalonian converts,
" by the coming of our Lord Je^us Christ, and by their
(/atheriny tor/ether (iTncrvvay^y^) unto him.''1 It is no
wonder that our Lord connected this resurrection with his
coming to destroy Jerusalem, — " And, in the time of
harvest, I will say to the reapers, gather ye together first
the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather
the wheat into my barn"
Tims prepared, we are not surprised to find the doctrine
of a resurrection at this time distinctly laid down in the
Apocalypse; on the contrary, there would seem to be a
peculiar reason for greater explicitness as the time drew
nigh. The dawning of the resurrection morning was at
hand, the time for the mystery of God to be finished, the
hour for which saints and prophets waited was drawing
near. " The day was approaching." " The times of re-
freshing " (az/ai/yufecjs) * — of a new and glorified ex-
istence,— were about to come "from the presence of the
Lord," when he should "send Jesus Christ, which before
was preached unto them, whom the heaven must receive
until the times of restitution of all thinys."* The whole
1 2 Thess. ii. * 1 Peter, i. 5. 3 1 John, iii. 2.
4 ' t£t\//i'/£e," "he gave up the ghost."—Acts, v. 5. " ava^uniCj" " refo-
cillat o." — Schleusner.
r> f The times of restitution of all things" (Acts, iii. 21.\ ^ovdtv u-rrc^a-
raoTcirrcwc wurrwr, are identical with " the time of reformation/' icmpov c)to/>-
Owerchjc of lieh. ix. 10. The Jewish law and customs were to last until " the
time of reformation," and the " heavens were to receive Christ until the times
of the restitution of all things." The inference is, that he would come at the
period of the abrogation of the Mosaic law.

282 THE BBSTJRRECTION OF [LBCT. XI.
previous history of the Church all pointed to this close.
Daniel, Isaiah, Job, — all they who " died in faith not
having received the promises, but having seen them afar
off,"— were expecting their reward. The hour was at hand,
defined in the Apocalypse as the "time of the dead, that
they should be judged, and that thou shouldest (five reward
unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them
that fear thy name, small and (/reat9 and shouldest destroy
them which destroy the earth.'* All is pointing to a great
and speedy consummation — the finishing of the dispen-
sation — the absorbing change of a better and a more
glorious age. The grand feature in this new dispensation
is the resurrection of tl\e sainted dead ; with the resurrec-
tion of Christ the first fruits, a glorious harvest follows;
the eye of faith may trace them in these Apocalyptic visions,
and behold them gathered unto the barns of eternal joy
and rest.
Let us then turn over the pages of this key to the great
mysteries of God, every word of which is written with
almost mathematical precision, and see what confirmation of
these views may be obtained from thence.
The witnesses are slain. For l^(iO days they had pro-
phesied clothed in sackcloth. What tongue may tell the
sufferings of that period ? What voice may utter the ex-
quisite character of that affliction, when the ties of nature
were lost in the fierce bigotry of persecution — when an
apostasy fose up of so dark and horrid a nature, that
" brother put the brother to death, and the father the
son, and children rose up against their parents, and caused
them to be put to death?" No resting-place can be found
for their harmless dust — the bitterness of persecution fol-
lows them beyond the grave — but the day of triumph is
near, the day of victory is at hand ; they were faithful unto
death, and the crown of life is seen glittering through the
sky. " After three days and a half the Spirit nf life from
God1 entered into them, and they stood upon their feet, and
1 Compare, "If the Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead
dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your
mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you " (Rom. viii 11.). " Ye were
Healed with that Holy Spirit of promise which ig the earnest of your inherit-

LBCT. XL] THE TWO WITNESSES. 283
great fear fell upon them which saw them, and they heard a
great voice from heaven, saying unto them, Corne up hither,
and they ascended up to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies
beheld them/'
Everywhere in this wonderful book the same scene is pre-
sented. " And I looked, and behold a Lamb stood on
Mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four
thousand, having his Father's name written in their fore-
heads ;" they are said to be the " redeemed from the earth,"
" the redeemed from among men," " the first fruits unto God
and the Lamb." " Who are those," asks St. John, " which
are arrayed in white robes, and whence come they?" and
the answer is given, " These are they which came out of
great tribulation, and they have washed their robes, and
made them white in the blood of the Lamb, therefore are
they before the throne of God." " I saw thrones, and they
sat upon theni, aud judgment was given unto them, and I
saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of
Jesus and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped
the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark
upon their foreheads or upon their hands ; and they lived
and reigned with Christ a thousand years, but the rest of
the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished.
This is the "first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that
hath part in the first resurrection : on such the second death
hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ,
and shall reign with him a thousand years."1
Such are the arguments on which we build the doctrine
of a resurrection at that time. It would seem to be no valid
argument against a spiritual mystery that the gathering of
ance until the redemption of the purchased possession " (Ephes. i. 13.). We
" which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within
oiirselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our hody "
(Rom. viii. 23.). " The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we
are the children of God, and if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint
heirs with Christ" (Rom. viii. 16.). Is this any evidence to show that they
who were partakers of the miraculous gifts of the Spirit shared in the first
resurrection ? " Accipiet enim mercedem onine corpus purum ac sine macula
repertum, in quo habitandi gratia constitutus fuerit Spiritus Sanctus."—
llcrmn* Pastor, Similitudo 5.
1 Rev. xx. (>. +

284 THE RESURRECTION OF [LECT. XL
immortal souls into the presence of the God of the spirits of
all flesh should be a fact which need not have been visibly
manifest to flesh and blood ; neither does it appear necessary
for us to be able to define, with minute exactness, the nature
of those new and glorious bodies which are suited to their
high and heavenly condition. As they cannot be flesh and
blood—for corruption cannot inherit incorruption—so we may
safely and scripturally believe, that the ever changing' matter of
our present material bodies is not the stuff which forms the
imperishable abode of life and immortality. It would seem to
be proved that such of the ancient fathers who lived before
the coming of Christ expected an immediate resurrection ; and
that such as succeeded to those times spoke of the blest as
already gone to the place due to them from the Lord. It
would seem also to be made out, with tolerable distinctness, that
the prophets who spake of Israel's hope associated the doctrine
of a resurrection with the close of the Jewish dispensation, and
that our Lord unequivocally, and with the greatest minuteness
of time and place, said there should he at that period a
gathering of his elect from the four winds. This is further
confirmed by the writings of the Apostles, and reduced to
certainty by the confirmation of the Apocalypse.
It remains with those who are desirous of doing so to dis-
prove these assertions,— to show they are erroneous, and not
in strict accordance with the tenor of (rod's holy word. They
are not adopted hastily or lightly; they do not stand on isolated
and solitary texts, neither do they do violence? to any essential
truth. If they present new and hitherto-unheard-of interpreta-
tions of Holy Scripture, their mere novelty entitles them to some
consideration. They are based upon the foundation that our
Lord came, <is he said, to close the Jewish dispensation; and if
he did so come (which I have never yet heard refuted, and
which I confidently assert cannot be refitted^ then he also
gathered his elect at the same time.
May they establish us more and more in the faith of the Son
of God! May the consideration of his Almighty power in
" quickening whom he will," teach us to honour the Son, even
as we honour the Father ! May his gathering of his own into
his barns of joy and peace induce us to strive and pray that we
too may enter into the joy of our LoTd! May the assurance of

LECT. XL] THE TWO WITNESSES. 285
their present exalted condition affect us more deeply than the
expectation of their future felicity ! May the actual glory shared
by the saints now stimulate us more powerfully than the pros-
pect of a glory yet to be revealed ! May we lift up the eye of
faith with the martyr of old, till we see Jesus, not standing
alone at the right hand of God, but the " Lamb standing on
Mount Sion, and with him a hundred and forty and four thou-
sand;" and then may we go on from faith to deeds of mercy,
holiness, and charity, and so " follow their good examples, that
with them we may be partakers of his heavenly kingdom !"

286

LECTURE XII,

THE SEVENTH TRUMPET AND THE SEVENTH VIAL.

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

REV. ix. 15—19.

15. And the seventh angel sounded;
and there were great voices in heaven,
saying, The kingdoms of this world
are become the kinydfima of our Lord,
and of his Christ; and he shall reign
for ever and ever.

Hi. And the four and twenty elders
which sat before God on their seats,
fell upon their faces, and worshipped

SEVENTH VIAL.

RKV. xvi. 17—^1.

17' And the seventh angel poured
out his vial into the air ; and there
came a great voice out of the temple
of heaven, from the throne, saying,
It is done.

18. And there were voices, and
thunders, and lightnings ; and there
was a great earthquake, such as was
not since men were upon the earth

God. I so mighty an earthquake, and so

17. Saying, We give thee thanks,
O Lord God Almighty, which art,
and wast, and art to come ; because
thou hast taken to thee thy great
power, and hast reigned.

18. And the nations were angry,
and thy wrath is come, and the time
of the dead, that they should he
judged, and that thou shouldest give
reward unto thy servants the prophets,
and to the saints, and them that fear
thy name, small and great ; and
shouldt-st destroy them which destroy
the earth.

great.

lp. And the great city was divided
into three parts, and the cities of the
nations fell : and great Babylon came
in remembrance before God, to give
unto her the cup of the wine of the
fierceness of his wrath.

20. And every island fled away,
and the mountains were not found.

1M. And there fell upon tnen a
great hail out of heaven, avert/ «s/ow
about the weight of a talent: and
men blasphemed God because of the
plague of the hail ; for the plague

19. And the temple of God was | thereof was exceeding great,
opened in heaven, and there was seen
in his temple the ark of his testament:
and there were lightnings, and voices,
and thundering*, and an earthquake,
and great hail.

LECT. XIL] SEVENTH TRUMPET AND SEVENTH VIAL. 287
The preceding lectures on the suhject of the Open Book and
the resurrection of the Two Witnesses, seem to be a departure
from that synthetical principle upon which we have hitherto con-
ducted the exposition of the trumpets and vials ; and yet, as is
common under this duplicate form of symbol, the idea presented
in the one is only carried out under a greater variety of costume
in the other. Thus, under the trumpet, the prominent notion
put forth in the figure of the Open Book and the Two Witnesses
is that of a resurrection in the midst of those troublous times.
The echo, under the vial, answers, " Blessed is he that watcheth
and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his
shame." And that this metaphor is descriptive of the resurrec-
tion is evident, not only from the corresponding charge to the
Church of Sardis, where it is associated with the promise of
being " written in the Book of Life," but from the earnest de-
sire expressed by St. Paul to partake of this resurrection, and
to be clothed with the house which is from heaven, " if so be that
being clothed, he should not be found naked." l It will be seen
that the same idea is exhibited under the trumpet and vial; the
only difference being that the picture faintly sketched in the one
is expanded into full and finished proportions in the other.
And here I pause to dwell for a moment on the amalgama-
tion of mercy and judgment, mixed up as it were in strange and
unearthly confusion, under the trumpet and vial, which we have
last considered. Amidst the mourning of that terrific Arma-
geddon there is an " Open Book" of deliverance. Amidst "the
confused noise and the garments rolled in blood," of the "battle
of that great day of God Almighty," there is a resurrection
blessing to those that " watch and keep their garments."
"Even thus shall it be, (said our Lord,) IN THE DAY WHEN
THE SON OF MAN is REVEALED." "I tell you in that
night there shall be two men in one bed ; the one shall be taken
and the other shall be left. Two women shall be grinding to-
gether ; the one shall be taken and the other left. Two men
shall be in the field ; the one shall be taken and the other left*
And they answered and said unto him, Where Lord ? And he
said unto them wheresoever the body is, thither will the eagles
be gathered together." 2
1 2 Cor. v. 3. 2 Luke, xvii. 30

288 THE SEVENTH TBUMPET [LBCT. XII
Nor is this a solitary instance; not merely in the passage
alluded to, but everywhere throughout the book, desolation is
combined with deliverance, destruction with preservation, de-
spair with rescue, danger and dread with safety and salvation.
Shrieks of agony are mixed up with notes of joy and gladness,
and weepings and wailings of intolerable anguish with chants of
victory and paeans of conquest. The great city is divided into
three parts, but the city of our God abideth ever. Burning
Babylon sinks down in masses of lurid flame, but the New
Jerusalem shines refulgent with the glory of God. The great
whore which corrupted the earth with her fornication is made
the " hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean
and hateful bird/' — but the Bride, the Lamb's wife, is seen
coming down from God out of heaven. Hark to the song of
jubilee, as it rises high above the wailings of agony! "Blessed
is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments .... and he
(fathered them toe/ether into a place called in the Hebrew tony tie
Armageddon" Hark to the shout of triumph from the lips of
the redeemed, as it pierces through the moanings of anguish
and the death-groan of the enemies of God ! " Alleluia. Sal-
vation, and glory, and honour, and power unto the Lord our
God . . . and again they said, Alleluia, and her smoke rose
tip for ever and ever"
Our present subject is a comparison of the Seventh and last
Trumpet with the Seventh and last Vial. We have now ar-
rived at the consummation, for no other Trumpet is sounded,
and no other Vial is poured forth. This is plainly told us in
the book itself—for "with the sounding of the voice of the
Seventh Angel, the mystery of (rod is to he finished" and with
the pouring out of the Vial by the Seventh Angel, a voice is
heard saying, " It is done" There is, if possible, a more
distinct and marked identity between the Seventh Trumpet and
Vial than the preceding ones, and this identity is preserved and
continued to the end of the book. And before we analyse it,
suffer rne to observe that it is satisfactory to have found this
near and close resemblance IN THEM ALL. Had only one differed
materially from the rest, it would have been sufficient to over-
throw the argument. But as this cannot be urged, the proof
amounts to demonstration, not only that the principle of inter-
pretation is correct, but that both Trumpets and Vials relate to

LBCT. XII] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 289
corresponding and contemporaneous events. But I hasten to
show the identity between that part of the Seventh Trumpet
and the Seventh Vial which can be brought under your notice
at this time.
Trumpet—" The Seventh Angel sounded."
Vial.—" The Seventh Anyel poured out his Vial."
T.—" There were great voices in heaven."
V.—"There came a </rcat voice out of the temple of heaven."
T.—" The mystery of (tod should be finished." *
V.—A voice is heard saying " It is done."
y7.—« And the temple of God was opened in heaven."
V.—" And there came a great voice out of the temple of
heaven"
T.—" There were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings."
V.—" There were voices, and thunders, and lif/htiiiriys"
T.—" And an earthquake."
V.—" There was a great earthquake"
T.—" And great hail"
V.—" A great hail out of heaven."
Should there still exist a doubt in the minds of any who may
examine these views as to the correctness of the principle of in-
terpretation which lias been adopted, and should there still be
some lurking feeling that the Trumpets and Vials relate to suc-
cessive chronological events, I trust it will now be completely
removed.
As it could not have been accident which introduced the
extraordinary mention of the river Euphrates into the same
Trumpet and Vial, —as no merely fortuitous coincidence could
have placed the subject of Babylon and the coming of Christ
under the same duplicate symbols, — as it could not have been
chance which directed the woes of the first four Trumpets and
Vials to fall upon the earth, the sea, the rivers and fountains of
waters and the sun, —as no accidental combination of \vords
1 Rev. x. 7.
U

290 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [Licx. XII.
could by any possibility have preserved tbe continuous identity
which is observable in them all, or have caused ideas, not e'&e*-
where found in the Apocalypse^ to be introduced for the first
time in their respective Trumpets and Vials, — as, to use a
somewhat homely illustration, it is morally impossible that the
pieces of such a Chinese puzzle should have been made to fit each
into its proper place, without design and intention, so we may
safely conclude that no chance position of words, no accidental
similarity of ideas, could have brought about the complete iden-
tity between this part of the Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh
Vial,—we may take it for granted that they both relate to the
same events, and that so close an identity cannot be satisfacto-
rily accounted for in any other way. Indeed, the only points of
difference are, that with the sounding of the Seventh Trumpet
the purport is given of what the great voices in heaven uttered;
and under the Vial we have a fuller description of the earth-
quake and the hail.
I am content to leave this analogy without further comment.
I must now give, although it is becoming a wearisome task
to me, the views of those to whom I have already referred.
According to Air. Elliott and Dr. dimming, the period of
the Seventh Trumpet is that of the French Revolution, A.I).
178'.). The authority for the date is much as usual. I do
not think they advance any argument beyond that Alison calls,
as he might very naturally, the French Revolution an earth-
quake. The " lightnings, thunderings, and great hail/' are
explained of terrific storms which happened about that time.
Dr. Gumming particularly mentions one that took place in
July, 1788. The quotation is as follows:—"On Sunday,
July J3, 1788, at 9 A.M., without any eclipse, a dreadful dark-
ness overspread several parts of France. It was the prelude
to such a tempest as is unexampled in the temperate climates
of Europe. The soil was converted into a morass, the standing
corn was beaten into quagmires, vines broken to pieces, fruit
trees demolished, and new unmelted hail lying in heaps, like
rocks of solid ice. The hail was composed of enormous solid
and angular pieces of ice, weighing from eight to ten ounces ;
the country people were beaten down in the fields, amid the
concussions of the elements, arid concluded the last day had
arrived: so truly was it fulfilled, 'then* were lightnings, and

LBCT. XII.] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 291
thunderings, and a great hail.' The moral and political con-
vulsions presignified by these symbols were no less palpable.
Alison says : * The minds of men were shaken at this time,
as by the yawning of the ground during the fury of an
earthquake.'"1
The Seventh Vial poured into the air they pronounce to be
the cholera. They infer from this, that not only the physical
but the moral atmosphere will be also tainted—"frightful views
and notions of Divine truth — strange and awful heresies."
The great city divided by the earthquake into three parts is
the Romish ecclesiastical system broken up into three kingdoms;
and this tripartite division will consist of France leading its
hosts on one side, the autocrat of all the Russias leading the
second part, England the third part; and " the conflict, when
it comes, will be England against the world." The hailstorm
will be a northern invasion. Air. Elliott says France will lead
this northern invasion. Dr. dimming simply asserts there
will be a northern invasion. This last is a lucky guess ; and
had he not asserted previously that England was to oppose
France and Russia, and that the conflict, when it comes, would
be England against the world,— had he not elsewhere laid it
down that Kin/lawl unit Jtusstu tconld combine to prevent the
evaporation of Turkey, — we might think it worth while
seriously to examine the foundations on which he builds such
an hypothesis. As it is, it is a lame and impotent attempt at
penetrating into what is supposed to be the veiled'2 future. It
is a weak endeavour to reconcile the predictions of the Apo-
1 Apoc. Sketches, p. '>{2$.
2 " The folly of interpreters lias been to forctel times and tilings by this
prophecy, as if (Jod designed to make them prophets. By this rashness they
have not only exposed themselves, but brought the prophecy also into con-
tempt. The design of God was much otherwise. He gave this and the
prophecies of the Old Testament, not to gratify men's curiosities by enabling
them to foreknow things, but that, after they were fulfilled, they might be
interpreted by the event ; and his own providence, and not the interpreters, be
then manifested thereby to the world." (Sir Isaac Newton, Apoc. ch. i.
p. 251.) '* Shall I have the reader's pardon if I say that it is my firm opinion
that the expositions of this book have done great dis-service to religion ;
almost every commentator has become a prophet—for as soon as he began to
explain, he began also to prophesy—and what has been the issue? .Disap-
pointment laughed at hope's career, and superficial thinkers have been led to
despise and reject prophecy itself."—Dr. Adam Clarke.
i 2

292 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.
calypse with what every statesman in Europe has seen for
some time, viz. the probability of some great European
struggle. Great Babylon coming into remembrance before
God is, of course, the speedy downfal of Papal Rome ; and
the cities of the nations falling, the recent convulsions in many
of the capitals of Europe.
Amidst this mass of confident and airy nothings fix your
minds upon one circumstance. I allude to the prediction of
the hailstorm which took place on Sunday, July 13th, 1788.
Many long intervals of time had previously been past by,
during which the Apocalyptic vision lay in a dormant state.
Upon one occasion, between the irruption of the Mahometan
locusts and the Turkish woe, the one ending A.I). 7()-> the
other commencing A.D. 1003, there is an interval of 301
years, during which the Apocalypse is silent. According to
the views of these expositors, nothing took place during that
period worthy of being- prefigured in the Apocalypse : no
Mahometan or Turkish chieftain cut off' his horse's tail ; no
Bucephalus vomited out horse-balls against the walls of Con-
stantinople ; the world lay asleep like a dormouse between A.D.
762 and A.D. 10()3.
It does seem a long time for a chronological history like this
to say nothing at all, and to allow ten generations of the great
human family to perish without even a word of commiseration.
But to me it is not half so strange as to assert that the liail-
storm of Sunday, the 13th of July, 1788, was predicted in the
Apocalypse.
What I was there no hailstorm during the 301 years ?
Was no corn beaten down, no soil converted into a morass ?
And did God's holy and unerring Spirit leave out the history
of 301 years, and predict with unfailing accuracy to the seer
in Patmos the mention of a particular hailstorm which deluged,
on a certain day, AV/YVV// parts nf Fr<t)tn>(? If ever there was
a deep and glaring insult offered to the all-wise and all-directing
Spirit, it is contained in wild and childish hallucinations such
as these.
I have yet to learn that the Romish system is or will be
broken up into a tripartite division, and that England will form
a part of such a system. One would have thought that pos-
sibly Austria, Spain, or Portugal, might have been included

LBCT, XII] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 293
this partition. But, perhaps, Dr. Gumming sees that England
is fast becoming Tractarian. I have yet to learn that in the
great struggle which is now taking place the contest will be
" England against the world." And what becomes of America,
and Oceania, and Australia, and Africa, and Asia with its
teeming millions, all this time. Is there no other spot but
Papal Rome on which the eyes of the universe must be fixed.
Is there no other battle-field but that of " broad Europe"
which is to decide the coining of the day of God ? Are the
mighty millions of the human race all to be put aside for the
consideration of one branch of the human family ? To my
mind there is a vein of narrow7 bigotry running through all
such views : there is an intolerance of any other system but
our own, which draws a mental film over such judgments. It
is the " No Popery" cry which we have shouted till we have
become deaf to every other sound. Assail Rome if you will,
but assail her with fair weapons — with weapons drawn from
the armoury of God, and not fabricated in the smithy of our
own clouded and sulphureous thoughts. Burn Great Babylon
if you like ; but let the sparks of Truth kindle her funeral
pyre ; do not substitute barren invective for argument, and do
not strike her with untempered steel. Every such feeble assault
is a victory for the assailed, and removes us still further from
the accomplishment of the great cause we ought to cherish
above all others,—" Truth," and not England, " against the
world."
In explaining' this part of the Seventh Trumpet and Vial, I
call first your attention to the consummation introduced by
each. The number 7» as Josephus tells us, was " a number of
dignity"1 amongst the Jews; and with the sounding of the
Seventh Trumpet and the pouring out of the Seventh Vial, it
is plain we have arrived at the consummation.
This consummation includes those events which are detailed
in the concluding scenes of the book, viz., the destruction of
Babylon or Jerusalem, the coming of Christ, the judgment of
the quick and dead, and the setting up of the new and glorious
kingdom. The..time at which we have now arrived is called
by Daniel " the time of the end," the time of the scattering
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap, 5.

294 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.

of the power of the holy people " — the Jews, — when " all
these things shall be finished."

This consummation is plainly recognisable in the Apocalypse*

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

" In the days of the voice of the

SEVENTH VIAL.

" And the seventh angel poured out

seventh angel when he shall begin to j his vial .... and there came a great
sound, the mystery of God should be \ voice, .... saying, ' It is done/ " —
finished.*' — Rev. x. 7. ! Rev. xvi. 17.

It is remarkable that this consummation is called the finishing"
" °f the Mystery <>f (*od" and that with the sounding* of the
seventh angel, there were great voices in heaven, saying, "The
kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord
and of his Christ."

JNow, by referring to the epistles of St. Paul, we find him
speaking of a " Mystery hid from ages and from generations,"1
" which in other ages was not t made known unto the
sons of men,"2 "from the beginning of the world hid in
God,"3 "which was kept secret since the world began ;"4 and
he explains this mystery by saying, " that in the dispettsation of
the fulness of times (i.e. the period of the close of the Jewish
economy), he might gather together in one all tilings in Christ,
both which are in heaven and which are in earth even in him."5
He declares that this mystery was the admission of the Gentile
world unto the hope and promise of the Gospel, and that this
mystery was now made manifest "to the saints," and to him in
particular by especial revelation." "How that by revelation he
made known unto me the mystery .... which in other
ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now
revealed unto the holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit, that
thr (leiitttes .should he fellow-heirs .... and to make
all men see what is the fellou'ship of the mystery ....
to the intent that now, unto the principalities and powers in
heavenly places, might be known by the Church the manifold
wisdom of God."

1 Col. i. 26'. - Kphes. iii. 5.
3 Kphes. iii. <>. 4 Rom. xvi. 25.
s Kphes. i. 10. f> Kphes. ii. 3—

LECT. XIL] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 295
This language of the Apostle is the very echo of the Apo-
calypse : —
" In the days of the voice of the seventh angel."1
" In the dispensation of the fulness of times.772
" The mystery of God should be finished.77 3
" The mystery . . . now made manifest to his saints.774
" The kingdoms of this world — /SacrtXetat TOV KOCT/XOU
— Gentile kingdoms — are become the kingdoms of our Lord
and of his Christ.5
" He might gather together in one all things in Christ."
" That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs.776
It is true, indeed, that preparations for the setting up of this
kingdom over the kingdoms of the world were made in the
Apostolic age ; but as long as the Jewish temple remained yet
standing, the Jewish law was not abolished.7 Our Lord and
his disciples sedulously attended the temple service ; the early
Christians appear to have done the same, and we find even the
Apostle of the Gentiles making strenuous efforts to keep the
appointed festivals at Jerusalem. Christianity, then, was but a
graft on Judaism, it being no part of our Lord's intention to
sweep away that dispensation before its appointed time.
"Verily I say unto you, till lieawn and earth -pass,—until
the visible abolition of the Jewish economy, — one jot or one
tittle shall in JIG wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled."8
1 Rev. x, 7. 2 Ephes. i. 10.
3 Rev. x. 7- 4 Col. i. 26.
r> Rev. xi. 15. 6 Ephes. i. 10.; iii. 6.
7 Till the Jewish law was abolished, over which the Father presided as
king, the reign of the Son could not take place, because the sovereignty of
Christ over mankind was that very sovereignty over the Jews transferred." —
AVarburton's Divine Legation, vol. ii. book 4-.
" As God's reign over the Jews entirely ended with the abolition of the
temple service, so the reign of Christ in spirit and in truth had then its first
beginning." — Ibid.
"'Pw/.wToi T//I' TroXir iXoi'ree. TroXtopu/^ KaOeTXoi' ra 'Iff>(><jruXv/<a, KOI rov
uvTutit I'aoi-' * XeXuro re ai;n\u Trdrra // Mtixrtuic c5i'«ra£ti; uai ra ri}g
TTfptiipijTo c)m0»/v>;c." — Eus. Deinons^jAt. Evangel, lib. i.
H Matt. v. 18.
u 4

THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.

But with the time of the consummation, Judaism was to dis-
appear. The only place in which the Jew could offer sacrifice
was to be destroyed. Kings and priests were to arise not of
the seed of Aaron, nor of the tribe of Levi; God was to be wor-
shipped neither in Jerusalem, nor in Mount Gerizzim, but with
the universal homage of every land and of every tongue. Ac-
cordingly voices are heard saying, " It is done." "The mystery
of God should be finished." " The kingdoms of this world
are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ, and he
shall reign for ever and ever."

The time of the setting up of this universal kingdom is next
accurately defined. "And the nations were angry, and thy
wrath is come, arid the time of the dead, that they should be
judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants
the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name,
small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the
earth." l It will be seen that contemporaneous statements si-
milar to those of the Apocalypse are made in the Gospels.

" The nations (iiOvrf) were angry."-

" Nation (e^og) shall rise against nation " 3

" And thy icrath is come."

" There shall be . . wrath, .... upon this people." 4

" And the time of the dead."

" The hour is coining, and now is, when the dead shall

1 Rev. xi. 18.
- This particular time is pointed out by Josephus as a period of universal
discord and commotion : 4f The people of Cicsarea had slain the Jews that
were among them, insomuch that in an hour's time above 29,000 Jews were
killed, and all Ctcsarea emptied of its Jewish inhabitants." u Upon which,
the Jews divided themselves into several parties, and laid waste the villages of
the Syrians and their neighbouring cities, Philadelphia and Sebonitis, and
(ierasa and Pella, and Scythopolis, and after them Gadara and Hippos, and
falling upon Gaulonitis, some cities they destroyed there, and some they set on
fire, .... (with many others), .... and an immense slaughter was made of
the men who were caught in them. However, the Syrians were even with
the Jews, in the multitude of the men whom they slew .... so that the dis-
orders in all Syria were terrible, and every city was divided into armies en.
camped one against another." — Bell. ^ul. lib. ii. cap. 18.
' Matt. xxiv. 7. 4 Luke, xxi. 23.

LECT. XII.] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 297
hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall
live/'1
" That they should be judged"
" Now is tiie judgment of this world/' 2
" That thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants."
" The Son of Man shall corne . . . then shall he reward
every man according to his works." 3
" To the prophets and the saints"
" A.prophet*s reward ... a righteous man's reward/'4
" And shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth"5—
Judaea.
" He sent forth his armies and destroyed those murderers/'6
It is impossible not to see that great spiritual mysteries are
here mixed up with literal facts—for instance, "The time of the
dead that they should be judged" is said to be contemporane-
ous with the time when " the nations were angry/7 and the
Jews should be destroyed. So in the Gospels, the coming of
the Son of Man to judge the quick and dead is the time when
" nation should rise against nation, and kingdom against king-
dom." Then, in that generation, ere some of those who heard
the words, had tasted of death, they should see Him coining
with his holy angels, to reward every man aecordlin/ to his
works. Account for it as we may, the stubborn fact remains
the same, that in the prophecies of the Old Testament, in the
1 John, v. 25. 2 Ibid. xii. 31.
;i Matt. xvi. 27. 4 Matt. x. 41.
5 This is a remarkable expression. The Jews of those clays fairly earned
the title of suicides. Titus reproached them for so doing. " Like madmen,
after a violent and inconsiderate manner, ye have brought your people, your
city, and your holy house to destruction." (Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. (i.) "' By
their madness it was that all the people came to be destroyed." (Ibid. lib. v.
cap. 1 ,'>'.) " 1 venture to affirm that the sedition destroyed the city, and the
Romans destroyed the sedition." (Lib. v. cap. ().) " Accordingly it appears to
me that the misfortunes of all men from the beginning of the world, if they
he compared to those of the Jews, are not so considerable as they were, while
the authors of them were not foreigners neither." — Preface to Wars of the
Jews, iv.
r> Matt. xxii. 7-

298 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.
Gospels, and Epistles, in the Apocalypse, and everywhere in
Scripture, the coming, the resurrection, and the judgment are
synchronical. The time of the accomplishment of one of these
events it is beyond the power of logic to controvert, or of so-
phistry to evade. The doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation,
the Atonement, the Divinity of Christ, the Personality of the
Holy Ghost, are not supported by a fractional part of the com-
plete and magnificent proof which can be adduced for the time
of the second coming of the Lord Jesus ; and if we will be
guided by the voice of Scripture rather than by the opinions of
men, we must come to the conclusion that a resurrection and a
judgment, which from the nature of the case it is as impossible
to prove as to deny, were contemporaneous with that coining.
" Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you that
God should raise the dead ? " Why put the objection of the
scoffer of St. Paul's time in your own mouth, " How are the
dead raised up, and with what body do they come ? " Why
should a resurrection, certainly not of flesh and blood, be
thought a mystery too great for rational belief? Why should
" the resurrection and the life " have come into the world, at
that period, to shroud up "life and immortality" in deeper
than pristine darkness; or why should the assurance of a
judgment close at hand be then given to mankind, so long be-
fore the execution of that office ? Why conjure up the idea of
a purgatory, Protestant or Papal ? Why retrograde into the
follies of St. Augustine, who supposed that the life which the
blessed martyrs now have is only a small part of the promise ?
Why suppose that they who are " like " their Lord, for " they
shall see Him as He is/' must needs have the addition of this
vile matter of which our bodies are made to add to their joy
and felicity ? Why, in defiance of Scripture, resolve all into
futurity, because we cannot explain the mode and the manner
of the resurrection ? Why conceive that these identical bodies
which we now have ; which the Parsees expose to be devoured
by birds and beasts; which the Greeks and the Romans burnt;
which some eastern nations cut up in pieces, and throw to the
fishes ; which cannibals eat, and which Christians shut up in
coffins ; which have already, before they belonged to us, been
parts of men, birds, beasts, fishes, trees, plants, vegetables; and
which, when we have done with them, will again be parts of

LBCT. XII.] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 299

ever changing material substances, must necessarily rise again
in the same corporeal form out of their graves ? Scripture
says No. Reason confirms the verdict of Scripture. Why
should credulity think otherwise ?

If this view be correct, and if the resurrection be a resurrec-
tion of living souls, clothed with new and glorious bodies
formed essentially of materials different from those gross sub-
stances with which we now are conversant, then there is no
difficulty in reconciling the statement before us, that the time
of the dead that they should be " judged " and rewarded, was
the time when " the nations were angry," and "the kingdoms
of the world became the kingdoms of our Lord and of his
Christ."

As I shall elsewhere enter at some length upon the sub-
ject of the kingdom then set up, I shall not here forestall
the consideration of it, but shall proceed to comment upon the
remaining points of identity between the Trumpet and Vial.

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

(t The temple of Gotl was opened
in heaven,, and there were seen in his
temple the ark of his testament: and
there were lightnings, and voices, and
thunderings, and an earthquake, and
great hail."

SEVENTH VIAL.

'" And there came a great voice out
of the temple of heaven .... and
there were voices, and thunders, and
lightnings .... and there was a
great earthquake .... and there
fell upon men a great hail."

The circumstance ought not to be passed over, that under the
vial the great voice comes "out of the temple ofhearen" Un-
der the trumpet, " th-e temple of (Joe/ teas opened m hearen,
and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament."
All this speaks of revolution, change. The last remnant of
Judaism is to be swept away. " The ark of his testament is
seen in heaven." It is no more to bo confined within the walls
of the holy house, but is transferred to the temple above ; its
laws are no more of local, but of universal obligation ; a new
covenant, not according to the covenant made with their fathers,
is to be made with the house of Israel and of Judah, and "they
shall not teach every man his neighbour and every man his bro-
ther, saying, Know the Lord, for all shall know him, from the
least to the greatest." l
i lleb. viii. 11.

300 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.

At our Lord's crucifixion, he uttered the words, " It is
finished/* and the vail of the temple was rent from the top to
the bottom. When the time came for the consummation of the
mystery, a great voice out of the temple of heaven from the
throne, says, " It is clone/'—the ark of his testament is seen
in heaven,—the Jewish temple perishes to its foundations: "The
Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all
was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet
standing."1

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

"And there were lightnings, and
voices, and thunderings. "

SEVENTH VIAL.

(< And there were voices, and thun-
ders,, and lightnings. "

As at the introduction of the first dispensation, " there were
thunders and lightnings . . . and the voice of the trumpet ex-
ceeding loud2/' so is it, also, with the introduction of the "bet-
ter covenant which was established upon better promises." This
is emblematical of the glory and superiority of the new dispen-
sation over that which had "decayed and waxed old and was
ready to vanish away." 3

As at the period of the giving of the law from Sinai, God's
"voice then shook the earth;" so at the period of his appearing
and his kingdom, he hath promised, " Yet once more I shake
not the earth only but also heaven, and this word, yet once
more, signifieth the removing of tilings that are shaken, as of
things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken
may remain."4

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

** And an earthquake. "

SEVENTH VIAL.

"And there was a great earthquake,
such as was not since men were upon
the earth so mighty an earthquake
and so great, and the great city was
divided into three parts, and the cities
of the nations fell : and great Baby-
lon came into remembrance before
God, to give unto her the cup of the

1 Heb. ix. 8. 2 Exod. xx. 16.
3 Heb. viii. 13. 4 Heb. xii.LECT. XII.] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 301

wine of the fierceness of his wrath.
And every island fled away, and the
mountains were not found.'*

There is no mention made of any literal earthquake by which
Jerusalem was destroyed at this period. Josephus mentions an
earthquake in the time of Herod, by which 10,000 men were
killed by the fall of houses ; he also tells us, that a short time
before its destruction, the Idumaeans got into the city during a
terrible storm accompanied with earthquake, " with continual
lightnings and terrible thunderings, and amazing concussions
and bellowings of the earth in an earthquake." ] But I find no
particular mention of any earthquake happening during the
siege. It may simply refer to the complete and entire destruc-
tion of the city, torn up by its roots, dug up to its foundations,
not one stone left upon another, as if overthrown by some
mighty convulsion of the earth. Such we know was its con-
dition after the siege ; it " was so thoroughly laid even with
the ground by those who dug it up to its foundations, that there
was left nothing to make those believe who came thither, that
it ever had been inhabited."2 He says again, "And where
now is that great city, the metropolis of the Jewish nation ?
Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inha-
biting therein? It is now demolished to its very foundations.
And I cannot but wish that we had all died, before we had seen
that holy city demolished by the hands of our enemies, or
the foundations of our holy temple dug up after so profane

a manner."'

And here let me call attention to the fact that a particular
city is often mentioned in this book.
" The great city was divided into three parts."4
" The great city, where also our Lord was crucified."0
" The holy city shall they (the Gentiles) tread under foot."6
" What city is like unto thin great city ? "7
" The winepress was trodden without the c//?/."8
1 Bell. Jud. lib. iv. cap. 4. 2 Ibid. lib. vii. cap. 1.
3 Ibid. lib. vii. cap. 8. 4 Rev. xvi. 19.
6 Rev. xi. 8. 6 Rev. xi. 2.
7 Rev. xviii. 18. * Hev

302 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.

" They compassed the camp of the saints round about, and
the beloved city"1

How came the mention of a city at all, if " the holy city"
delineated the reformed church in the time of Luther, and " the
great city/' the tripartite division of the Romish ecclesiastical
system ? Above all, how came this city to be called " that
oreat city/' "that holy city," "the Moved city." We can
understand that Rome might be styled with propriety " the
great city ;" but it is not an easy matter to comprehend how she
can be called " the holy city,"2 "the beloved citt/"

One only city is called " the holy city/' " the beloved
city/' in the book of God, and that city ever bears the
name of Jerusalem, whether it be Jerusalem on earth, or
Jerusalem " coming down from God out of heaven." One
only city is called " that great city," " that lio/j/ city"
by the historian of those times ; and surely the testimony
is all-powerful, as it shows in what manner the Jews of
those days described their loved Jerusalem. One only city
at the time of the writing of the Apocalypse merited the
names of Sodom, Egypt, Babylon, and that was the city
" where also our Lord was crucified/5 and which was trodden
under foot of the Gentiles forty and two months. One only
city perished in the miserable manner described in the Apo-
calypse, when " the winepress was trodden irithnnt the city,
and blood came out of the winepress, even to the horse bri-
dles." One only city at this period was " divided into three
parts," ?'. e. was completely dislocated and broken up ; one only
city came "in remembrance before God," and upon her came
" all the righteous blood shed upon the earth."

Corresponding in point of time with the punishment of this
great city, " the cities of the nations, — TOHS £9va)v of the (Ten-
tiles, — fell/' Our Lord said the same : " There shall be pesti-
lences, and famines, and earthquakes in divers places," Kara
Was this the case ? Suetonius and Tacitus3 speak of

1 Rev. xx. 9- Compare Ecclcsiasticus xxiv. 11.: "Likewise in the
beloved city he gave me rest, and in Jerusalem was my power."
2 Compare "Ttjv TroXtv ri)i> ayiav irariifrovtri," (Ilev. xi. 2.) with "Tore
irapaXcifjifiat'et avrov o ciafioXoQ £*c T^V ay\av TroAir. " (Matt. iv. 5.)
3 " Multa eo^ anno prodigia evenere .... crebris terra motibus
prorutae domus. " — Ann. xii. 43.

LECT. XIL] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 303

an earthquake at Rome. Tacitus mentions another at Apamea1,
in the reign of Claudius, which was so destructive that the
emperor remitted the tribute of the city for five years ; also
another at Laodicea 2 in the reign of Nero. Eusebius in his
Chronicle affirms, that three cities of Asia were overthrown by
an earthquake at the same time. In the sixty-second year of
the Christian a>ra there was a great earthquake which destroyed
Pompeii4 and Herculaneum, besides inflicting great injury in
the city of Naples. Another additional evidence is here afforded
of the date of the Apocalypse ; for surely Vienna, and Paris, and
Berlin cannot with any propriety be called the cities of the
nations, eOvrj. The term can only be applied to cities of heathen
nations, such as those that fell contemporaneously with the
destruction of Jerusalem.

I have only one more point to notice, and that is the pecu-
liarity of the hail being mentioned both under the Trumpet and
Vial.

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

C{ And great //«?'/."

SEVENTH VIAL.

" And there fell upon men a great
hall out of heaven, every stone ahout
tlie weight of a talent'1; and men blas-
phemed God because of the plague of
the hail ; for the plague thereof was
exceeding great."

1 (c Tributumque Apamiensibus terra motu convulsis in quinquennium
remissum. "— Ann. xii. .58.
2 a Eodem anno ex illustrious Asia* urbibus, Laodicea tremore prolapsa, pro-
priis viribus revaluit. " — Ann. xiv. 27.
3 " In Asia tres urbes terra inotn conciderunt, Laodicea, Hierapolis,
Colossffi. " — Chr. p. 1()1.
4 " Ex mot n terra' celebre Campanile oppidum Pompeii magna ex parte
proruit. " — Ann. xv. 22. te Pompeios celebrem Campaniiv urbem desedisse
terra inotn audivimus. " — Seneca.
r> " rrhe engines that all the legions had prepared for them were admirably
contrived ; but still more extraordinary ones belonged to the tenth legion.
Now, the atones that were cast were of the weight of a talent, and were carried
two furlongs and further : the blow they gave was in no way to be sustained.
As for the Jews, they watched the coming of the stone, for it was of a white
colour, and could therefore not only be perceived by the great noise it made,
but could be seen also before it came by its brightness ; acc304 THE SEVENTH TRUMPET [LECT. XII.
It is no more necessary for us to believe that hailstones of
the weight of a talent literally came down from heaven, than
to believe that a great earthquake violently destroyed the city
of Jerusalem. It is quite sufficient for our purpose to re-
member that hailstones are represented in the Bible as the in-
struments of God's punishment against his enemies. Thus,
in the destruction of the idolatrous Canaanites, it is said,
" The Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them
unto Azekah, and they died : they were more which died with
hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with
the sword."1
And so it was, with regard to the punishment of that evil and
adulterous generation. Jews and heathens alike perceived the
hand of God in their destruction. It was the hand of God
which gathered them together into one city, and smote the
wrhole Jewish nation at a blow.
" It is God himself, " said Joseph us to his countrymen, "who
is bringing on this fire, to purge that city and temple by means
of the Romans, and is going to pluck up this city, which is full
of your pollutions. "~
" We have certainly had God," said Titus, " for our assist-
ant in this war. It was no other than God who ejected the
Jews out of these fortifications. " 3 " It was God who con-
demned the whole nation, and turned every course that was in-
tended for their preservation to their destruction." I cannot
but suppose, " said Josephus to his countrymen, " that God is
fled out of his sanctuary, and stands on the side of those against
whom you fight ; even a man, if he be but a good man, will fly
from an impure house, and do you persuade yourselves that God
will abide with you in your iniquities ?'M
"You are assisted," said Titus, "by God himself—the
seditions they have been in, the famine they now endure, the
fall of their walls without our engines, what can they all be
watchmen that sat upon the towers gave them notice when the engine was let
go, and the stone came from it, and cried out aloud in their own country lan-
guage — ' The Sort cometh.' " (Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 6.) " And stones of the
weight of a talent were thrown by the engines that were prepared for that
purpose/' — Bell. Jud. lib. in. cap. 7.; ibid. lib. iii. cap. 7. 23.
1 Joshua, x. 11. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 2.
3 Ibid. lib. vi. cap. 9. 4 Ibid. lib. v. cap

LECT. XIL] AND THE SEVENTH VIAL. 305
but demonstrations of his anger against them, and of his assis-
tance afforded us ? " l
I offer a brief recapitulation of this Trumpet and Vial. They
introduce the consummation ; the mystery of God is to be
finished, and the kingdoms of this world are to become the king-
doms of our Lord and of his Christ. Accordingly the temple of
God is opened in heaven ; within it is the ark of his testament;
voices, thunderings, and lightnings shake not only earth but
heaven; an earthquake2 of tribulation and convulsion overwhelms
the holy city ; great Babylon comes in remembrance before God;
God's judgments descend upon her out of heaven, and men
blaspheme God because of these plagues, for they are exceeding
great. All this took place at the* time for which we contend ;
not only Jerusalem and the temple, but the dispensation itself,
became a wreck ; and upon this wreck arose that superb, that
everlasting kingdom, stretching away from land to land and
from sea to sea, which, like the light and air, is to enfold all
nations in its universal embrace, and to cover all nations with
its ever increasing shade. JSo end, no diminution of its glory,
no curtailment, no lessening of its grandeur, awaits that king-
dom. No new kingdom shall arise on its everlasting foun-
dations—no sceptred monarch, panting after universal dominion
— no Alexander — no Napoleon of his time and day — shall
shear away one flower from that everlasting wreath, or lop one
spray from that great tree enveloping heaven and earth with
its eternal boughs.
Thought full of freshness and power, thought full of stability'
and strength ! " The kingdoms of this world arc become the
kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ ; and he shall reign
for ever and ever."
Statesmen and politicians, princes and tyrants, may see
before them but their own ends and their o\\u purposes—may
1 " Philostratus tells us, when some of the nearer nations would have
crowned Titus for his victories over the Jews, he refused, saying that he de-
served nothing upon that account ; for it was not his work, hut God had
made him an instrument of his wrath against that people." — Tillolson's Ser*
mons, p. 186.
2 In this earthquake a third part of the city fell, meaning a great and con-
siderable part ; under the previous earthquake, of chap, xi., a tenth part only
of the city fell.
X

306 SEVENTH TRUMPET AND SEVENTH VIAL. [Ljscx. XII.
scheme, and plan, and direct; but his kingdom ruleth over all
—he will make all conducive to the glory of his great name—
will make light shine out of darkness—will bring harmony
out of chaos, good out of evil, and progress out of the most
tangled and intricate web of human affairs.
Storm after storm and convulsion after convulsion — the
hurricanes and tornados of popular fury, and the sweeping
cataract of the evil passions of men — hailstones, every one of
them the weight of a talent, and the earthquakes of nations
roused in their might and madness — may dislocate dynasties
and thrones, and shake the solid foundations of government
and order; but they cannot spring one arch, they cannot
loosen one pillar, they cannot overturn one stone of that heaven-
built and eternal kingdom. There is a guiding hand at the
helm, which ever says, " Hitherto shalt thou come but no
further;" there is one sitting above the waterflood who is
" King of kings and Lord of lords."
The cities of the nations may fall: Constantinople or St.
Petersburg, London or Paris, may be engulphed; but the king-
dom of Him who shall reign for ever and ever shall proceed,—
the past the pledge of the future, the £000 years gone by the
earnest for the time to come.
"He shall reign for ever and ever." "Of the increase of
his government there shall be no end." " His dominion is an
everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his king-
dom that which shall not be destroyed."

307

LECTURE XIII,

THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.

R»:v. xii. 1 — 17.
1. And there appeared a great wonder in heaven ; a woman clothed with
the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve
stars :
2. And she being with child cried., travailing in birth, and pained to be
delivered.
3. And there appeared another wonder in heaven ; and behold a great
red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his
heads.
4. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them
to the earth : and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be
delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
5. And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations
with a rod of iron : and her child was caught up unto God, and to his
throne.
6. And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place pre-
pared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and
three score days.
7. And there was war in heaven : Michael and his angels fought against
the dragon ; and the dragon fought and his angels,
8. And prevailed not ; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
9. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil,
and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world : he was cast out into the earth,
and his angels were cast out with him.
10. And I heard aloud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and
strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ : for the
accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God
day and night.
11. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word
of their testimony ; ami they loved not their lives unto the death.
12. Therefore rejoice ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the
inhabiters of the earth and of the sea I for the devil is come down unto you,
having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.
13. And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he perse-
cuted the woman which brought forth the man child.

308 THE CHUKCII [LECT. XIII.
14. And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she
might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a
time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.
15. And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the wo-
man, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.
16. And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth,
and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.
17. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war
with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and
have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
BEFORE I attempt an explanation of the subject before us,— a
subject which has exercised to the utmost the ingenuity and
research of commentators on the Apocalypse,—I proceed to
give the views of Mr. Elliott and Dr. Gumming on this
chapter.
The woman clothed with the sun is Christ's true Church.
The sun and moon are emblems of civil and political grandeur.
The man-child—the symbol of Christian people ; and his ruling
the nations with a rod of iron—the promised privilege of every
believer to rule the nations. The dragon is not Satan [although
St. John says he is " that old serpent called the Devil, and Sa-
tan, which deceiveth the whole world"], but the Anti-Christian,
persecuting, heathen Roman empire. The time when the wo-
man hrouf/ht forth the nian-ehild—the year 313 ! ! ! " The
commencement of the woman's gestation was the year 33, the
year of our Lord's resurrection, when the Church, properly
speaking, became developed. From that period there elapsed,
on obvious grounds, the number of {) prophetic months, or -10
prophetic weeks, or C280 prophetic days ; that is, '280 literal
years. Adding, then, to the year 33, the "280 literal years,
we come down to the year 313, -when the Milan decree tetts
issued"!!!1 The tail of the dragon, drawing a third part
of the stars of heaven —the Emperor Maximin vowing to Ju-
piter, that if he obtained a victory over Licinius, he would
abolish the Christian name. The war in heaven — Paganism
finally crushed. Satan cast out—the dragon (heathen Rome)
deposed from the government of affairs by God's providence.
The song of victory—the establishment of Christianity under
Constaritine. The dragon cast down to the earth—the Arian
1 Apocalyptic Sketches, p. 221.

LECT. XIIL] IN THE WILDERNESS. 309
heresy III The two great wings of an eagle—Theodosius the
Great protecting the Church, hy spreading over her the wings
of the empire. The dragon casting water as a flood out of
his mouth after the woman—the irruption into Italy of the
Visigoths, Vandals, and Huns, all of whom were Arians!!!
The earth opening her mouth and helping the woman — the
meryiny of the Arian Goths into the Trinitarian population
of Rome! !!
" Such," adds Dr. Gumming, "is the simple, and, I think,
satisfactory exposition of the chapter."
Well; if this is a chronological history of the world and of
the Church, of course it is just as easy to go back as to go for-
ward. But I cannot help remembering that the mighty angel
of chap. x. was the Reformation, and the Open Book the Bible
unclasped by Luther ; and now we have gone back from the
sixteenth century to the year 313 ; upon this principle we may
have again to go back, as I believe we shall, between this and
1885 ; and the millennium will have to be put off after all. I
am sure I need only observe of the period of the woman's ges-
tation, "280 years, that it is an unusually long one, to say
nothing of the assumption of the date 33. But, after the moun-
tains have been in labour for so long a time, we might have
expected something more than the Milan decree — " ridiculus
mus." Dr. dimming does not tell us bow the Milan decree
" was caught up to God and to his throne, and how it rules the
nations with a rod of iron ;" nor lunv the dragon stood for 313
years before the woman whose parturition was so tedious,
"to devour her child as soon as it was born/' I must pass
over the dragon and his tail, which is converted into an
emperor. I do not wonder that lie is called Maximin if he
does such great things, and I cannot help remarking here
that the tails of scorpions and the tail of heathen Rome are, ac-
cording to Dr. Gumming, unlike any other tails of which I ever
heard. I profess I do not see the connection between the pro-
tection which Theodosius the Great afforded to the Church, by
spreading over her the trtnt/s of the empire, and the two wings
of the great ea^le by which the woman flies into the wilderness,
—I fear I must have similar wings given to me before I can
soar after such airy flights, or mount up so high into the cloud-
land of imagination. But the strangest thing of all is, that the

310 THE CHURCH [LECT. XIII.
water out of the dragon's mouth should be the irruption of the
Visigoths, Vandals, and Huns, into Italy, " a/I of whom were
Arians " / / / What! was there not one Visigoth, Vandal, or
Hun, impregnated with Trinitarian views ? Were they all he-
retics ? Then they deserved to be swallowed up by the " or-
thodox Romans/' I do not wonder that the earth opened her
mouth, and merged such (roths into the Trinitarian population
of Italy !
I am not surprised to find that Dr. dimming calls this a
simple view, although it has somewhat excited my astonishment
that any man in his sober senses could pronounce it satisfactory.
I often wish I had no harder task than exposing the simplicity
of such interpretations. What can be clearer than that if the
dragon is heathen Rome, the water out of the dragon's mouth
must be the irruption of the f 7.v/V/o///,v, JTanda(s, and Huns
into Italy? One would have thought that out of pure pa-
triotism the dragon would have emitted his water-flood in
another direction. What can be more apparent than the
heterodoxy of these Vandals, Visigoths, and Huns, " aUofichom
iverc Arians" !! ! — if indeed such Vandals knew what Arian-
ism meant. Or why should we "open our mouths" at this
ecclesiastical travestie of the tragedy of Korah, Dathan and
Abiram, as a stretch of fancy far more wonderful than anything
related by Baron Munchausen or Sinbad the Sailor ? Shade of
St. Athanasius to the rescue of these barbarians! Show that,
forsaking the wild traditions of their Scandinavian ancestors,
they fathomed the depths of the Arian heresy, and that disgusted
with such false theology, these savage conquerors were merged
in the more orthodox creed of Trinitarian doctrine ! Show that
these hordes of fierce invaders were aware that their miraculous
conversion was prefigured in the Apocalypse, and that they in-
terpreted " the earth opening1 her mouth" of their being swal-
lowed up by the "orthodox Romans;" or else suffer us still to
" open our mouths" in utter astonishment at an exposition so
simple and so satisfactory, and to gulp down and swallow, as
best we may, such prodigious theology!
So much for the chronological interpretation of this book.
The book itself defies such a method of interpretation ; and every
attempt shows the futility of such a system. The approximation,
if such it can be called, between the dragon cast to the earth and

LECT. XIIL] IN THE WILDERNESS. 311

the Arian heresy—between the earth opening her mouth and the
merging of Arian heterodoxy into Trinitarian orthodoxy, with
the fact staring us in the face, that out of the history of 2000
years nothing can be found nearer to the Apocalyptic symbol —
declares the utter fallacy of such a mode of exposition ; reveals
the impossibility of reversing the chronology laid down by.
God's Holy Spirit, and of extending over an almost indefinite
period what was intended to be comprised within a very limited
space. I trust it will be found a powerful argument in support
of the principle of interpretation which we have adopted, that a
more satisfactory and more intelligible exposition can be found
within the brief limits which we have laid down than in the
whole history of the world from that time to our own.

It remains to be seen if we are able to give an interpretation
somewhat less fanciful, and more suited to the date and age of
the Apocalypse.

After what has been already said I need scarcely comment
upon the fact that theories of the most extravagant kind have
been held with regard to " The woman clothed with the sun,
and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of
twelve stars."

The prevalent idea appears to be that this symbol represents
the Christian Church, and to this view I now incline to accede.
In a former edition I endeavoured to show that "The Woman"
designated the mother of our Lord ; that her being " clothed
with the sun, the moon under her feet, and upon her head a
crown of twelve stars," indicated that superiority and distinc-
tion which belongs to her whom " all generations were to call
blessed." That her bringing fortli " The man child who
should rule all nations witli a rod of iron," shadowed forth the
history of that "highly favoured" individual who "brought
forth her first born son" — "the seed of the woman" — "born
of a woman," of whom the prophets wrote, "A virgin shall
conceive and bear a son,"1—"A woman shall compass a

man."2

Subsequent consideration lias led me to see great difficulties
in the way of this interpretation, and such as I think cannot be
reconciled with the general analogy of the prophecy. But
1 Isaiah, vii. It. 2 Jeremiah, xxxi. 22.

312 THE CHURCH [Li:cx. XIII.
before entering upon the interpretation which now seerns to me
to be the true one, I shall briefly state those arguments which
have induced me to adopt a different opinion.
1. If the mother of our Lord is intended to be represented by
the symbol of " The woman clothed with the sun and the
9 moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve
stars," we are obliged, in that case, to assume that the Blessed
Virgin lived to see her Son's words fulfilled in the destruction
of Jerusalem. It is true there is no evidence for or against
this. No mention by name of the mother of our Lord is found
in the Scriptures after the ascension, and ecclesiastical history
is as barren of information on this point as the Scriptures
themselves. There is indeed a tradition that the Blessed
Virgin died at Ephesus some fifteen years after our Lord's
crucifixion. But all is conjecture. Scripture and Church
history are both silent, and in the absence of facts it is not
well to make them. There is proof to show that after our
Lord's ascension she was assembled together with the rest of
the Christian Church at Jerusalem.1 There is not proof to
show that she ever left Jerusalem, or that she did not live to
witness its destruction. To lay down, then, as an indispensable
postulate what after all. is matter of much uncertainty, and to
require, as a necessary condition to the interpretation of the
chapter, that the mother of our Lord mttst hare lived to
'Witness the destruction of Jerusalem, of which no proof what-
ever can be given, appears too inset'ure a foundation on which
to rest a satisfactory explanation of this symbol, and leaves us
open to the charge of assumption, and to the censure which has
been so freely bestowed on our opponents for the same cause.
2. Added to this, mention is made in v. 17. of " The Dragon
going to war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the
commandments of Hod ana1 hare the testimony of Jesus Christ."
This is explained in v. 12. of chap. xiv. to mean the Christian
Church. " Here is the patience of THE SAINTS, here are they
that keep the commandments of f/W, and the faith of Jesus."
This leaves no doubt as to what is meant by the symbol
of "the woman clothed with the sun"—for of no individual
could it be said, that the remnant of her seed were "the saints."
1 Acts, i. 14.

LECT. XllL] IN THE WILDERNESS. 313
It is evident that the Church alone can answer to this description,
and that the symbol cannot be so well applied to an individual
as to an aggregate body.
3. But perhaps the most convincing proof that " the wo-
man" must represent the Christian Church will be found in the
fact, that the term "woman" in the Apocalypse is used to
designate not one individual, but many. Thus, " the great
whore that sitteth upon many waters," elsewhere called " the
woman, yvi^, sitting on the beast," is defined to be " that
great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth." Thus,
"the Bride, the Lamb's wife, ywauca," is declared to be "that
great city, the holy Jerusalem," shining with the glory of the
114<,000. Besides, it is evident that a marked contrast is
intended to be kept up between " the whore" and " the bride,'*
Tropvrj—yvvr), " the woman drunken with the blood of the
saints," and " the woman, the remnant of whose seed keep
the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus
Christ;" " the woman arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and
decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls, upon whose
forehead was a name written, Mystery, Bain/Inn the great, the
Mother of Harlots and ahominatiotts of the earth, and the
" woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet,
and upon her head a crown of twelve stars."
If " the woman " " the whore," must be understood to re-
present not one individual, but many,—tor she is declared to
mean " that great city which reigneth over the kings of the
earth," — it follows that "the woman"—"the Bride," the
remnant of whose seed " keep the commandments of God and
have the testimony of Jesus Christ," must likewise denote
more individuals than one.
4. Moreover, " the woman flies into the wilderness, where
she hath a place prepared of (Joel, that they should feed her
there a thousand two hundred and threescore days," " where
she is nourished for a time, times, and half a time from the
face of the serpent." This, as we have elsewhere seen, is the
exact period of the Jewish war. It surely could not be said of
the mother of our Lord, even on the supposition that she was
yet alive, that she tied alone into the wilderness for safety, and
that protection was afforded to her which was denied to the
rest of the Christian Church.

m

have Jed me to think, that however
that portion of the allegory which represents "the
woman11 bringing forth the man-child who was to rule all
nations with a rod of iron " assimilates to the history of the
Blessed Virgin, yet still that the analogy of the prophecy does not
warrant our applying the symbol of " the woman " to an indivi-
dual, and that the idea intended to he conveyed is the preservation
of the Church from the wrath of Satan in those perilous times.
Having" given what I trust mav he thought sufficient reasons
C™* C1 » >~
for this change of opinion, I proceed to analyse the chapter
more in detail. St. John sees a great wonder in heaven.
" A woman clothed with the sun, the moon under her feet, and
upon her head a crown of twelve stars."
The idea may be simply that of glory and distinction, or it
may represent the Church as clothed with the sun of righte-
ousness, under her feet the moon of sublunary power, and
around her head the coronet of the twelve tribes or of the
twelve apostles. She is represented as " being" with child,
travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered,"—an evident
allusion to Isaiah, Ixvi. 7> i<s>«» " Before she travailed she brought
forth ; before her pain came she was delivered of a man-child.
Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen such things?
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day, or shall a
nation be born at once ? for as soon as Zion travailed she
brought forth her children"
It is worthy of notice that "the woman" is called by the
prophet " Zion," or the Church, and in either prediction she
is represented as in travail, and bearing a man-child. This
man-child must be " the Lord Jesus Christ:" of no other could
it be said, that lie " was to rule all nations with a rod of iron,"
and that " he was caught up to (rod and to his throne." It is
true there is a difficulty in comprehending how the Church could
bring forth the man-child ; but there always lias been a true
Church of God in the world in every age, and from that
Church, according to the flesh, Christ sprang.
Contemporaneously with the vision of the Church travailing
in birth and pained to be delivered, St. John sees another
wonder in heaven. " Behold a great red dragon having seven
heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads, and his
tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast

LECT. XIII.] IN THE WILDERNESS, 315
them to the earth/' We are not left in doubt as to who is
meant by "The great red dragon;" for in verse 9- he is
declared to be "That old serpent called the Devil or Satan,
which deceiveth the whole world." Here, then, we have the
definition of the Apocalypse itself, and nothing more need be
said. He is called the* " red dragon," because of the cruel
nature of him who was a " murderer from the beginning."
The "seven heads, and ten horns, and seven crowns," are
expressive of great and formidable dominion; his " tail drawing
the third part of the stars of heaven, and casting- them to the
earth," is indicative, perhaps, of those fallen spirits whom he
associated with himself in rebellion against God ; hence we
read of "the devil and his angels."
" And the dragon stood before the woman which was ready
to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born,
and she brought forth a man-child who was to rule all nations
with a rod of iron, and her child was caught up to God and to
his throne."
Here is an allusion to the earliest persecution of the Church
by Satan. As lie was a murderer, so also was he a persecutor
from the beginning. As he made war with " the remnant of
her seed," so also did he make war with him who is " Head
over all things to his Church." We are immediately reminded
of Satan's persecution against our Lord from the moment of
his birth — of Herod's seeking the young child*s life to destroy
it" — of the murder of the infants at Bethlehem — of Joseph
taking the young child and his mother by night and departing
into Egypt, and remaining there until the death of Herod.
" And she brought forth a man-child who was to rule all
nations with a rod of iron," " eV pdft&co <Ti8rjpfj" This is
true only of Christ. Of Him alone could it be said, in the
words of David, " Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen
for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for
thy possession. Thou shall break them with a rod of mm,"
(/. e., a powerful sceptre) " and shalt dash them in pieces like
a potter's vessel," This power is expressly applied to Christ
in the l<Hh verse of chap. xx.; "He shall rule them "(TO,
G0V7), the Gentiles) " trith a rod of tron" It is also applied
to believers, who shall sit and reign with Christ. " He that
overeometh, to him will I give power over the nations, and he

316 THE CHURCH [LECT. XIII.

shall rule them with a rod of iron ; as the vessels of a potter
shall they be broken to shivers, even as I received of my
Father:'

" And her child was caught up to God and to his throne."
This can only mean Him who was the " first-born from the
dead V " the first-begotten of the dead 2," who was caught up
to God when the "cloud received him out of their sight3,"
and who is " set down with his father upon his throne." 4 A
very remarkable passage of St. Ignatius serves to throw some
light upon this attempt of Satan " to devour the man-child
as soon as he was born.7' The passage is as follows : —
" Three mysteries of clamour, which were done in the silence
of God, deceived the prince of this world — the rln/initi/ of
Man/, and her -parturition, likewise also the death of the
Lord." 5

This extraordinary quotation seems to show that ideas similar
to those of St. John with regard to the escape of our Lord
from the power of Satan were held by the early ( liurch, and
that if Satan failed " to devour the man-child as soon as it
was born," it was because " these mysteries were done in the
silence of God."

Foiled in his attempt to crush the Church in its infancy, in
the person of its divine Mead, who is " caught up to God and
to his throne," this persecution is renewed with ten-fold vigour
against the Christian Church. This is represented under the
symbol of " war in hearen" " And there was war in heaven :
Michael and his angels fought against the dragon ; and the
dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not ; neither was
their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon

i v r^ ~

was cast out, that old serpent, called the* Devil and Satan, which
deceiveth the whole world : he was cast out into the earth, and
his angels were cast out with him. And I heard a loud voice
saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, am*
the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for
the accuser of our brethren is cast down} which accused them

1 Col. i. 18. * Rev. i. 5.

3 Acts, i. <). * Rev. iii. xxi.

5 Kai t\aOcv T(JV lip^oi'TU TIW utijji'or TOVTOV, // 7ra(>(hit(i
o
am a tf

truv tivrrjCy o^io/u/r K(ii (> Oavuror; rou livfnov. Tpi« ftvfJTtijuti
tf t/av\la Ottw tTrpa^O//." — S. Ignatii ad Ephcsios, xix.

LJBCT. XIII.]

IN THE WILDERNESS. 317

before our God day and night. And they overcame him by
the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony;
and they loved not their lives unto the death/71 Michael and
his angels, the powers of good arrayed under Christ and his
Apostles, fight against the dragon and his angels, the devil
and his fellow apostates, and the issue is victory and triumph
to the Church. That the parties engaged in this warfare are
not actually in heaven, is evident from the circumstance that
the conquerors are defined to be the martyrs of those days.
" And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by
the word of their testimony, and they loved not their lives unto
the death"

I need not enlarge on the well-known fact that the period
comprehending the space between the ascension and the second
coming of Christ was one of triumph and victory to the Chris-
tian Church,—that the Saviour's words received their full ac-
complishment, "I beheld Satan as lightning* fall from heaven,"2
—that the promise, " Behold I give yon power to tread on ser-
pents and scorpions, and orer all the power of tht> enemy, and
nothing shall by any means hurt you," 3 was abundantly ful-
filled,—that the Apostles everywhere cast out devils,—that evil
spirits followed them and cried, " These men are the servants
of the most high God which shew unto us the way of salva-
tion,"4— and that the place of the dragon and his angels " was
found no more in heaven." ' I need not say that the Gospel
penetrated during that period, as Clement says, " to the utmost
bounds of East and West," or that St. Paul's glorious testi-
mony was not an idle boast, —" From Jerusalem, and round

1 Rev. xii. 7—-11- 2 Luke, x. 18.
3 Luke, x. If). -{ Acts. xvi. 17.
ft The term ''heaven/' when not employed in connection with other words
which qualify and restrict its meaning, is often used to signify the Church of
Christ. In Rev. xii. 11J., u The hearena and they that dwell in them" i.e.
the Christian Church, are put in strong and forcible apposition to the earth
and they that dwell in it. " Rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell therein.
Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and the sea,"—where the Christian Church
is bid to rejoice because of the triumph of the martyrs over the malice of
Satan. This is further explained, Rev. xviii. 20., where the Church—** the
heaven"—is spoken of in connection with *4 the holy apostles and pro-
phets." " Rejoice over her (Babylon), thott heaven, and ye holy a/tostles and
prophets" in winch passage the term " heaven" evidently means the Church.

318 THE CHURCH [L»cx. XIII.

about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of
Christ." 1 This evidence will serve to show that Michael and
his angels prevailed over the dragon and his angels,—that the
apostles of Christ triumphed over all Satanic opposition,—that
the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church,—and that
" they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word
of their testimony, and they loved not their lives unto the death."

" And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent called
the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world, — TY\V
olKov/jLtvrjv o\.r)V — he was cast into the earth, — ets rr)v y^v,
Judaea — and his angels were cast out with him."

Here is a powerful contrast between " the whole world," an
expression used by the Jews to designate "thehabitable earth,"
and " the earth," Judaea. It serves to define in an unmistak-
able manner the particular land into which Satan is said to be
cast. This is confirmed in verse 12., where the people of Ju-
daea are described by that peculiar phrase ivhich is med only of
them in the slpocalt/pse — " Jfroe to the inhabitants of the
earth and of the sea,—rots KaroiKovcn rr^v yr\v /ecu rr/v Oa-
Xdcrcrav,—for the devil is come down unto you having great
wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time."

The question arises, was that short time a time of extraordi-
nary wickedness ? Did it appear evident that Satan and his
angels were cast into the earth—Jiuhea ; and did evil run ram-
pant through the land, till it became ripe for the coming de-
struction ? Of this we have abundant proof. Our Lord de-
clared that the iniquity of those days should be only equalled
by their deep affliction—" .liecau.se inianiit/ shall abound, the
love of many shall wax cold." - The holiest ties appear to have
been broken through in the absorbing wickedness of the age.
" Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the
father the son ; and children shall rise up against their parents,
and shall cause them to be put to death." <J Moreover, the pe-
culiar character of that wickedness seems to linve been attribut-
able to Satanic uaency. " There shall arise false Christs and
false prophets, and shall shew arcat siyns and 'wonders, (/'. e.
miracles,) insomuch that if it were possible they shall deceive

Horn. xv. 19. 2 Matt. xxiv. 12.
Mark, xiii. 12.

LECT. X1IL] IN THE WILDERNESS. 319

the very elect." l St. Paul confirms these statements of our
Lord, and declares, that " That day shall not come except there
come a foiling away2 first, and that man of sin— Satan —be
revealed the son of perdition .... and then shall that wicked
— avofjios—be revealed . . . whose coming" is after the work-
ing of Satan, with at/ power, and signs, and tying wonders,
(?. e. miracles,) and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in
them that perish" 3

Such appears to have been the complexion of those last and
perilous times. No species of wickedness was too horrible to be
practised, no form of lust too revolting. Murder, incest, sacri-
lege, were every-day crimes. " You have not," says Joseph us
to the Jews, " avoided so much as those sins which are usually
done in secret: I mean thefts and treacherous plots against men,
and adulteries. You are quarrelling about rapines and murders,
and invent strange ways of wickedness. Nay, the temple itself
is become the receptacle of all, and this divine place is polluted
by the hands of our own country. What crime is there, I pray
you, that is so much as kept secret among you, or is concealed
by you ; nay, what is there that is not open to your very ene-
mies ; for you show your transgressions after a pompous man-
ner, and contend one with another which of you shall be more
wicked than another?"1

He elsewhere says, " I suppose that, had the Romans made
any longer delay in coming against these villains, the city would
either have been swallowed up by the ground opening upon
them, or been overflowed by water, or else been destroyed by
such thunder as the country of Sodom, for it had brought forth
a generation of men much more atheistical than were those that
suffered such punishments, for by their madness it was that all
the people came to be destroyed. " ° Is it a wonder that our
Lord should have said, " Fill ye up then the measure of your

1 Matt. xxiv. 24.
2 ""On tar p) e\0i) ij airoffTdffia irpMTor," i. e., unless THE APOSTASY
come first, where our version gives <c except there come a falling away first ;"
— making the whole quite indefinite ; whereas THE APOSTASY had in view
by the apostle is evidently that specified one predicted by our Lord." — Lee
on Prophecy, p, 238.
3 2 Thess. ii. 3. 10. 4 Ibid. lib. v. cap. p.
5 Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 13.

320 THE CHURCH [LBCT. XIII.
fathers, ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape
the damnation of hell ? " l
u And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth,
he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man-child."
" And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to
make tear with the remnant of her seed, which keep the com-
mandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ."
The expression " to make war " is used in the Apocalypse
to signify persecution. This is evident from a comparison of
the preceding verses, where the phrase " The dragon . . .
went to make war with the woman " is explained by the correla-
tive clause — " The dragon . . . persecuted the woman which
brought forth the man-child. " Jt is used in a similar sense
under the Seventh Trumpet and Seventh Vial.
Trumpet. " It was given unto him (Home) to make tear
with the saints, and to overcome them. "2
Vial. " These (the ten horns of Koine) s/iall mahY; tear with
the Lamb. " 3
Now is there proof to show that the dragon at this particular
period " persecuted the woman which brought forth the man-
child ? J' We are expressly told 4 that " the dragon gave
power unto the Beast " (Home); that " the dragon gave him
his power, and his seat and great authority;"0 and Home
appears at this time to have been the great instrument of
persecution against Christianity. Having so frequently spoken
of the persecutions which proceeded at this period from the
Roman power against the Church of Christ, I shall not deem
it necessary to add any thing to this well known and established
fact; but shall consider it abundantly proved that this par-
ticular period was not only a period of fierce and savage
persecution against Christianity, but that it was the first com-
mencement of a fiery ordeal, such as the Church had not before
experienced, and that from the date; of the casting of the
dragon to the earth began that exterminating, and possibly
in many cases undistinguishing desolation against the Jews,
whether Christians or not, which ended in their complete and
entire destruction.
1 Matt, xxiii. 33. 2 Rev. xiii. ?.
3 Rev. xvii. 14. 4 Rev. xiii. 4.
5 Rev. xiii. 2—4.

LECT. XIII.] IN THE WILDERNESS. 321
/
"And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle!,
that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she
is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the
face of the serpent. And the serpent cast out of his mouth
water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to
be carried away of the flood. And the earth helped the woman,
and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood
which the dragon cast out of his mouth." 2
Observe that " the woman " flies into the wilderness for
safety. So, in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, " many that
sought after justice and judgment went down into the wilder-
ness to dwell there/7 3 So Elijah fled into the wilderness in
the days of Ahab from Jezebel. Our Lord gave the same
command : " When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with
armies, . . . then let them which are in Judaea flee unto the
mountains/' i. e., into the tcitderness* ; and it is not a little re-
markable that Eusebius says that the Christians abandoned the
whole land of Judtea, and removed "beyond the Jordan,"—
the country beyond the Jordan being usually called the icil-
derness.b
This is a powerful confirmation of the symbol of the Apo-
calypse in which th ewoman is represented as flying for safety
into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God.
Observe next, the time during which .she is to be nou-
rished in the wilderness. She is to be fed there
" A thousand two hundred and threescore days."
" A time and times and half a time from the face of the
serpent."
This, as we have seen, was the exact period during which
the Roman invasion lasted. It is unreasonable to suppose that
1 The idea appears to be simply, that God interposed for the rescue of his
church. It is possibly an.allusion to that exquisite passage in Deuteronomy,
where God is represented as bearing Israel in the wilderness on eagle's wings:
" As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttered! over her young, spreadeth abroad
her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings, so the Lord alone did
lead him, and there was no strange god with him." —Deut. xxxii. 11, 12.
2 Rev. xii. 14—-16. 3 1 Maccabees, ii. 29.
4 Compare 1 Maccabees, ii. 28., where £t the mountains " are put for "the
wilderness/'
*' Compare (< Bethabara, beyond Jordan, where John was baptising" (John
i. 28.), with u John did baptize in the wilderness." — Mark, i. 4.
Y

322 THE CHURCH [LECT. XIII.
during" that period provision would be made for the safety of
the Christian Church, and that, according to our Lord's pro-
phecy, not a "hair of their head should perish ?" We find,
upon unquestionable authority, that such provision was made ;
that the woman was nourished in the wilderness from the face
of the serpent. Eusebius tells us, "The whole body, however,
of the church at Jerusalem, having been commanded by a divine
revelation given to men of approved piety there before the war,
removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain town beyond the
Jordan (in the wilderness), called Fella: here, those that be-
lieved in Christ having removed from Jerusalem, as if holy
men had entirely abandoned the royal city itself, and the whole
land of Judrea, the divine justice for their crimes against Christ
and his Apostles finally overtook them, totally destroying the
whole generation of these evil-doers from the earth." l
To recapitulate :—
Under the trumpet. A loud, voice is heard in heaven saying,
44 Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom
of our God, and the power of his Christ, for the accuser of
our brethren is cast down which accused them before our God
day and night/'
Under the ViaL " The Seventh Angel poured out his vial
into the air~,—the abode of Satan,—and there came a (/reat
voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It
is done."
A great wonder (cnj/zeioz/, a miraculous prodigy) appears
in heaven. It is that of the Church clothed with the righte-
ousness of her Redeemer, having the moon under her feet,
and crowned with a galaxy of t\velve stars. And lo another
wonder (cr^ftcioz') in heaven :—A great red dragon who had
persecuted the Church from the beginning in the person of
her divine head, stands ready to persecute " the remnant of
her seed which keep the commandments of God, and which
have the testimony of Jesus Christ." In the figurative lan-
guage of the Apocalypse, there is war in heaven — contending
1 EUS. lib. ili. cap. 5.
2 The air, or the lower part of the heaven, is said, in Scripture, to he the
abode of Satan. Hence, he is called " The Prince of the power of the air,"
(Ephes. ii. 2.) "Spiritual wickedness in high places,—tVwyKU'/o({:, heavenly
//facet."—JKphes. vi. 12,

LECT. XHI.] IN THE WILDERNESS. 323
armies join in battle in heavenly places—the hosts of the living-
God radiant with glory and might meet rank with rank and
phalanx with phalanx against the powers of hell and darkness.
"Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the
dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not, neither was
their place found any more in heaven."
" Headlong themselves they threw
Down from the verge of heaven ; eternal wrath
Burn'd after them to the bottomless pit."—MILTON.
The dragon is cast out of the heaven of the Church of Christ
into the earth—Judf^a, and his angels are cast out with him.
Then arose the mournful plaint anticipatory of the coming dis-
tress. " Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and the sea, for
the devil is come down unto them having great wrath, for he
knoweth that he hath but a short time," and that the God of
peace will bruise him under the feet of his Church " shortly" 1
Woe to the land of Judrea, because of the abounding iniquity,
and the cup which they must fill to the measure of their fathers.
From this persecution the Lord delivers them that are his. The
Church flies into the wilderness beyond the Jordan to a place,
Pel la—prepared of God, — made known unto her " by divine
revelation before the tear" There " she is nourished for a
time, times, and half a time from the face of the serpent."
There she is fed "a thousand two hundred and threescore
days." The serpent casts out of his mouth a waterflood to
destroy her, but the gates of hell cannot prevail against her,
and the destruction is averted by Him who miraculously inter-
poses for the deliverance of his Church.
I commend this interpretation as more suited to the day and
age of the Apocalypse than that of Dr. Gumming. It will be
seen that it thoroughly eschews the notion of Arians or Trini-
tarians, of Vandals, Visigoths, or linns, having ever entered
into the writer's mind. Jt will be seen, that it is content to pre-
fer the scriptural definition of the great red dragon, given in
the Apocalypse, to a definition which has no deeper foundation
than the coinage of the imagination. It will be seen, that it
1 Rom. vi. i>0.
v :2

324 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. [LECT. XIII.
supposes all allusion to the Emperor Maximin to be fast verging
on the fabulous, and the period of the woman's gestation of 280
years to savour strongly of the ridiculous and the apocryphal.
And let me observe once again that I do not offer these remarks
in any uncharitable spirit, or with any intention of speaking
irreverently of holy things. If I cannot resist a smile now and
then, it is not because I forget I am dealing with a sacred sub-
ject, but because I am anxious to show that truth never suffers
in comparison with error. It is not because my house is built
of stone and Dr. Cumming's of glass that I can afford to fling
stones at him ; it is only because I think — and it is but my
opinion after all—that my house will resist harder knocks than
his, that I presume to call attention to the points of difference
between us. May the end and upshot be increased and ever
increasing knowledge, light, and truth !

325

LECTURE XIV,

THE BEAST RISING FROM THE SEA, AND THE BEAST
COMING UP OUT OF THE EARTH.

REV. xiii.

1. And I stood upon the sand of
the sea, and saw a beast rise up out
of the sea, having seven heads and
ten horns, and upon his horns ten
crowns, and upon his heads the name
of blasphemy.

2. And the beast which I saw was
like unto a leopard, arid his feet were
as the feet of a bear, and his mouth
as the mouth of a lion : and the
dragon gave him his power, and his
seat, and great authority.

3. And I saw one of his heads as
it were wounded to death ; and his
deadly wound was healed : and all
the world wondered after the beast.

<t. And they worshipped the dragon
which gave power unto the beast: and
they worshipped the beast, saying,
Who is like unto the beast ? who is
able to make war with him ?

5. And there was given unto him
a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies; and power was given
unto him to continue forty and two
months.

6. And he opened his mouth in
blasphemy against God, to blaspheme
his name, and his tabernacle, and
them that dwell in heaven.

7. And it was given unto him to

REV. xvii.

1. And there came one of the se-
ven angels which had the seven vials,
and talked with me, saying unto me,
Come hither ; I will show unto thee
the judgment of the great whore that
sitteth upon many waters :

2. With whom the kings of the
earth have committed fornication, and
the inhabitants of the earth have been
made drunk with the wine of her for-
nication.

3. So he carried me away in the
spirit into the wilderness : and 1 saw
a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured
beast, full of names of blasphemy,
having seven heads and ten horns.

k And the woman was arrayed in
purple and scarlet colour, and decked
with gold and precious stones and
pearls, having a golden cup in her
hand full of abominations and filtbi-
ness of her fornication :

5. And upon her forehead was a
name written, MYSTERY, BABY-
LON THE GREAT, THE MO-
TH ER OF HARLOTS AND ABO-
MINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

(). And I saw the woman drunken
with the blood of the saints, and with
the blood of the martyrs of Jesus :
and when 1 saw her, 1 wondered with

make war with the saints, and to ' great admiration.

326 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.

overcome them: and power was
given him over all kindreds, and
tongues, and nations.

8. And all that dwell upon the
earth shall worship him, whose names
are not written in the book of life of
the Larnh slain from the foundation
of the world.

9- If any man hath an ear, let him
hear.

10. He that leadeth into captivity
shall go into captivity : he that killeth
with the sword must be killed with
the sword. Here is the patience and
the faith of the saints.

11. And I beheld another beast
coming up out of the earth ; and he
had two horns like a lamb, and he
spake as a dragon.

12. And he excrciseth all the power
of the first beast before him, and
causeth the earth and them which
dwell therein to worship the first
beast, whose deadly wound was
healed.

13. And he doeih great wonders,
so that he maketh fire come down
from heaven on the earth in the sight
of men.

14. And deceiveth them that dwell
on the earth by the nicana of those
miracles which he had power to do in
the sight of the beast ; saying to them
that dwell on the earth, that they
.should make an image to the beast,
which had the wound by a sword,
and did live.

1.5. And he had power to give life
unto the image of the beast, that the
image of the lieast should both speak,
and cause that as many as would not
worship the image of the beast should
be killed.

16. And he caused all, both small
and great, rich and poor, free and
bond, to receive a mark in their right
hand, or in their foreheads :

17. And that no man might buy
or sell, save he that had the mark, or
the name of the beast, or the number
of his name.

7. And the angel said unto me,
Wherefore didst thou marvel ? I
will tell thee the mystery of the wo-
man, and of the beast that carrieth
her, which hath the seven heads and
ten horns.
8. The bee >£ that thou sawest was,
and is not; and shall ascend out of
the bottomless pit, and go into perdi-
tion : and they that dwell on the
earth shall wonder, whose names
were not written in the book of life
from the foundation of the world,
when they behold the beast that was,
and is not, and yet is.
9- And here ?,v the mind which
hath wisdom. The seven heads are
seven mountains, on which the woman
sitteth.
10. And there are seven kings:
five are fallen and one is, and the
other is not yet come ; and when he
cometh he must continue a short
spare.
1.1. And the beast that was, and is
not, even lie is the eighth, and is of
the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12. And the ten horns which thou
sawest are ten kings, which have re-
ceived no kingdom as yet ; but re-
ceive power as kings one hour with
the beast.
13. These have one mind, and
shall give their power and strength
unto the beast.
11. These shall make war with the
Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome
them : for he is Lord of lords, and
King of kings: and they that are
with hi jo are called, and chosen, and
faithful.
1.x And he saith unto me. The
waters which thou sawest, where the
whore sittclh, are peoples, and multi-
tudes, and nations, and tongues.
10'. And the ten horns which thou
sawest upon the Ix'ast, these shall hate
the whore, and shall make her deso-
late and naked, and shall cat her flesh,
and burn her with fire.
17- For <iod hath put into their

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 327

18. Here is wisdom, Let him that
hath understanding count the number
of the beast: for it is the number of
a man ; and his number is Six hun-
dred threescore and six.

hearts to fulfil his will, and to 'agree,
and give their kingdom unto the beast^
until the words of God shall be ful-
filled.

18. And the woman which thou
sawest is that great city, which reign-
eth over the kings of the earth.

IT will be borne in mind that we are still pursuing the sub-
ject of the Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh Vial. Now,
although in the previous Lecture an identity was to be traced
between the Trumpet and Vial, inasmuch as the Vial is
poured into "the air,"and the Trumpet describes an accuser
cast out, whose abode is said to be " the air," it was not of a
complete and perfect kind ; and yet it was of that kind which is
very common in the Apocalypse, where an event barely men-
tioned under the one is explained at greater length under the
other. If you compare the description of the kings of the East
and their armies, which are only just alluded to in the Sixth
Vial, and detailed at great length under the Sixth Trumpet,—
the Resurrection, only faintly sketched under the symbol of
" watching and keeping the garments, lest they walk naked"
in the Vial, and carried out into finished proportions in the
Trumpet under the figure of the Open Book and the Two Wit-
nesses,— the " earthquake," only mentioned under the Seventh
Trumpet and fully described under the Seventh Vial,—the
"great hail," as it were incidentally introduced under the same
Trumpet, and the full particulars of its destructiveness given
under the Vial,— you will readily perceive similar instances.
In the present case the identity is complete under both ; and,
in order to ascertain this identity, we must, as usual, compare
the Trumpet with the Vial.
Trumpet. " I saw . . . a Beast rise up out of the sea"
Vial. " The Beast that thou sawed . . . shall ascend out
of the bottomless pit—dfivcrcros.'' i
T. " Having seven heads and ten horns"
V. " Having seven heads and ten horns."
1 In the Scptuagiut, the sea is called upuo-aoc ; S( tipvavov T»/v«t *«->
.''—Deut, xxxiii. UJ.
Y 4

328 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.
T. " And upon his horns ten crowns."
y. " The ten horns . . . are ten kings."
T. " Upon his heads the name of Blasphemy"
V. " Full of names of Blasphemy."
T. " The dragon gave him his power and his seat and great
authority"
V. " These (ten horns) have one mind, and shall give their
power and strength unto the Beast."
T. " I saw one of his heads, as it were, wounded to death"
J7. " The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not"
T. " And his deadly wound was healed"
V. "The Beast that was, and is not, and yet is"
T. " All the world, (6X77 97 yrj, Juda?a,) 'wondered after the
Beast."
f7. " They that dwell on the earth (eVt rrjs 7779, Judaea,) shall
iconder. "
T. " And they icorshippcd the Beast."
V. " Which had not worshipped the Beast" l
T. " There was given unto him a mouth speaking great
things and Blasphemies"
l/r. " A scarlet coloured Beast, full of names <>f Blasphemy "
T. " Power was given to him to continue forty and two
months."
F. " Until the words of Cod shall !>e fulfilled, " /. c. " a
time, times, and an half" — forty-two months. 2
T. " It was given unto him to make war irith thv saints"
V. " These (the ten horns of the Beast) shall make war with
the Lamb. "
T. "Power was given him over all kindreds, andtonyurs,
and nations."
f7. " The waters, (i'. c. the Beast,) . . . sire peoples, and
multitudes, and nations, and tongues. " 3
1 Rev. xx. 4. '* Compare Dan. xii. 7.
3 Compare Rev. xvii. 1. with xvii. 3.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 329

T. " And all that dwell upon the earth (Judaea) shall wor-
ship him."
V. " Them that worshipped Ins image. " * i. e. " they that
dwell on the earth " (Judaea) 2
T. " JFJiose names are not written in the Book of Life"
V. " Whose names were not written in the Book of Life"
T. " From the foundation of the world"
V. " From the foundation of the world"
T. " Of the Lamb slain."
V. « The LamUs Book of Life/'3
I find with no small degree of satisfaction that Mr. Elliott and
Dr. Gumming allow of the identity between chap. xiii. and
chap. xvii. I do not see very well how they could help it ;
but the consolation is not the less that they are obliged to allow
it. If, then, the identity must be conceded in one case, why
should not this identity be conceded in all ? I hesitate not to
affirm, that strong as this resemblance is, it is not a whit
stronger than many previous and some successive points of re-
semblance between the Trumpets and Vials. It is a powerful
argument for the correctness of our position, for it is the con-
cession of an adversary, that there does exist an identity
between chap. xiii. and chap. xvii.
I proceed to give a brief statement of the exposition given
of those chapters by our theological opponent ; but before I
open his book to look at what he has said, I am quite sure it is
all Rome. And, indeed, it is impossible to deny but thaf Here
there are points of resemblance. He has never corne so close
to the Apocalyptic symbols as in his interpretation of this part
of the book. The glaring error of his interpretation is the false
system of chronology by which, he arrives at last to Rome.
80 many steps are taken upon shifting sand, so many argu-
ments built on airy nothings, so many piles driven into a no
more substantial element than the waves of ocean, that when
we come at last to Rome, and seem to be in a fair way for
a splendid attack upon an erring church, our previously-laid
1 llev. xix. 20. 2 Rev. xiii. H, 3 Rev. xxi. 2?.

330 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.
foundation totters beneath our feet, and the rounds of our
chronological ladder are insufficient to support our weight.
Dr. Gumming says of the wild beast from the sea and from
the abyss, that "it is characterised by attributes so clear and
unequivocal, that if it were described in the page of history,
the Pope of Rome would instantly present himself to the
mind of any person as the individual intended to be repre-
sented by these symbols/'1 The ten horns are the division of
the Roman empire into the ten kingdoms of Europe. The blas-
phemies of the beast,— the Papal assumed character of Vicar
of Christ. The beast making war with the Lamb, (as may be
supposed, a very fruitful subject,) — the cruelties and persecu-
tions of the Roman Catholic Church, &c.
I perfectly agree with Dr. Gumming when he says the beast
rising out of the sea, and ascending from the abyss, must be
Rome.2 No other power can answer so closely to the Apo-
calyptic description. The only question is, Is it Rome of the
date and age of the Apocalypse, or is it Rome of 1000 years
after ? Is it Rome Pagan, or is it Rome Papal ? I am pre-
pared to show that it could have been no other than Rome of
that day — the monster tyrant of the world — the vindictive
persecutor of Christianity; that Rome Pagan, equally with
Rome Papal, had upon its seven heads the name of Blasphemy ;
that Rome Pagan, equally with Rome Papal, made war upon
the saints ; that Rome Pagan, equally with Rome Papal,
usurped universal dominion, and compelled all conquered
nations to adopt the worship of its gods. I am prepared to
show that there is not a single expression which can be ap-
1 Apoc. Sketches, p. 518.
2 It is worthy of notice that Barnabas, Hennas, Daniel, and St. John,
speak of the Roman power under the name of the " BEAST." It is also re-
markable that they all represent the Beast as r'txiny from the sea.
"The four winds of heaven strove upon the great sea, and four great Beasts
came up." — Dan. vii. £_> 3.
" I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a Beast rise up out of the
sea" — Rev. xiii. 1.
<f I saw a fourth Beast, wicked and powerful, and more cruel than other
beasts of the sea."
" Et vidi quartern bestiam nequam et forterri et sa»viorem caeteris bestiis
marinis." — S. Barnaba?, Epist. 4.
e{ Lo, I see a great Beast, as a whale."
" Ecce video bestium magnam vduti cetum.r — Fiorina: Pastor, visio -I.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 331

plied to Rome Papal, which does not apply with tenfold pro-
priety to Rome Pagan. And then when you put the question,
Is the Apocalypse a prophecy of events to reach to the end of
time, or of events "shortly to come to pass ?" Is it a chro-
nological history of the world and of the Church, or a Divine
revelation to warn the Church of that day of the "hour of
temptation that was coming (r^s ^eXAoGo-Tjs ep^ecr^ai, that was
. soon coming} to try all them that dwelt on the earth ?" Was its
design to give us a compendium of popes, councils, and fathers ;
to enter so minutely into ecclesiastical history as to mark
out the Tractarian heresy, and so closely into civil history
as to embrace every war from the time of Vespasian to the
Russian invasion ; or was its object to warn the Church of
dangers near at hand ; so near and close that the charge is
given to St. John,—" Seal not the sayings of the prophecy
of this book, for the time is at hand ?" We are compelled to
allow, that if a persecuting power, such as this is defined to
be, rose up at that time, corresponding in all its particulars
to the Apocalyptic symbol, we have found the right and legi-
timate interpretation ; and that, however all this may be
applied, in a secondary sense, by those who think themselves
at liberty to do so, to Rome Papal, in its first and primary
sense it has an indubitable reference to Rome Pagan.

Let us take the thirteenth and seventeenth chapters together,
and proceed to explain their meaning.

" A beast " (Qt^iov) " rises up out
of the sea.''

" A beast " (Br^nor) f( ascends out
of the bottomless pit."

This is universally allowed to be the great Roman power.
Daniel speaks of the " winds of heaven striving upon the great
sea ; " /. e. the Mediterranean J ; and from this sea the fourth
great beast proceeds. Add to this, that Italy is a peninsula,
and that Rome, as it were, rises from the sea.

horns."

Having seven heads and ten

a Having seven heads and ten
horns."

The seven heads are employed in a twofold sense : they
designate local situation and government.

Dan. vii. i2.

332 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT XIV.

Local situation— for "the seven heads are seven mountains."
This can refer to no other city so well as the seven-hilled city;
the city spoken of by every poet of the day, and thoroughly
well known as the city built on seven hills.

Government — for the seven heads are "seven kings : five
are fallen and one is"

It is very useful to us in our argument that the Jewish
historian of that period calls "Augustus Caesar the second,
emperor of the Romans."1 Then Julius Caesar was the first,
Augustus the second, Tiberius the third, Caius or Caligula the
fourth, Claudius the fifth, and, after Claudius the sixth, (then
living^) Nero. This fixes the date of the Apocalypse. Nero
died A.D. 08 ; Jerusalem perished A.D. 7^- Consequently,
the Apocalypse must have been written before the destruction
of Jerusalem.

" And I saw one of his heads as it
were wounded to death ; and his
deadly wound was healed, and all the
world wondered after the beast/'

" The first beast whose deadly
wound was healed."

" The beast which had a wound by
a sword, and did live.*'

" The beast that thou sawest was
and is not, and shall ascend out of
the bottomless pit, and go into perdi-
tion, and they that dwell on the earth
shall wonder . . . when they behold
the beast that was and is not and yet
is."

This is unquestionably the most difficult passage in the
Apocalypse. The only probable solution of it which I have
seen is that of Moses Stuart*2, which represents St. John—not
g'uilty of prevarication, as Mr. Elliott somewhat coarsely says
— but alluding to the popular belief, that Nero would revive
after his assassination, and regain his former power.

Suetonius says : " It was predicted to Nero that he would
at some time be reduced to a state of great destitution ; some,
however', promised him the restoration of all his former
fortune" He elsewhere mentions, that " After his assassination,
they adorned his tomb with flowers, and proclaimed edicts,
as if he were liriruj^ and would shortly return"^

Tacitus asserts that "Achaia and Asia were terrified as if Nero

1 (t Under whom died Caesar (Augustus), the second emperor of the Ro-
mans, the duration of whose reign was fifty-seven years six months and two
s." — Jos. Antiq. xviii. 2, 2.
Excursus, 3. LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 333

was coming, reports being various respecting his death, many
on this account believing that he was still alive.1

Sulpicius Severus, an ecclesiastical writer of the third
century : " It is uncertain whether he (Nero) destroyed himself;
whence it is believed that, although he may have pierced himself
with a sword, yet he was saved by the cure of his wound, in
accordance with that which is written2 ' And his deadly wound
was healed ;* "at the close of the age he is to be sent again,
that he may exercise the mystery of iniquity " 3

Augustine :—"What means the declaration that the mystery
of iniquity already works ? Some suppose this to be spoken
of the Roman emperor, and therefore Paul did not speak in
plain words, because he would not incur the charge of calumny
for having spoken evil of the Roman emperor ; although he
always expected that what he had said would be understood as
applying to Nero, whose doings already appeared like to those
of Antichrist. Hence it was that some suspected that he would
rise from the dead as Antichrist. Others supposed he was
not actually slain, but had only withdrawn himself that he
might seem to be dead, and that he was concealed while living
in the vigour of his age and when he was supposed to be
extinct, until in his time he would be revealed and restored to
his kingdom."4

Such was the belief in those days respecting

44 The beast wounded to death, whose deadly wound was healed/7
"The beast that . . . shall go into perdition."

u The beast which had a wound by a sword and did live."

" The beast that was and is not and yet is."
" The beast that was and is not, even lie is the eighth and
is of the seven.*'

It is not at all necessary for us to believe that St. John
understood that Nero would recover from his wound ; he only
makes use of the popular belief respecting Nero, to designate
that head which he was afraid to mention by name. St. Paul
seems equally afraid of mentioning the tyrant by name : I was
delivered," he says, " out of the mouth of the lion."5 He alludes

1 Tacit. Hist. lib. ii. 8. 2 Rev. xiii. 3. 3 Hist. Sac. ii. i?<).
4 l)e Civit Dei. xx. 19. » 2 Tim. iv. 17-

334 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.

to more than he dared express openly when he says, (in 2 Thess.
ii. 6, 7.) "Ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed
in his time, for the mystery of iniquity doth already work, only
he who now letteth will let until he be taken out of the way."
So it would seem was the case with St. John, respecting" the
tyrant Nero. Sufficient intimation was given to the Christian
Church without mentioning the name of Nero. It appears just
that necessary caution void of needless provocation, which
might be expected from those who were to be " wise as serpents
and harmless as doves."l

" Having seven heads and ten
horns, and upon his horns ten crowns."

" Having seven heads and ten
horns/' " and the ten horns . . are ten
kings."

These ten horns have been interpreted of the ten great king-
doms into which the Roman empire was divided. I am not at
all sure that the Roman empire was divided into ten kingdoms,
nor do I think that any substantial proof can be brought to bear
upon this subject. Neither do I imagine that the ten horns
represent the ten modern kingdoms of Europe. If they repre-
sent the great kingdoms, they are too many; if they represent
all the kingdoms, they are too few. Besides which, they " re-
ceive power as kings one hour," " plav lopav" or at the same
time, " with the beast." They have " received no kingdom as
yet," because no other universal kingdom was to succeed the
great Roman empire, except the kingdom of Christ. They
1 Jt is worthy of notice that a similar caution is employed with regard to
the number of the Beast. Iremeus says, this was done to avoid giving offence
to the Roman emperor (Con. Iher. lib. v.). Augustine, as we have seen,
repeats the same idea. To have mentioned the reigning monarch by name
would, possibly, only have sharpened the violence of the persecution.
I desire here to express my inability to give any thing more than a conjec-
tural explanation of verse 11. of chap. xvii. Jt appears evident that "the
eighth" king is the same as the " one that now is," — the sixth — for it is said
of them both, that they "go into perdition " (Rev. xvii. 8—11.), and both are
described as "the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is."—Rev. xvii. 8—11.
The other king who " is not yet come," and who, " when he cometh, must
continue a short space/' and who completes the number of the seven kings,
is possibly Galba, who succeeded him, and reigned but three months. The
eighth, who was to succeed him, and who was " of the seven " (showing that
he could not literally be the eighth), is most probably the same as " the beast
who shall ascend, (ya'XXa dvafitilrtit', shall soon ascend,) out of the bottomless
pit,"—i. e, Nero.

LBCT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 335

are confederate with the Beast, — they give their power and
strength unto the Beast,—they hate the enemies of the Beast,
and give their kingdom unto the Beast, until the words of God
shall be fulfilled.

I can see no necessity for converting these horns into the
modern kingdoms of Europe. They seem to indicate the great
and enormous power of Rome, aided by tributaries and allies.
The number ten is used continually in the Apocalypse in an
indefinite sense. Satan is said to have ten horns,— meaning
great and terrible power. The Christians of Smyrna were to
have tribulation ten days. So our Lord gave to his servants
ten talents, and made them rulers of ten cities. The idea
simply appears to be that of the great and terrible power of the
Roman empire.1

We have next a description of the power of the Beast.

" And the beast which I saw was
like unto a leopard, and his feet were
as the feet of a bear, and his mouth
as the mouth of a lion." " And they
worshipped the beast, saying, who is
like unto the beast, and who is able
to make war with him ? "

"After this I saw in the night
visions, and behold a fourth beast,
dreadful and terrible, and strong ex-
ceeding, and it had great iron teeth ;
it devoured and brake in pieces and
stamped the residue with the feet of
it." — Dan. vii. 7-

From an innumerable multitude of passages from ancient
authors, which serve to confirm the great dominion of the
Roman empire, I select as most suitable the speech of Agrippa
to the Jews, before the breaking- out of the Jewish war.
" You are the only people who think it a disgrace to be
servants to those to whom the world hath submitted. Hath
not your army been often beaten by the neighbouring nations,
while the power of the Romans is invincible in all parts of the
habitable earth ?— nay, they seek for somewhat still beyond
that, for the Euphrates is not a sufficient boundary for them on
the east, nor the Danube on the north, nor Cadiz on the west;
nay, indeed, they have sought for another habitable earth
beyond the ocean, and have carried their arms as far as such
1 St. Augustine says : " The ten horns signify universality of dominion."
In like manner, the Babylonian conquerors of Judaea are represented under
the figure of four horns. " Then I lifted up mine eyes and behold four
horns ; . . . and he answered me, these are the horns which have scattered
Jmlalr, Israel, and Jerusalem."— Zech. i. 18, 19.



336 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.

British isles as were never known before. Who has not heard
of the great number of the Germans ? yet these Germans, who
dwell in an immense country, and in rage more fierce than
wild beasts, are tamed by eight Roman legions. You who
depend upon the walls of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the
Britons had, and yet the Romans sailed away unto them, and
subdued them, while they were encompassed by the ocean ; and
four legions are a sufficient guard for so large an island. Now,
when almost all people under the sun submit to the Roman
arms, will you be the only people that make war against them ?
Where are the people that you are to have for your auxiliaries,
for all that are in the habitable earth are under the Romans?" l
The Beast rising from the sea is next described as having
names of blasphemy upon his heads.

" Upon his heads the name of
blasphemy."

(i And there was given unto him
a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies/'

" And he opened his mouth in
blasphemy against God^ to blaspheme
his name and his tabernacle, and them
that dwell in heaven."

" A scarlet coloured beast full of
names of blasphemy."—Rev. xvii. 3.

tf And he shall speak great words
against the Most High, and shall
wear out the saints of the Most High,
and they shall be given into his hand,
until a time, times, and the dividing
of a time."—Dan. vii. 25.

Now, can we find in the history of those times a power
answering to this description ? Did a power rise at that period
" speaking great things and blasphemies/' uttering " great
words against the Most High," " blaspheming his name and his
tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven ? "
It is a powerful confirmation of these views, that at the
particular time for which we plead, a power rose up fully
answering to this description. Eusebius says, " Nero took up
arms against that very religion which acknowledges the one true
God. He was the first of the emperors wrhich displayed himself
an enemy of piety toward* the Deity. He publicly announced
himself as the chief enemy of (rod"2 His predecessor,
Caligula, had literally blasphemed the name of (lod and his
tabernacle. Philo tells us, " So great was the caprice of
Caligula towards the nation of the Jews, that he appropriated
1 Bell. Jud. lib, ii. cap. 16'. 2 Eus. lib. ii. cap. 25.



LKCT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 337
their places of worship to himself in all their cities, filling
them with his images and statues1, for having permitted it (i. c.
Divine worship to be paid to him), where others erected them
of their own accord, he now began to erect them by absolute
command. But the temple in the holy city, which had been
left untouched as yet, he changed and transformed into a temple
of his own ; that it should be called the Temple of Caius the
Younger — "the visible Jupiter" " eVi<£az>ov9 Jios."2 St.
Paul seems to allude to this profanation of the temple by
setting up the statues of the Roman emperors, where he says,
" So that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that he is God." But all the follies of former em-
perors seem to have been surpassed by Nero. To him more
particularly does the charge of blasphemy apply ; he appears,
as was common with the Roman emperors, to have been pub-
licly worshipped. The following is a specimen of the religious
adoration paid to him. He is returning to Rome after having"
been a conqueror in the Grecian games — he is received with
these words :— " Victories Olympic ! Victories Pythian !
Thou august, august — to Nero the Hercules — to Nero the
Apollo — The only conqueror in the games of the circus —
The eternal one, Els air <u<Sj>os— Saered rofee3—happy
those who hear thee." * " The most arrogant titles, says
Rollin, were conferred on her emperors. To the Divine
Julius. To the Eternal Prince, always, everywhere to be
revered, Augustus. To the Prosperous and Unconquered,
Unconquerable and Perpetual, ever August. The Restorer of
the world. To the Triumphal Lord of the whole world. The
Salvation of the human race."''
1 te 1 sent messengers to the senate of Tiberias .... to persuade them
to demolish that house (temple) which Herod the tetrarch had built there,
and which had the figures of 1'tviny creatures in it, although our laws have for-
bidden us to make any such figures." — Life of Flavins Josephus, 12.
2 Eus. lib. ii. cap. ().
3 " '() c>£ CTJf.w£ £7r£<^>ujra, OFOV <^curi/ KTH OVK arOpiuTrov." — Acts, xii. t2*J.
4 Dio Cass.
5 " Sed et ampliora etiain humane fastigio decerni sibi passus est ....
templa, aras, simulacra juxta l>eos, pulvinar, Flaminen, Lupercos, appellatio-
nem mcnsis e suo nomine."— Suetonius, Julius, 16.
" Augustus .... Deus, dum viveret, vocatus est, et div'mis honorihus
auctus." — Justin Martyr.
" Pari arrogantia cum procuratorum suorum nomine formalem dictiret
Z



338 THE TWO BEASTS, [LECT. XIV.

This is sufficient evidence to show that the names of blas-
phemy were peculiarly appropriate to the wild beast rising" from
the sea in the day of the Apocalypse, and that no pope ever
assumed the title of Deity, or compelled religious homage, to
the same extent as the deified emperors of Rome.

Another feature in the character of the beast rising from
the sea is his persecution of the Christian Church : —

" And it was given untq him to
make war with the saints, and to
overcome them."

" These shall make war with the
Lamb* and the Lamb shall overcome
them."

Was this wild beast rising from the sea a furious persecutor
of the Christian Church? Did he make war with the saints,
and with the Lamb ? The Apocalypse is written under the
fires of this terrible persecution ; and it is most remarkable
that this persecution is the first si/steniat!e aud or</(mist*(lper-
secution of Christianity. Orosius says, u Nero first perse-
cuted the Christians by torture and death ; and he commanded
that in all the provinces they should be tormented with the like
persecution."1 Tertullian —" Examine your records ; there
you will find that Nero was the first who persecuted this
doctrine, when, after subduing all the east, lie exercised his
cruelty against all at Koine. Such is the man of whom we
boast as the leader in our punishment" ~ Eusebius — " Nero
began to take up arms against that very religion which acknow-
ledges the one supreme God . . . he was the first of the
emperors that displayed himself an enemy of piety towards
the Deity."3 Sulpicius Severus says of Nero's rei</n, —~
" The (Christian) religion was forbidden by the enactment of
laws ; and by edicts published, it was lawful for no one openly
to be a Christian."4
Tacitus tells us in the well-known passage, that " Nero, in
order to stifle the rumour of having set Rome on fire, ascribed
epistolam, sic ca-pit— Daminus et Dens noatcr hoc fieri jubct .... statuas
sibi in Capitolio non nisi aureas et argenteas poni permisit et pomleris certi/'
— Suetonius, Domit. 13.
" Dioclftianus .... adorari se jussit."— Eutropius, lib. ix. 2(>.
1 Historian, vii. 7. ~ Apol. />.
3 p;ccles. Hist. ii. 25. t Hist. Sac. ii. 28.

LKCT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS, 339
it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices,
and called Christians. These he punished exquisitely ; nay,
they made a mock of them as they perished, and destroyed
them by putting them into the skins of wild beasts, and setting
dogs on them to tear them to pieces. Some were nailed to
crosses, and others flamed to death, and used as torches to
illuminate the night. Nero offered his own gardens for this
spectacle." 1 Suetonius, Juvenal, and Martial add their testi-
mony to the same point; and the sacred writings themselves,
especially the later epistles, abounding as they do with warnings
against apostasy and consolations under trials, show that the
times of Nero — the last days of the Jewish dispensation —
were marked by the most severe and terrible persecution.
Let us pass on to consider the. extraordinary prediction of
Nero's violent death, ir/tick is recorded in t/te Apocalypse.
St. John invites attention to it in the same way as our Lord
used to call attention to any circumstance which he wished to
impress particularly : " If any man have an ear, Jet him hear I"
— " He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity ; he
that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword."
Here is an evident allusion to his own exile into Patmos, to the
slaughter of the Christian Church, and to the retribution
coining upon the tyrant himself.
Did this happen ? We are told that human nature grew
weary of bearing her persecutor, and the1 whole world seemed
to rouse, as if by common consent, to rid the earth of a
monster. Servins Galba, at that time governor of Spain,
marches against Rome. Nero at once gave himself up to
despair. He called, first, to a woman named Lonista, famous
for poisoning, to furnish him with the means of death ; he
then desired one of his favourite gladiators to despatch him —
no one would obey ; he then rushed to plunge himself headlong
into the Tiber, but his courage failed. In this distress, one of
his servants offered to conceal him in his country house, about
four miles distant from Rome, lie sets out with four servants;
an earthquake gives him the first alarm, then the lightning
from heaven flashes in his face. A traveller meeting him,
cries out, " These men are in pursuit of Nero." His horsu
1 Tacit. Ann. xv. 14.

340 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT, XIV.

taking fright at the terrific storm, he dropped the handkerchief
with which he had concealed his face, when a soldier addressed
him by name. During this interval the senate had condemned
him to die, by being fixed in a pillory, and scourged to death.
He was so terrified at this, that he set a dagger to his throat,
and gave himself a mortal wound. He was not quite dead
when the soldiers, who had been sent in pursuit of him, entered
the house, and one of them pretending that he came to his
relief, endeavoured to stop the blood with his cloak ; but Nero,
regarding him with a stern countenance, said, " Is this your
fidelity ?" upon which, with his eyes fixed, and staring fright-
fully, he expired. Such was the fulfilment of the prediction
of the Apocalypse ; " He that leadeth into captivity shall go
into captivity ; he that killeth with the sword shall be killed
with the sword."1

Such are some of the historical confirmations of the charac-
teristics of the beast rising out of the sea. There does not ap-
pear to be any necessity for having recourse to popes, canons,
or councils, in order to present a solution of this portion of the
Apocalypse. There is no occasion to say a word about the In-
quisition, or Smithfield, or St. Bartholomew's day, or the massa-
cre of the Waldenses and Albigenses. There is no imperative
cause why a civil power, such as the beast rising from the sea
evidently is, should be converted into an ecclesiastical power
like the Church of Rome ; neither can any reason be given,—be-
yond the gratification of that odium throloyicwn, in conformity
with which the service for the «5th of November continues to be
read in some churches, as the softest way, I suppose, of healing
an old sore,—why the predictions of this book should be referred
to the Papacy at all. But not to insist on this, I cannot help
saying, that in no part of the Apocalypse have commentators of
this school appeared to come so near the truth as in referring

1 " The immediate precursor of Antichrist, according to Lactantius, was
Nero, and in this I believe Lactantius was right, and I have no doubt such
was the general belief of the Church in his day. According to St. Paul,
some one who then let or stood in the, way was to be removed before the
general persecutions commenced ; and we know that Nero ruled when Paul
wrote this......Nero, too, was literally taken out of t/ic way in an extraor-
dinary manner, for he disappeared, no one knowing how or why." - Lee
on Prophecy, 23?.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 341
these statements to Papal Rome* And there is this obvious
reason why they must be nearer now than before, because Rome
is now the legitimate scope of this prophecy. But when the
question arises, Is it Rome of our day, or Rome of hundreds of
years ago ? — Is it Rome of the time of Popes and Autos-da-fe,
or is it Rome of the days of heathen persecution ? — Is it the
Rome of Nero Caesar, or the Rome of Pio Nono ? — Is it Rome
Pagan, or Rome Papal ? — That question is for ever settled by
the aim and scope of the Apocalypse itself. Then and there
(within the short limits which this system of interpretation
allows) did a wild beast rise from the sea;— Then and there
did he manifest his names and assumptions of blasphemy; —
Then and there did he, " as God, sit in the temple of God,
showing himself that he is God;"—Then and there did he
claim divine honours, and was publicly adored ; — Then and
there did this wild beast with his iron teeth break and devour
all nations, till the whole habitable earth was under his power ;
— Then and there did this same beast commence the first
furious persecution against Christianity,—then did he punish
exquisitely the followers of the Lamb, — then did he make war
with then), and earned, by many a deed of darkness and of
cruelty, the unenviable distinction of "being the leader in their
punishment;"—Then and there did common report fix upon
him the extraordinary rumour of being dead and alive, of being
wounded with a sword and yet living, of having pierced him-
self, and of having recovered from his wound (I do not see
to what else this can possibly be referred ; and no thanks appear
to be too great to him who has given so probable a solution of
so great a difficulty) ; — Then and there did this wild beast
who had driven so many into captivity, himself go into captivity,
and he who killed with the sword was killed with the sword.
I am not afraid of saying, this is simple, easy, and natural, and,
what is more, it is suited to the age and date of the Apocalypse.
It is a part of that interpretation which at the commencement
1 said should be found in a very brief interval of time, and
which I have been able to present before you within that in-
terval. I have endeavoured not to swerve from this principle.
I have had no retrogressions, and no metamorphoses. I have
not taken violent liberties with popes and emperors, and I do
not possess a magic wand. Strange it is that when an inter-

342 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.

pretation can be found in every way suitable to those times, that
commentators should travel so far out of their road for an inter-
pretation reaching far away into distant centuries, and should
introduce names and events which occupy a place in modern
history as names and events in which the first readers of the
Apocalypse would be likely to be interested. What possible
interest could a Christian, living1 under the fiery persecution of
Nero or Domitian, take in the Tractarian heresy? What com-
fort would it be to those cast to wild beasts at Ephesus to know
that the Turks would batter down Constantinople ? I do not
think that even the prediction of the celebrated hail-storm which
injured parts of France, on Sunday, July 13, 1788, would
afford much satisfaction ; or that they would fear the roaring of
LeoX. against Luther half so much as the roaring of the caged
monsters ready to devour thorn.

These things will not bear examination. The interpretation
we require is one suited to those times, and to no other. If in
the exposition now given there should be thought to be less
similitude to Rome Pagan than to Home Papal, I would still
say> the exposition nearest to that day is the true one, and the
one farthest from that day is the false one. With the secondary
sense in which all this may be applied to Home Papal I have
nothing at present to do ; lam only concerned with the first and
obvious sense of these predictions ; and I do most unhesitatingly
assert, that if a contemporaneous interpretation can be found
agreeing with the events predicted, such interpretation must,
from the very nature of things, be the true one, and that all
other can only be the mirage of the imagination, and the phan-
tasy of the brain.

In the same vision in which St. John sees the beast, which
we have explained to mean Pagan Rome, rising vip out of "the
sea1," he also sees "Another be.a&t cominij nj) out of the earth "

1 The sea is a figure constantly used in Scripture to represent the Gentile
world. " The sea is corne up upon Babylon " (Jeremiah, li. 42.), explained
in ver. 27-—IC Prepare the nations against her." — " The abundance of the
sea shall be converted to thee," illustrated by the Hebrew parallelism —
" The forces of the Gentiles shall come to thee." (Isaiah Ix. 5.) So Rev.
xvii. 15. " The water*" are said to be "peoples, and multitudes, and nations,
and tongue*" i. e. heathen nations. So " The xea " (the heathen world) " gave
up the dead that were in it." (Rev. xx. 1.3.) which is the same idea as—" Before

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 343
*
— Judaea. It will be interesting to observe, that the identity
which we have hitherto found to exist between the Trumpets
and Vials is preserved in the present instance.
Trumpet. " 1 beheld another beast."
Vial. " And with him the false prophet." *
T. " Coming up out of the earth "—Jud&a.
f^. Deceiving "them that dwell on the earth"—Jud<ea.
T. " He had two horns (ike a lamb, and he spake as a
(/rayon."
/". " The false prophet."*
T. " Deeeiriny by means of . . . miracies"
f'r. " That wrouglit miracles . . . with which he
deceived"^
T. " Them that dwell on the earth "—Juda-a.
f^. "Them that had the mark of the beast," i. e. "them
that dwell on the earth" ^
T. " He exereiseth all the power of the first beast before him"
V. " That wrought miracles before /tim."b
T. " He causeth the earth "—JmUwi,—" and them that
(Ifee/I therein toirorshij) the first beast."
£r. "Them that -worshipped his image0," dclined as "they
that dwell on the earth " — Jiuhea.
T. "Saying, .... that they should make an imaye
to the beast"
fr. " Which had not worshipped the beast, neither his
imaqc" '
T. " The beast which had the. -icotind by a sword and
did live:9
fr. " The beast that icas, and is not, and yet /,v."8
him shall be gathered aH nations" TTUVTU. ra tOni (Matt. xxv. 32.). So " There
shall be no more sea,*'—KOI // OiiXaffmi OVK 1'ortr tn (llev. xxi. 1.)—there shall
be no longer a distinction between Jew and Gentile.
1 Rev. xix. 20. <2 Rev. xvi. 13. ; xix. 20. ; xx. 10.
3 Rev. xix. 20. 4 Compare Rev. xiii. 11.
:' Rev. xix. 20. " Rev. xix. 20.
' Rev. xx. 1. * Rev. xvii, S.
/ 4

344 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.
*
T. He " caused as many as would not worship to be killed"
I7'. " The souls of them that were beheaded which had
not worshipped the beast."1
T. " He caused all to receive a mark."
J^9 " Them that had received the mark of the beast/'2
T. " In their right hand and in their foreheads."
V. "Upon their foreheads, or in their hands"*
Here, then, are many extraordinary ideas heaped together,
ideas notrhere else found in the book ; and by an agreement
of the most decided and complete kind, they are found to be
repeated under both Trumpets and Vials. Indeed, we may safely
say, that as the scenes and events described in the Apocalypse
generally are of that unique and heterogeneous character, that
no key but the true one could possibly unlock wards so peculiar
and so complicated,— so no human ingenuity can account for
this continuous and complete identity between the Trumpets and
Vials, except on the principle that they both prefigure the same
events. I can no more believe this agreement to be the result of
accident or the chance position of words and ideas, than I can
believe that the thoughts which now flow through my mind find
their way to the oblivion or to the perpetuity to which I commit
them, without intention and design on the part of the writer;
and I must hope that a path has been struck out which will
rescue this magnificent prophecy from the neglect with which
the follies of modern interpreters have caused too many to regard
it, and which may one day lead to a complete and satisfactory
exposition of the whole book.
As usual, before I offer my explanation, I give the opinions
of those from whom I so thoroughly and so conscientiously
differ.
The wild beast rising from the sea is — the Pope.
The wild beast corning up out of the earth — the Papal
clergy. The lamb-like appearance and dragon-like tongue —
" their appearing to be ministers of Christ, whilst they are the
ministers of Antichrist; professing to be the lambs of the Lord,
1 Rev. xx. 4. 2 Rev. xix. 20. ;1 Rev. xx. 1.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 345
whilst they are the dragons of the apostasy." The fire which
they bring down from heaven — the curses and anathemas of the
Church of Rome. There is an illustration given of the manner
in which this fire is brought down from heaven, in the excom-
munication of the emperor Frederick, by Pope Innocent, at the
first council of Lyons. " These words uttered in the midst of
the council struck the hearers with terror as with flashing
thunderbolts, when with candles lighted and flaring clown, the
Lord Pope and assisting prelates flashed their lightning fire
against the Emperor Frederick." *
The image of the beast is, — the general councils and synods
of the Romish Church. This is considered proved, because
Tertullian calls councils the very representation of the Church.
The image of the beast made to speak,— the power given only
to the priests to vote in a council, so that the clergy gave breath
to the image of the beast In/ embodying its mind!!! The
second beast causing as many as would not worship the first
beast to be killed,—the great end of councils, the extirpation of
heretics. And the number of the beast, 6()(>, answering to the
word Aaravos, a Latin man — " because his prayers are Latin
— his canons Latin — his missal Latin — his breviary Latin—
his bulls Latin— he worships in Latin — he blesses in Latin—
he curses in Latin — all is Latin."
Instead of saying—All is Latin — I say of this interpretation,
All u Rome—all is bitter and uncharitable aspersion of an err-
ing church. I should be sorry to affirm that the Papal clergy
have a lamb-like appearance, and a dragon-like tongue, and that
whilst they profess to be the lambs of the Lord, they are the
dragons of the apostasy. Let us hope that this accusation is
untrue, that many good and sincere men are to be found in their
communion, and that the way to win them back from what we
consider error, is not aspersion, but proof— not invective and
abuse, but argument. But alas for argument such as I find in
this interpretation. I shall not hope to make many converts
by telling them that the fire which is made to come down from
heaven is the anathemas and flashing thunderbolts of the Church
of Rome ; for, however the " flaring down of lighted candles by
the Lord Pope and his assisting prelates" might have astonished
1 Apocalyptic Sketches, p. 322.

346 THE TWO BEASTS. [LRCT. XIV.

the Emperor Frederick, this "lightning1 fire" does not flare in a
sufficiently horizontal direction to enable us who are somewhat
less credulous than the German sovereign, to see the agreement
of these terrible coruscations with the predictions of the Apoca-
lypse. Neither do I think that, although the clergy of the
Church of Rome had power to give life to the image of the
beast by embodying its mind,—that the clergy of Mr. Elliott's
and Dr. Cumming's school will be able to give any breath to
the image which they have created, or to make anything more
of it than a mental incarnation of the dullest kind — a sorry
log—" inutile lignum."

E3IBODYING ITS MIND ! ! ! How is this Mephistophelian
process to be accomplished ? First conjure up an image !
Then give it a mind !! Then metamorphose it into a general
council I ! ! And, last of all (for we do not stick at trifles) make
it speak the sentiments of the Roman Catholic clergy! ! ! !
Can we wonder that this embodiment of the theological mind
of the nineteenth century has not done much to move Dr. Wise-
man or Mr. Newman ? Can we wonder that these master spi-
rits should require the image of the beast to stand out in bolder
relief, and the right of the clergy to be more accurately defined,
ere they will be disposed to pay much heed to such expositions?
I lament that such arguments as these should ever have been
employed. It is an answer for the Romanist against the Pro-
testant, that such harmless weapons should be launched against
him. Every such pointless shaft and blunted arrow returns
with the recoil of an accession of strength to him. He may
say, and say truly, if this is all you have to urge against my
religion, I shall not abandon for such proof the faith of iny
forefathers.

I shall now attempt what, I trust, will be considered a more
reasonable exposition.

" -And I beheld another beast com-
ing up out of the earth, and he had
two horns like a lamb and he spake
as a dragon."

u The false prophet."

The first beast rose up " out of the sea"—Heathendom;
the second beast rises up "out of the earth"—Judwa. This
second beast is altogether different from the first beast, which pre-

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 347
ceded him, having seven heads and ten horns ; he is described
as having "Two horns like a lamb, and speaking as a dragon/7
meaning that his power is rather ecclesiastical than civil, that
he resembles some false prophet corning in sheep's clothing,
rather than any temporal or civil power. Three times he is
called u The false prophet" and mention is often made of
his working miracles, and of his deceiving by means of those
miracles.
The question for us to consider is, did false prophets answer-
ing to this description arise at that time ? Our Lord predicted
that such should he the case.
" There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and
shall show f/reat si</ns and wonders, insomuch, that if it were
possible they shall deceive the very elect: behold I have told
you before." l " False Christs and false prophets shall rise
and sit all show sic/ns and wonders, to seduce if it were possible
even the elect, but take ye heed, behold I have foretold you all
things."2 " Take ye heed that ye be not deceived; for many
shall come in my name, saying, I arn Christ, and the time
drawetli near : go ye not after them." 3 St. Paul spake of
one being revealed at that time, " whose coining is after the
working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying
H'onders, and with all deeeivableness of unrighteousness in them
that perish," and that for " this cause, God. shall send them
stroiif/ delusion, that they should behere a lie" 4
It is, then, matter of fact that at the time immediately pre-
ceding the destruction of Jerusalem false prophets answering
to the description of the second beast coming up out of the
earth were to be expected.
Now, Did such false prophets, showing great signs and
wonders, actually appear ? The Scriptures speak of four.
Simon Magus, who " bewitched the people of Samaria,
giving out that himself was some great one, to whom
they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying,
this man is the great power of God."5 Irenams says of
him, that he " taught in Samaria that he was the Father, in
1 Matt. xxiv. 24. 2 Mark, xiii. 22, 23. 3 Luke, xxi. 8.
4 2 Thess. ii. <). Compare 1 John, ii. 18—If). .; iv. 1. ; 2 John, vii.
'* Acts, viii. 9, 10.

348 THE TWO BEASTS, [LECT. XIV.

Judaea that he was the Son, among the Gentiles that he was
the Holy Ghost." Tertullian—" Simon Magus dared to call
himself the Supreme God; he denied that any one could be
saved unless baptized in his name." 1

The Scriptures also speak of " Theudas, boasting himself to
be somebody."2 Josephus confirms this account; he says,
" A certain impostor, named Theudas, persuaded a great mul-
titude to follow him to the River Jordan, for he said that he
was a prophet, and promised to divide the river for their pas-
sage, and saying these things he deceived many.77 3

Mention is also made of " a fake prophet, a Jew4/' and of
an Egyptian false prophet. St. Paul is asked, " Art not thou
that Egyptian which before these days madest an uproar, and
leddest out into the wilderness 4000 men that were mur-
derers ? " 5 The account of this Egyptian false prophet is also
confirmed by Josephus : " There was an Egyptian false, pro-
phet which did the Jews more mischief than the former, for he
was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got
together 30,000 men that were deluded by him ; these he led
to the mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem
from that place." G

These impostors were so numerous, that when Felix was
procurator of Judcea, he seized and put many of them to death
every day; they seem, moreover, to have abounded to the last
moment of the national existence of the Jews, for Josephus
mentions that during the period of the siege of Jerusalem,
" there were a great number of fake prophets, suborned by the
tyrants to impose upon the people," and that ()000 persons
perished in the fall of the burning cloisters of the temple, who
had been led by a false prophet to expect deliverance from
thence.7

This is confirmed by the testimony of Hernias Pastor,8 who

1 'c Quum Simonem Magum statua et inscripiionc sancti Dei inauguratis."
— Tertull. Apol. 13.
2 Acts,, v. 36. 3 Acts xiii. 6.
4 Jos. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 5. ;> Acts, xxi. 38.
G Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 13. 7 Bell. Jiul. lib. vi. cap. 5.
8 "Sic probabis Propbetain Dei, etfalsum Proplwtam.....Audi nunc
et de spiritu terrestri, vacuo et fatuo, virtutein non habente .... Tu autein
erode spiritui vonienti a Deo habenti virtu ten), spiritui autcm torrcstri, vacuo,

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 349

makes repeated mention of " THE FALSE PROPHET," with
whom he compares the prophet of God. He says of this false
prophet, that a he destroys the senses of the servants of God,"
or, according to our Lord's words, that he deceives " the very
elect," and that " some thing's he even speaks truly, for the
Devil fills him with his spirit." This contemporary testimony
to the declarations of the Apocalypse, showing that false pro-
phets appeared at that time, is invaluable ; for not only does it
put the truth of the Scripture narrative beyond question, but it
serves to show that, in those miserable times wiien Satan had
great wrath, sorcery, witchcraft, and power to work miracles
was abundantly exercised, and that false prophets deceived those
that dwelt on the earth by means of those miracles which they
had power to do in the sight of the beast.

One principal act of deception practised by these false pro-
phets was to procure religious homage for the statue of
Caesar 1 : —

cc Saying to them that dwell on the
earth that they should make an image

to the beast.....And he had power

to give life unto the image of the
beast, and cause that as many as
would not worship the image of the
beast should be killed."

(l Them that worshipped his
image." " I saw those that were be-
headed " (^7rf.7re.\fKirr^ft'oi7 beheaded
with an axe, a Roman punishment),
" which had not worshipped the
beast, neither his image."

It appears that at this time the statues and images of C<v$ar
were set up in every city and temple.- Josephus gives us an
qui a diabolo est, in quo fides non est nequc virtus, credere noli."— Hernia?
Pastor, Mand. 11.
ff Et alius mcndax Prophetes est, qui pcrdit sensus servorum Dei, .... illi
ergo dubii quasi ad Divinum spiritum veniunt, et intcrrogant ilium, quid illis
sit futurum ; et ille mcndax Prophets nullam ha bens in se virtu tern Spiritus
Divini, loquitur illis secundum interrogationem illorum, et iinplet animus
illorum promissis, sicut illi volunt. Ille autcni Prophetes inanis est, et inania
respondet inanibus ; quidqnid cnim interrogatur a vanis hominibus, vana re-
spondet illis. Qutcdam autem verba vera loquitur, Diabolus enirn implet cum
apiritu suo." — Herma? Pastor, Maud. 10.
1 " Citius denique apud vos per omnes deos quarn per unum geniuni Ca>
saris pejeratur." — Tertull. ApoL 28.
"Malediction est ante apotheosin deum Ca;sarem nuncupare."—Tertull.
Apol. 34.
2 " In the midst of the city thus built he (Herod) erected a very large
temple to Ccesar, and laid round about it a portion of sacred land of three and

350 THE TWO BEASTS. [LBCT. XIV
account of Caligula endeavouring1 to place his statue in the
temple of Jerusalem. " Caius Ca?sar did so grossly abuse the
fortune he had arrived at as to take himself to be a god ; he
accordingly sent Petronius with an army to place his statues in
the temple at Jerusalem, and commanded him, that in case the
Jews would not submit, he should slay those that opposed it,
and carry all the rest of the nation into captivity." l Pontius
Pilate, before whom our Lord witnessed a good confession, did
introduce by night these statues of Caesar into the temple ;
"he sent by night those images of Gesar, which are called
ensigns, into Jerusalem." Upon another occasion, Pilate said
they "should be cut in pieces, unless they would admit of
Cesar's images." This will serve to show that there is nothing
improbable in the statement, that the false prophet should
direct homage to the image of the beast. It would seem the
Romans carried their gods into the conquered countries ; " All
the nations in subjection to them placed the images of Ojesar
in their several cities among the rest of their gods." At a
time of great and extraordinary persecution, when Nero publicly
set himself against the Deity, it is certain that this practice*
would be continued.
The false prophet is said to " to give life to the image of
the beast, that the image of the beast should speak." There is
nothing impossible in this ; sorcery, magic, possibly ventrilo-
quism, was greatly practised at that period. The Scriptures
tell us of those who " used curious arts ; " of Simon's " be-
witching the people of Samaria ; " of "false Christs and false
prophets showing great signs and wonders, deceiving, if it
were possible, even the very elect ; " of " God sending a
strong delusion that they should believe a lie." Hernias Pastor,
a half furlongs ; he called the city Sebaste, from Sebastus or Augustus." —
Bell. Jud. lib. i. cap. 21.
" To fcay all at once, there was not any place in his kingdom fit for the
purpose that wax permitted to be vrithont Mtmcwhut that wax for Cfcsar'ti honour ;
and when he had filled his own country with temples, he poured out the
like plentiful marks of his esteem into his provinces." "Arid over against the
mouth of the haven (Cacsarea), upon an elevation, there v-v/.v a temple for (Y/'.wr,
which was excellent both in beauty and largeness; and therein was a wdimsus
of Cawir, not less than that of Jupiter Olympius, which it was made to re-
semble."— Lib. i. c. 21.
i Jos. lib. ii. 10.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 351
like St. John, when he said, "Beloved, believe not every spirit,
but try the spirits whether they are of God, for many false
prophets are gone out into the world V gives directions for
discerning between the false prophet and the prophet of God.
Justin Martyr speaks of " certain men suborned by demons who
said that they were gods ;" he mentions that " Simon, a Sama-
ritan, performed many magic rites of the operations of demons."
And Arnobius relates of Simon's death, that " while practising
magic at Rome, in order to ingratiate2 himself with Nero,
he attempted to fly, being assisted by evil spirits." If in our
day a picture is supposed to shed a drop of blood, in those dark
times there would be little difficulty in giving the appearance
of life to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast
should seem to speak.3
We must next allude to the punishment of those who refused
to worship the image of the beast. Be it remembered we are
speaking of the first systematic persecution against Christianity.
Now, the usual test to which Christians \vere submitted was
that of worshipping the statue of the Emperor or death.4 I
have no direct proof that the Christians of that day were com-
pelled to worship Nero's image, beyond that afforded by the
Apocalypse ; but I have abundant proof that Nero was the
leader in their punishment, and that the worship of the statue
of C;esar preceded and followed the time of Nero.
Polycarp was submitted to this test. The proconsul said to
1 1 John, iv. 1.
2 It is confirmatory of our position, that these magic acts should have been
practised by Simon in order to ingratiate himself with Nero. Was it through
some wish to obtain universal homage for Xero that the image of the beast
was made to seem to speak and to be alive? " I lac ne quis eiim divina vir-
tute putet signa facere, sed maaiad operations — et non est mirandurn si dir-
moniis et apostaticis spiritibus ministrantibus ei, per cos faciat signa, in qui-
bus seducat habitantes super terrain."— Ireiueus con Ha?r. lib. v.
3 By their knowledge of acoustics, the priests of ancient paganism were en-
abled to practise largely on the credulity of the people. Some have suggested
that the speaking statues of old weie but illustrations of ventriloquism. Lu-
cian says that Alexander made his figure of ^Esculapius speak, by sending his
voice through the gullet of a crane.
4 ft: lIaiT«c TOVG f.vffefiMg £WITCIC ?/ Ovfir »/ rf \eurar K'anjrayuct^Er."—
Martyrium S. Ignatii, ii.
" T/ yap KCIKOV i<rnr etTTfTV Kiyuoi: \\>(iiffup xai tTrtflvfrai, KUI ra rou-
ro/.c aKo\ov6a, wu ^tadwffrrOai."—S. Polycarpi Martyrium, viii.
"Tov Kvptov nomen, hie non simpliciter, sed pro Deo accipitur."

352 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.

him, " Have a regard for your age," and adding similar ex-
pressions, such as is usual for them to employ, he said, " Swear
by the genius of Cajsar. . . . Swear, and I will dismiss you.
Revile Christ." '

Pliny informs us that the test to which he submitted those
accused persons who were brought before him was the one to
which I have alluded. " I have taken this course," he says,
" about those who have been brought before me as Christians.
If they persevered in their confessions, I ordered them to be
executed." Others, fearing the punishment, recanted ; and
these were compelled to worship the image of the beast. " These
denied that they were Christians now, or ever had been. They
called upon the gods and supplicated to your wia<je2, which I
caused to be brought to me for that purpose, with frankincense
and wine. They also cursed Christ; none of which things, it
is said, can any of those that are really Christians bo compelled
to do. Others said they were Christians, and presently denied
it again ; that they had been Christians, but had ceased to be
so, some three years, some many more. One there was who
said he had not been so these twenty years. All these wor-
shipped your ima</e and the images of our gods ; they also
cursed Christ.7' 3

Here is a faithful commentary upon the words " As many
as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.7'
" Here is the patience of the saints ; here are they that keep
the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. And I
heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Blessed are the
dead which die in the Lord from henceforth ; yea, saith the
Spirit, that they may rest from their labours ; and their works
do follow them."

" And be causeth all, both small
and great, rich and poor, free and
bond, to receive a mark in their right
hand or in their foreheads."

" Neither had received his mark
upon their foreheads or in their
hands."

1 Eus. lib. iv. cap. 15.
2 Suetonius speaks of Tiberius as rewarding some Syrian legions because
they had not displayed the imaye of his rival Sejanus on their standard, and
had not worshipped it.—Suet. Tib. xlviii.
3 Plin. ad. Traj. Epist.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 353

This is explained by the circumstance, that Roman slaves
had their master's name or mark on their foreheads, and Roman
soldiers had their emperor's name or mark on their hands. This
name or mark denoted servitude and allegiance. So with this
name or mark of the beast. No man might buyl or sell, no
man might exercise the privileges of a citizen, unless he not
only admitted the Roman authority, but worshipped the gods
of Rome. Rome, then, as now, exercised not only universal
temporal, but universal spiritual dominion. She sought to be
mistress not only over the persons, but over the consciences of
conquered nations. " All the nations in subjection to the Ro-
mans placed the images of Caesar in their several cities," as all
nations in connection with the Papal see are requested to be
obedient to the decrees of the Vatican. Rome then, as Rome
now, would be mother and mistress of the bodies and souls of
men, and would sit upon the universe ("sedet super universum")
as supreme.

Of the number of the beast's name, denoted by three Greek
letters, x&'i which make up the number GOG, I can only give
the generally received opinions. One is, that the letters of the
Greek word Aartwos, or a Latin man, make up the number
GGG ; the other, that the Hebrew letters of the word Nero
Cyesar answer to the same number. Either interpretation suits
the view we have taken. The Greek word Aartwos, Lateinus,
although it is rather an indefinite interpretation, must allude to
some one connected with the Roman power. The Hebrew
words Nero Gesar, against which there is also the objection
that they are Hebrew and not Latin or Greek words, point out
the then reigning emperor as the " beast which had a wound
by a sword, and did live/' Bishop Newton says the word
" Romiith " is the Hebrew word for the Roman beast or the
Roman kingdom ; and this, equally with the words ^arewos,
Lateinus, and "ipR fn?.> Nero Caesar, contains the just and ex-

1 " Non illis emendi quidquam
Aut vendendi copia
Nee ipsain haurirc aqnam
Dabatur liccntia,
Antequam thurificarent
Detestamlis idolis.'*— Medc, p. 5(K).
A A

354 THE TWO BEASTS. [LBCT, XIV.

act number of 666. He adds : " No other word in any lan-
guage whatever can be found to express both the same number
and the same thing.771

To recapitulate. Contemporary with the first beast rising
" out of the sea," a second beast comes up " out of the earth."
He is described as " a false prophet." His appearance as a
two-horned lamb-like beast speaking as a dragon, indicates his
character. He deceives all them that dwell on the earth by
means of miracles. He causes them to worship the image of
the beast, by showing signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it
were possible, the very elect should fall away. He punishes
exquisitely those who refuse submission, and makes them fall
by the hands of the Roman lictors, and the number of his name
(and for obvious reasons St. John did not mention him by name)

1 The mystical definition of the name of the angel of the bottomless pit —
the king of the locust army —Abaddon — Apollyon, is given in Hebrew and
Greek. Rev. ix. 11. It would be analogous to look for the number of the
beast's name in only these two languages.

I subjoin the explanation given by Irenrcus of the number of the beast,
which it will be seen is somewhat fanciful and ridiculous ; and it is not un-
worthy of notice that the rubbish of this ancient father respecting the name of
the beast immediately precedes that passage -which is supposed by some to
settle the question of the date of the Apocalypse in defiance of external and
internal evidence to the contrary. In my own opinion, lrcna;us is just as
likely to be true in his conjectures respecting the number of the beast, as in
his assertion respecting the date of the Apocalypse as seen in Domitiau's
time.

" Consequenter autem et nomen ejus habebit numerum sexcentos sexaginta
sex, recapitulans in semetipso omnem quic fuit ante diluvium malitue com-
mixtionem, quae facta est ex Angelica apostasia. Noe enim fuit annorum
sexcentorum et diluvium advenit terra;, delens in resurrect! on em terne prop-

ter nequissimam generationem qua? fuit temporibus Noe.....Ilia enim quip

fuit a Nebuchodonosor instituta imago altitudinem quidem habuit cuhitorum
sexaginta, latitudinem autem cubitorum sex ; propter quam et Ananias, et
Azarias et Misael, non adorantes earn, in caminum missi sunt ignis. . . . Sex-
centi itaque anni Noe .... et numerus cubitorum imaginis .... numerum
nominis significat illius in quern recapitulatur sex millium annorum* omnis
apostasia et injustitia, et nequitia et pseudo-prophetia et dolus, propter qiue
et diluvium superveniet ignis/' — Irenaeus, in User. lib. v.

* So that Irenaeus, like Lactantius, believed that the world in his day was
6000 years old. This shows what amount of credit is to be given to these
ancient fathers, especially on the subject of dates.

LECT. XIV.] THE TWO BEASTS. 355
is one which applies, whether in Greek or in Hebrew, solely to
the great persecuting power of Rome.
Why, then, apply this beast to the Papal clergy ? Why say
that they resemble this lamb-like beast in their appearance, hav-
ing all the while a dragon's heart and a dragon's tongue? It
is some comfort, however, to them to know, that the same voice
which emits so fearful an accusation declares in the same breath
that the image of the beast prefigures general councils, and that
the power given to the image to speak is the right of the clergy
to vote at those councils. Here they may take breath. If the
one charge is most fearful, the absurdity of the rest of the ex*
position disarms it of its severity, and makes it appear in its
true character of attack unqualified by common sense or com-
mon charity,
Such I conceive to be a fair exposition of the wild beast
rising from the sea, and the wild beast coming up out of the
earth. It is satisfactory to find that the vision receives a full
and complete accomplishment at the period for which we con-
tend. Let this be added to all the rest ; let it be understood,
that no matter how varied and how complicated the symbol may
appear, that an interpretation can be found for it within the
limits we have assigned ; that whether the Apocalypse reveals to
us locust armies or risen witnesses — whether, war in heaven,
or wild beasts rising out of the earth and sea—whether, seas
and rivers turned into blood, or mountains and rocks falling
upon the enemies of God — whether, servants of God sealed in
their foreheads, or foes of God gnawing their tongues for pain —
whether it unfolds a mighty angel holding in his hand an Open
book, or the woman nourished in the wilderness — whether,
the temple trodden under foot of the Gentiles, or blood flowing
without the city — whether, in fine, the scene be laid in earth or
heaven, amidst men or angels, in the streets of burning Baby-
lon, or within the walls of the New Jerusalem — that an inter-
pretation can be found for ALL within certain fixed and defi-
nite limits.
It will be for those who examine these views to say whether
it is a more correct interpretation than that which we have so
often condemned. One thing seems to promise stability — it is
in accordance with the aim and design of the book ; it endea-
vours to prove what it asserts, and if it condemns the views of
A A 2

356 THE TWO BEASTS. [LECT. XIV.
others, it is not afraid to submit its own ; it is continuous and
consistent; it does not embrace a variety of catastrophes ; it sees
but one object proposed throughout the pages of the Revelation,
the A and /2, the beginning and the end, of every symbol arid
vision, and that is, Christ is coming — the Lord is at hand to
punish his enemies, and to gather his elect; and it clings from
first to last to the great truth revealed in the preface, and at the
close of the Apocalypse, THAT THE PROPHECY RELATES TO
IMMEDIATE EVENTS, and therefore it dares not look in the dis-
tant future for the accomplishment of things which the Spirit of
God declared must " shortly come to pass."

357

LECTURE XV,

BABYLON.

REV. xiv. 8.

8. And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen,
that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of
her fornication.

REV. xviii. 1—24.
1. And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven,
having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.
2. And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is
fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every
foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
3. For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornica-
tion, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and
the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her
delicacies.
4. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my
people, that ye be not partakers, of her sins, and that ye receive not of her
plagues.
5. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her
iniquities.
()'. Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double ac-
cording to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
7. How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliriously, so much
torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and
am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.
8. Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and
famine ; and she shall be utterly burned with fire : for strong is the Lord
God who judgeth her.
f). And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived
deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see
the smoke of her burning.
A A 3

358 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.

10. Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas
that great city Babylon, that mighty city ! for in one hour is thy judgment
come.

11. And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her ; for
no man buyeth her merchandise any more:

12. The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls,
and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all
manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of
brass, and iron, and marble,

13. And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine,
and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and
chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.

14. And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and
all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou
shalt find them no more at all.

15. The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall
stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing.

16. And saying, Alas, alas that great city, that was clothed in fine linen,
and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and
pearls!

17- For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every ship-
master, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by
sea, stood afar off,

1S. And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What
city is like unto this great city !

19. And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wail-
ing, saying, Alas,, alas that great city, wherein were made rich all that had
ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made
desolate.

20. Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets / for
God hath avenged you on her. \

21. And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cjst it
into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be
thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

22. And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters,
shall be heard no more at all in thee ; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft
he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall
be heard no more at all in thee ;

23. And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the
voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee ;
for thy merchants were the great men of the earth ; for by thy sorceries were
all nations deceived.

24. And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of ail
that were slain upon the earth.

THE question before us is one that has greatly perplexed com-
mentators on the Apocalypse. That question is, What is meant
by Babylon? Is it Rome Pagan ? is it Rome Papal? is it Je-

LKCT. XV.] BABYLON. 359
rusalem ?l Moses Stuart and Professor Lee say it is Rome
Pagan. To this I answer, Home Pagan never fell in the
manner described in the Apoealypse; and if this is to be re-
ferred to the storming of Rome by Alaric, Attila, Genseric, or
Odoacer in the fifth century, it destroys all the continuous cha-
racter of this prophecy — it ceases to be a grand whole ; for,
although in the ancient prophecies it is not an uncommon event
for the prophets to foretel the future destruction of nations and
cities which were suffered to punish the Jewish people, yet this
prophecy begins and closes with the most solemn assurances
that it refers to events which must " shortly come to pass ;"
and even the most superficial reader of the book must see that
it cannot refer to events separated at any great distance, but to
events closely connected with each other.2
Mr. KUiott) Dr. Cummiuy, Dr. U7ordsirorth, and a host
of others, say that Babylon is Rome Papal. I must allow
there are delicious points of resemblance almost sufficient to
justify a crusade against that erring church. The name of
Babylon,—"Mystery, t/te Mother of harlots, and of the abo-
ruinatious of the earth" The supposed situation of Babylon,—
that she is literally sitting on seven hills, which of course must
be Rome. The woman " drunk with the blood of the saints,"—
emblematical of her persecutions. The great whore clothed " with
purple and scarlet/'—indicative of the gorgeous robes of her
priests and cardinals;—and, lastly, the clinching argument, as
it is supposed to be, Is it likely that a false system like that
1 There is no reason why the Babylon mentioned 1 Peter, 5—13., should
not be Jerusalem. That epistle is addressed to *' the strangers scattered
throughout Pontus, &c."—efjXcKTwg Traprni&ining SiaffirofiaG.— (i Christianis
extra Palwstinam vivcntibus." (Schleusner). If so, the Church at Babylon,
which wv/.v not scattered, could only mean Jerusalem. Added to this the salu-
tation of " the church that is at Babylon elected together with them " — is ac-
companied by that of Mark. Now Mark had left Paul in his work, and had
<k returned to Jerusalem." — Acts, xiii. !.'>'.
" Alii Romani, alii Hierosolymam, et ut niihi videtur rectius intelligendam
esse judicant." — Schleusner.
2 The mention of the coming of Christ all throughout the book, i. 7. ; iii.
11. ; xvi. 15. ; xxii. 20. : of the New Jerusalem, iii. 12. ; xxi. 2. 10.: of the
image of the beast, xiii. 14. ; xiv. {).; xv. 2. ; xvi. 2.; xx. 4. : of the woes of
the Apocalypse everywhere described as about to fall on them " that dwell on
the earth :" of " the kings of the earth," spoken of Rev. i. v. ; Rev. vi. 15.;
Rev. xvi. 14. ; Rev. xviii. 3—J). ; Rev. xxi. 24. This continuous mention
A A 4

360 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.

of Rome should prevail so extensively in the world, without any
notice being taken of it in the Scriptures of Truth ?l All this
seems to carry with it a degree of probability for the supposi-
tion that the woman sitting* on the seven mountains must be
the great apostasy. To this I answer, Rome Papal has not
fallen—is not likely to fall. If words mean anything, St. John
could no more have thought of Rome Papal than he could have
thought of London or Paris. The literal burning of Rome with
fire, as an event yet to come, is what I will believe when I see
it, and not before ; in the meantime I shall have no objection
to invest a moderate sum, provided the sale of my book will
allow me to do so, in the Roman funds, or to occupy a residence
for awhile on the banks of the Tiber; nay, I should not be afraid
to take the Sabine farm on a lease, in spite of the volcanic erup-
tion which is to overwhelm the Roman capitol. I have no doubt
whatever as to what city is meant by Babylon. The only great
city which fell at that time was Jerusalem. The only great
city whose fall minutely corresponds with the prediction, was
Jerusalem. The only great city whose fall it would have con-
cerned the Jewish writers of the Scriptures to record, was Je-
rusalem. The only great city whose destruction was among
" the things which must shortly come to pass " of St. John's
day, was Jerusalem. The only great city, which could claim
the title of " the holy city" " the beloved city" " the yrcat
city where our Lord was crucified" was Jerusalem. The only
great city which had dominion over the kings of Judaea, as dis-
tinct from the heathen, was Jerusalem. Nay if Babylon be not
Jerusalem, it may be, as some have supposed, that a new Assy-
rian Babylon has yet to rise from the dust, and then to be
destroyed; or what is quite as probable, it may be, that Mount
Vesuvius, waxing wroth against the ministers who are exclu-
sively clothed in purple and scarlet, but who do not fare better
every day than others whom we could mention, shall fulminate

of the same persons and events all throughout the book, proves to demonstra-
tion that the prophecy cannot be a chronological history of the world and the
Church, but must relate to contemporaneous events closely connected with
each other.
' The professors of the Mahometan creed are more numerous than the
disciples of the church of Rome, and yet no mention is made of them ;
neither Constantinople, Mecca, nor Hagdad arc to he burnt with literal fire.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 361

anathemas against her equal to the desires of the most cordial
haters of the papacy, and wind up the theatrical exhibitions of
Exeter Hall after the fashion of similar performances, with one
last brilliant conflagration of popes, and priests, and cardinals.

Pagan Rome, it is true, was sacked by Alaric the Goth, but
the city did not fall. Papal Rome was stormed by the Bour-
bon, but the city was not destroyed. There was nothing in
those vicissitudes of the eternal city to answer to the complete
desolation predicted by St. John, — "A mighty angel took up
a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying,
Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown
down, and shall be found no more at all."

Jerusalem alone did so perish, and did so perish at this time.
u Caesar gave orders that they should demolish the entire city
and temple. ... It was so thoroughly laid even with the
ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there
was left nothing to make those believe that came thither, that
it ever had been inhabited. This was the end which Jerusalem
came to, a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty
fame among all mankind." *

Another circumstance which leads to the conviction that
Babylon is Jerusalem, is that both wider the Trumpet and
Bunder the Vial, the fall of Babylon is immediately followed
by the coming of Christ.

No sooner is it said under the Trumpet —" Babylon is fallen,
is fallen,"2 than the coming of Christ follows. "I looked and
behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto The
Son of Alau" ^ No sooner is it said under the Vial — "Ba-
bylon the great is fallen, is fallen4," than the coming of Christ
immediately takes place. " And I saw heaven opened, and
behold a white horse, and he that sat upon him icas called
Faithful and True, .... and his name is called The word of
CW."6

Need I point out that the destruction of Jerusalem was
immediately to precede the coming of Christ ?

" Immediately after the tribulation^ of those days

1 Jos. lib. vii. cap. 1. 2 Rev. xiv. 8.
:j Rev. xiv. 14. l Rev. xviii. 2.
l Rev. xix. 11. i:>.

362 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven,
with power and great glory." 1
"In those days, after that tribulation, they shall see the
Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory." 2
" Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles .
and then shall they see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with
power and great glory." 3 Here then, to say the least of it,
there is a marked coincidence between the Gospels and the
Apocalypse respecting the time of that coming. In either
prediction it was immediately to follow the destruction of
a great city existing in St. John's day, and the only great
city which fell in his day was Jerusalem.
Another point, not altogether undeserving of notice, is that,
after the destruction of Babylon or Jerusalem, St. John sees
a new city come down from heaven. The name of that city is
New Jerusalem. Why should this name be given, if the old
Jerusalem were not the city blotted out from God's remem-
brance ?
This is heightened by the contrast between them,
The Old Jerusalem is the " great whore, sitting on many
waters."
The New Jerusalem is " The bride, the Lamb's wife."
The Old Jerusalem is spiritually called " Sodom," " Egypt,"
" Babylon."
The New Jerusalem is " The holy city," " that great city
descending out of heaven from God."
The Old Jerusalem is to be " utterly burnt with fire, for
strong is the Lord God that judgeth her."
The New Jerusalem has <c the glory of God," and her chil-
dren " reign for ever and ever."
It is difficult to account for this contrast, if Jerusalem is not
the Babylon of the Apocalypse, the great city existing in the
time when St. John wrote the Apocalypse, whose immediate
and complete destruction he was commissioned to describe.
J Matt. xxiv. 2<), 30. 2 Mark, xiii. 24. 26. 3 Luke, xxi. 24. 27.

LECT. XV.J BABYLON. 363
Of course, with Mr. Elliott and Dr. Gumming, Babylon is
Rome Papal. As I observed, there are some points of real
coincidence here, and it is not at all improbable that such
should be the case. Home is now the legitimate scope of this
prediction; and Rome, whether of the age of Nero or of Pio
Nono, must always resemble Rome. I mean, that, owing to the
peculiarity of her dominant position, whether civil or spiritual,
there would always exist a similarity of feature in any portrait
drawn of the eternal city, whether that portrait was sketched
in the days of Titus or Napoleon III.
But the grand point is, Rome has not fallen. Alaricand the
Bourbon have thundered at her gates—French soldiers still oc-
cupy her palaces, but she does not fall. Her spiritual and tem-
poral prince has been an exile and a fugitive, but her magnificence
and her glory are still the same. Jerusalem "isfallen, is fallen ; "
as the city of God she fell then, never to rise again—as the city
of God she is utterly prostrate now, and has remained so, in
spite of every effort to the contrary, for nearly 2000 years.
This is a difficulty which cannot be got over. Indeed to say
that Rome is yet to fall and to be burnt with literal fire, is too
childish for the weakest mind. Such a supposition is contrary
to the immediate aim and design of the Apocalypse—is contrary
to the analogy of all previous prophecy—is an event too impro-
bable to be defended for an instant, except by fanaticism or
insanity, and which owes its merciful origin, not to anything
which the Word of God declares, but to the wild speculations
of this unhallowed tampering with Holy Scripture. I freely
confess that I lose patience with these absurd views. They
afford a strong argument to the infidel that no consistent
interpretation can be found for a very important part of God's
Holy Word. They close the Book of Revelation against the
biblical student, who is too well informed to give credit to such
absurdities, and yet has no better system to substitute in their
place. They cause serious and well-disposed persons to look
upon the Apocalypse as a mysterious subject which they had
better not meddle with. They rejoice the heart of the
Romanist, for he lias discretion enough to see that such fallacies
will ere long be unable to abide the test of close investigation,
and he knows that an unsuccessful attack is to him a victory.
In our day, if a theological book is to go down with the public,

364 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
it must be all Rome! Rome! No matter how deficient in
argument or how monstrous in assumption—no matter how
ridiculous in theory, or how false in interpretation, it will go
down with a certain class, if it is a crusade against Rome.
The insane cry of " No Popery " is as grateful to some ears,
especially to those who know least about it, as it was in the
days of the Gordon riots. It is the hubbub of this absurd
clamour which makes men's ears deaf against the truth—it is
the dust of this ridiculous whirlwind which blinds men's eyes
from judging fairly and impartially. Little sympathy have I
with the errors of the Romish Church. The very effort of this
investigation is a sufficient guarantee of the Protestantism of
these views. And yet I hesitate not to say, that if Rome can
only be combated with weapons drawn from the Apocalypse,
she must be victorious. There is not a syllable respecting
Rome Papal in the Apocalypse, from the beginning to the end,
and this is what I shall proceed to prove.
I suppose it is almost needless to observe that the woman
who is called Babylon, and is seated on the beast with seven
heads and ten horns, does not prefigure the older and literal
Babylon. " The inscription on the woman's forehead is
4 Mystery,' indicating a spiritual meaning; besides which,
Babylon had long ceased to be a reigning city when St. John
wrote: and the word 'Mystery' plainly intimates that, as
the real Babylon was overthrown according to the prophecies
of Isaiah and others in the Old Testament, so the mystical
Babylon would be reduced to ruins, according to the prediction
of St. John in the New." x
So far I agree perfectly with the above explanation of the
spiritual meaning of the word Babylon. It must refer to some
city existing in the time when St. John wrote, for the elder
Babylon had perished.
But now cornes the point at issue.
Babylon, says Dr. Wordsworth, must be Rome, because it
is called by St. John " a great city"
In the Apocalypse Jerusalem is called " a great city : "—
" That great city, spiritually called Sodorn and Egypt; " and
as if this was not enough to designate it sufficiently, St. John
1 Wordsworth's Baby ion.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 365

adds, "where also our Lord was crucified" l This can only
mean Jerusalem.

The writers of that day called Jerusalem by this very name,
" a great city : "—" And where now is that great city, the
metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified by so many
walls round about, and had so many ten thousands of men to
fight for it." 2

Our position is very unassailable, when we affirm that the
title of <c a great city " belongs equally to Jerusalem as well as
to Rome, for in the writings of that day and age it is spoken
of under this name.3

But Babylon must be Rome, because its destruction is repre-
sented in the Apocalypse as "followed by events which no one
can say have yet taken place" This I will not answer here,
as one of the main objects of this book is to show that, as our
Lord said, the destruction of Babylon, or Jerusalem, was im-
mediately followed by his corning.

Babylon must be Rome, because it is that great city which
reigneth over the kings of the earth, " rj e^ovcra /3acrt\€tcu>
CTTI TWV /SacrtXeW 7-779 7779," i. e., the city which had dominion
over the princes of Palestine.4

1 Rev. xi. 8. 2 Ben. ju(i. lib. vii. cap. 8.
3 Jerome says : u Jerusalem is not only in the middle of Palestine, but in
the centre of the habitahle world." " In medio igitur gentium posita est."
— Quaresmius, Elucidatio Terra? Sanctrc, ii. 43(3.
4 The definition given of this great city, as " the great city which reigneth
over the kings of the earth " (Judtea) ; " the mother of harlots and abomi-
nations of the earth" (Judaea), " with whom the kings of the, earth (Judaea)
have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth (Judaea) have been
made drunk with the wine of her fornication," over whom " the merchants of
the earth (Juda?a) weep and mourn," determines the question of the Babylon
of the Apocalypse. If "they that dwell on the earth" so continually put in
apposition to " every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation," can only
mean the dwellers in Judtea; if "the kings of the earth" put in apposi-
tion to " the kings of the east and of the whole world," can only mean the
princes of Palestine; if "the merchants of the earth" put in apposition to
te the nations" (tQvrj), can only mean the merchants of Judaea, then the "great
city which reigneth over the kings of the earth;" "the mother of harlots
and of abominations of the earth," with whom " the kings of the earth have
committed fornication/' must be Jerusalem.
Add to this, the king of Jericho is called " the king of the earth/'—" o
fiaffiXevG 7"j;c yi/C-" (Clement, Epist. i. 12.) The kings of the Gentiles are
properly called, " ol fiaffiXeu: rur ctfrwr," and not " 01 ftaortXeic r//c y>/c."




366 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
Fortunately for our exposition, the word of God tells us
who are meant by the " kings of the earth." The " kings of
the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together
against the Lord, and against his Christ," for " against thy
holy child Jesus whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and
Pontius Pilate with the Gentiles .... were gathered to-
gether." Here the rulers of the Jewish nation, specified as
Herod and Pontius Pilate, are called the " kings of the earth."
Under the Fifth Seal, the " kings of the earth," John and
Simon, the rulers of Jerusalem, hide themselves in the dens
and rocks of the mountains, and call upon the mountains and
rocks to fall on them and cover them, in the very words which
our Lord said should be spoken at that miserable time.
Added to this, Joseph us describes Jerusalem as reigning
over the rest of Palestine.
" Nor indeed is Judaea destitute of such delights as corne
from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptole-
mais : it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal
city Jerusalem was the supreme, and presided over all the
neighbouring country as the head does over the body" l He
elsewhere calls it " the metropolis of the Jewish nation"2
Tacitus says, " A great part of Judaea is composed of scattered
villages; it also has larger towns. Jerusalem is the capital
city of the whole nation"
Scripture explains the meaning of " the kings of the earth ;"
and the writers of the day say, that Jerusalem was " the royal
city" — "the supreme" — "the metropolis"—"the capital
city " — which " presided over all the neighbouring country as
the head does over the body."
But Babylon must be Rome, because she is described as
sitting upon seven mountains. " Here is the mind which hath
wisdom (c words which appear to predict, that, however plain
they may be, they would be made by some to bear meanings
which have not wisdom :') the seven heads are seven mountains,
on which the woman sitteth."
(Luke, xxii. 25.)And Flerod and Pontius Pilate are called " the kings of the
earth/' 4< Principes Pala?stinae." — Acts, iv. 26*.
An imperfect translation of the words t-rri rijc yrjz, on the earth, i. c. THE
LAND OF JUDAEA, is the cause of much of the mystery of the Apocalypse.
1 Bell. Jud. lib, iii. cap. 3. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap. 8.

LBCT. XV.] BABYLON. 367

There is no doubt whatever but that " the seven mountains"
represent Rome — the seven-hilled city, the city continually
described by this well-known epithet by every poet and histo-
rian of the day — but it is not so clear that the woman sitting
on the seven mountains can be Rome.

1. The seven mountains represent the seven heads of the
beast, and " The beast," or " The many waters 19" is defined
to mean " peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues,"
i. e., heathen Rome. Now, the woman is said to sit upon the
beast. This would be to make Rome sit upon Rome, and the
woman to be the same as the beast on which she rides.

2. In the definition which is given of " The woman " and
" The many waters " (and I consider this of great importance,
because nothing is more common in the Apocalypse than an
explanation given by the writer of the symbols employed.2
" The waters " are said to be "peoples, and multitudes, and
nations, and tongues," i. e., heathen nations ; and " The
woman " is defined to mean " That great city which reigneth
over the kings of the earth " (Judaea). Here is a contrast
evident to the simplest comprehension (a contrast everywhere
observable in the Apocalypse) between the heathen nations and
the people of Jud<ea. The woman, then, cannot be Rome,
unless we come to the conclusion that Jerusalem was the
metropolis which presided over the heathen world.

3. Added to this, it will be clearly seen that a marked dis-
tinction is kept up between "The beast" (Rome) and " The
woman carried by the beast" (Jerusalem).

" I saw a woman " (Jerusalem) " sit upon a scarlet coloured
beast" (Rome).3

" I will tell thee the mystery of the woman " (Jerusalem),
"and the beast" (Rome) "that carrieth her." 4

1 Compare Rev. xvii. 1. with Rev. xvii. 3.
2 ' The seven stars .... arc the angels of the seven churches." (Rev. i. 20.)
u The seven candlesticks — are the seven churches.1' (Rev. i. 20.) " The
great city, spiritually called Sodom and Egypt—where also our Lord was
crucified" (Rev. xi. 8.) " The great dragon . . . that old serpent called the
Devil or Satan" (Rev. xii. 9«) " The waters . . . are peoples, and multitudes,
and nations, and tongues." (Rev. xvii. 15.) " The woman . . . is that great
city which reigneth over the kings of the earth.'* — Rev. xvii. 18.
3 Rev. xvii. 3. 4 lU'V. xvii. 7

368 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.

" The seven heads are seven mountains" (Rome) " on
which the woman" (Jerusalem) " sitteth." *

" The great whore" (Jerusalem) " that sitteth upon many
waters" (Rome).2

"The waters" (Rome) "which thou sawest, where the
whore" (Jerusalem) "sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and
nations, and tongues." 3

" The ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast" (Rome
and her allies), "these shall hate the whore" (Jerusalem),
" and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her
flesh, and burn her with fire." 4

There is no great difficulty here. The woman sitting oti
the seven mountains is the woman carried by the beast, sitting
on the beast, sitting upon many waters ; — i. e. .Jerusalem car-
ried and supported by Rome ; Judcea a Roman province ; her
princes of Roman 5 appointment, and sometimes of Roman ex-
traction ; and her people rejecting their true king with the
words " we have no king but Gesar."

This is plain and intelligible ; and, what is more to the
point, in accordance with the history of the period.

But if the beast is Rome, and the woman is Rome, how
can the ten horns of the beast, who " receive power as kings
one hour with the beast, and who have one mind, and give
their power and strength unto the beast," " hate the whore,

1 Rev. xvii. 9- 2 Rev. xvii. 1.
3 Rev. xvii. 15. 4 Rev. xvii. 1(5.
5 "Archelaus would not take unto him the authority of a king, or the
name helongirig, until Caisar confirmed the succession ; and when the soldiers
would have set the diadem on his head, he would not accept of it, till the
superior lord* the Romans should have given him a complete title to the
kingdom." (Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. ].) Our Saviour alludes to this appointment
of the governors of Judaa by Rome, when he says, " A certain nobleman
went into a far country to receive for himself a kindorn and to return." (Luke,
xix. 12.) " Our city Jerusalem had arrived at a higher degree of felicity than
any other city under the Roman government"—Preface to Wars of the Jews,
4. " In the mean time Antipas went also to Rome to strive for the kingdom."
—Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 2. " C&sar (Augustus) gave the one half of Herod's
kingdom to Archelaus, by the name of Kthnarch, and promised to make him
king also afterward, if he rendered himself worthy of that dignity; but as to
the other half, he divided it into two tetrarchies and gave them to two other
sons of Herod, the one of them to Philip, and the other to that Antipas who
contested the kingdom with Archelaus." — Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. (>'.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 369
and make her desolate and naked, and eat her flesh, and burn
her with fire ?" It is expressly said of these allies of Rome,
that " God hath put it into their hearts to fulfil his will, and
to agree, and to give their kingdom unto the heast until the
words of God shall be fulfilled." How can these friends and
allies of Rome, who are to continue friends until the words of
God shall be fulfilled, " hate Romp and burn her with fire ?"
Does not this look like an absurdity and a contradiction, that,
if " God had put it into their hearts to give their kingdom
unto the Beast," that they should hate and burn the metropolis
of the Beast ?
Or if, according to Dr. Gumming, the Beast is the Roman
popes and papal Christendom, and the whore is Rome, how can
Rome be said to sit upon the popes or papal Christendom ?
how can Rome be carried by the popes ? I suppose Rome
would carry the popes, and not the popes Rome ; the popes
would sit upon Rome, and not Rome upon the popes. P]ither
exposition involves a serious difficulty, and, to my mind, an in-
surmountable one.
If, on the other hand, the woman is Jerusalem, and the
Beast that carrieth her Rome, this solves at once that other-
wise inexplicable difficulty of the " ten horns of the Beast,
hating the whore, or Jerusalem, and making her desolate and
naked, and eating her flesh, and burning her with fire/' Rome
and her allies, once in friendship with Jerusalem, so much so
that Jerusalem might be said to be carried by Rome, did turn
from this support and friendship to hate Jerusalem, — did make
her so desolate and naked, as not to leave in her one stone
upon another,—did eat the flesh of her kings, and captains,
and great men at that awful supper of the great God, — did
so burn her with fire, that it was most true of Jerusalem, that
" God did deliver his most holy city to be burnt and demo*
linked by their enemies" l
I am the more anxious to establish this point, as it has been
a stumbling block in the way of previous expositors, and there
appears at first sight a difficulty in understanding how the wo-
man could sit on the seven mountains and not be Rome. But
the difficulty is not so great as that view which represents the
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vii, cap. 8.
15 B

370 BABYLON. [LBCT. XV.
ten horns of Rome hating Rome, or that which represents Rome
sitting on the popes.
I consider, then, that " The great whore, sitting upon many
waters/5 " The woman sitting upon a scarlet coloured beast,"
" The woman carried by the beast,5' " The woman sitting on
the seven mountains," " The woman hated by the ten horns of
the beast,'* — is great Babylon, the great city which then pe-
rished, viz., Jerusalem, apostatised from God,— "The mother
of harlots and abominations of the earth"—Jwtaea; " The great
city which reigneth over the kings of the earth " — Judaea,
" with whom the kings of the, earth " — Judrca— "have com-
mitted fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth" — Judtea
— "have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication."
So far carried by Rome, that her officers and kings were of
Roman appointment; that their tribute money was headed by
Caesar's image and superscription ; that even the power of ca-
pital punishment was taken away from them,— " It is not law-
ful for us to put any man to death ;" that the words, "I appeal
unto Caesar," could stay their wildest fury; that a Roman guard
presided over the temple—a Roman procurator filled the office
of judge — a Roman sentence condemned the Saviour of the
world—a Roman centurion watched him on the cross—and a
Roman cohort kept guard around the sepulchre. This will
suffice to show how the woman was carried by the beast, and
how her political existence depended on the will of the seven-
hilled city.
J3at 13abylon must he Rotnc, because " The. icoman is ar-
rayed in purple and in scarlet colour"
Dr. Gumming says, " One need scarcely proceed to identify
these. No ministers save and except those of the Church of
Rome, are clothed distinctively with purple and scarlet." But
purple and scarlet are mentioned here in connection with other
treasures ; for the woman is further described as "decked with
gold and precious stones, and pearls,'7 and verse 1(5. of chapter
xviii. shows satisfactorily, that no particular dress of any parti-
cular clergy is here intended, but simply to enumerate the riches
of the city, —"Alas, alas that great city that was clothed in
fine linen, and purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and
precious stones and pearls, for in one hour so great riches is
brought to nought."

LDCT. XV.] BABYLON. 371
The very nature of these riches shows that an eastern city
must be meant. The fine linen, the produce of Egypt, — the
scarlet and the purple, the produce of Tyre,—the gold and pre-
cious stones, and pearls, wealth peculiarly eastern — show that
this description can refer to no European city.
Was this the character of the wealth of Jerusalem at this
time ? Joseph us tells us, that after the city had been sacked and
plundered, " yet was there no small quantity of the riches that
had been in that city still found amongst the ruins. I mean the
(/old mid the silver, and the rest of that most precious fur-
niture which the Jews had, and which the owners had treasured
up under ground against the uncertain fortunes of war." 1
The same argument is condemnatory of the views of those
who apply the purple and scarlet to the imperial nature of the
city which " reigneth over the kings of the earth." The purple
and scarlet is not used as descriptive of empire, or it would.not
be mentioned in connection " with gold, and precious stones,
and pearls." Where the term " scarlet coloured " is applied to
the beast, or Rome, it is plain it does mean empire. Thus,
Vespasian and Titus, at the triumph, " were clothed in those
ancient purple habits which were proper to their family."2 It
is not used in this passage in connection with other terms which
can only apply to riches, and therefore may fairly be interpreted
of the dominion of Rome.
But Babylon must be Rome, because upon her forehead
"was a name written,—Mystery, Babylon the Great, the
mother of harlots, and of abominations of the earth" Be-
cause she was " the great whore," with whom "the kings of the
earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the
earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication ;"
because she has "in her hand a golden cup full of abominations
and filthiness of her fornication."
Dr. Gumming says, that on the ancient tiara of the Pope
there was written the title, " Mystery," and that this mystery
is the distinctive characteristic of the system ; that she " is the
mother of harlots and abominations of the earth," because in the
creed of Pope Pius IV. the words occur, " I acknowledge the
Holy Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church, the mother and
1 Bell. JucL lib. vii. cap. 5. 2 Ibid. 372 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.


mistress of all churches." He explains the " golden cup " in
her hand, by a medal, which the Pope caused to he struck in
1825, upon one side of which was the figure of himself, and on
the obverse side of that medal, a woman holding in her right
hand a golden cup, with the motto, " sedet super universum"
— " she sits upon the universe."
It will be obvious at a glance that the charge against the
woman in the Apocalypse can only allude to spiritual idolatry >
and whether the Apocalypse was written in the days of Nero
or Domitian, Rome could not be guilty of such a charge. A
heathen city could not with any propriety be described as "the
mother of harlots, and of abominations of the earth ;" neither
could it be said of a heathen city, that " All nations have drunk
of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of
the earth have committed fornication with her." It is plain that
the-accusation of spiritual idolatry could not be laid against a
city which knew not God, and that she could not be condemned
on the ground of corrupting surrounding nations.
It was Jerusalem, the age and date of the Apocalypse,
which answered completely and fully to this description. It
was Jerusalem which deserved the title of " Mystery, Babylon
the Great, the mother of harlots, and of abominations of the
earth." It \vas Jerusalem and her inhabitants whom our Lord
continually described as " an evil and adulterous generation."
It was against the teachers of those days that he adduced the
crushing charge, — " Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees,
hypocrites, for ye make clean the outside of the cup and the
platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess ; . . . .
even so, ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but
within ye are* full of hypocrisy and iniquity; . . , fill ye up,
then, the measure of your fathers, ye serpents, ye generation of
vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?" * It was of
the Jerusalem of the day of the Apocalypse, that it might be
said, in the language of Ezekiel,—" Woe to the bloody city, to
the pot whose scum is therein, and whose scum is not gone out
of it . . . . in thy filthiness is lewdness . . . according to thy
ways, and according to thy doings shall they judge thee, saith
the Lord God." 2
1 Matt, xxiii. 25—33. 2 Ezekiel, xxiv. 6—14

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 373
It was of the Jerusalem of the date and age of the Apo-
calypse that their own historian relates: " It is impossible to
go over every instance of these men's iniquity, I shall therefore
speak my mind here at once, briefly, that, neither did any
other city suffer such miseries, nor did any aye ever breed a
generation more fruitful in wickedness from the beginning of
the world. They brought the Hebrew nation into contempt,
they confessed what wras true, that they wrere the slaves, the
scum, and the spurious and abortive offspring of our nation."1
" I suppose," he says in another place, " that, had the
Romans made any longer delay in coming against these
villains, the city would either have been swallowed up by the
ground opening under them 2, or been overflowed by water, or
else been destroyed by such thunder as the country of Sodom,
for it brought forth a generation of men much more atheistical
than those which suffered such punishments, for by their mad-
ness it was that all the people came to be destroyed."3
Above all other cities of that age, or of any other, Jerusalem
deserved the title of " Babylon the (treat, the mother of
harlots and abominations of the earth" Her inhabitants were
characterised by their superabundant wickedness — a wicked-
ness unparalleled in any preceding period of her history. The
cup in her hand, although made of gold, was full of extortion
and excess ; full of abominations and filthiness of her forni-
cation ; — " The city set on an hill that could not be hid," had
become " an adulteress," with whom " the kini>s of the earth
committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth had
been made drunk with the wine of her fornication."
But Babylon must be Rome, because she abounded with
" The merchandise of gold, ^ovcrou, and silver, apyvpov, and
precious stones, \L0ov np,iov, and of pearls, and fine linen,
/3u<T<jou, and purple, irop^vpa^ and silk and scarlet, and all
thyine wood1, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner
1 Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 10.
2 Josephus alludes to three of the most terrible judgments which God ever
brought upon wicked men—the earthquake which swallowed up Korab, Dathan,
and Abirarn ; the deluge ; the destruction of Sodom by fire and brimstone.
3 Ibid. lib. v. 13.
4 All thyine wood, " irav £u\or $vit>ov ;r "Onme lignum citreum/' every
citron tree. — Schleusner.
The thyine wood, the ivory, the cinnamon, and odonrs; and ointments, and

374 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.

vessels of most precious wood, %v\ov rt/xiwrarov, and of
brass, ^aX/cov, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, Kivd-
p,a)fjiov, and odours, Ov^id^ara, and ointments, and frank-
incense, pvpov, and wine, olvov, and oil, eXcuov, and fine
flour, cre/uSaXu', and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, KT^PTJ /cat
TrpofiaTa (large and small cattle used in sacrifice), and horses,
and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.1

Now, it is well worthy of notice that the merchandise here
spoken of was chiefly employed in the service of the temple.
" The Israelites brought silver, dpyvpov, and (/old, y^pvaov,
and bra.ss, ^O\KOV^ and of the best sorts of wood, £v\a
rt/xtwrara, camels' hair also, and sheep skins, some of them
dyed of a blue colour, and some of a scarlet; some brought
the flower for the purple, Trop^vpas, colour, and Jine linen,
\ivov fivcro-ov, and precious stones, Xt#ot>$ ; they also brought
a great quantity of spices, ^u/xia/xarwz'." 2

" Now, the law requires, both in public and private sacrifices,
that the finest flour be also brought ; for a lamb, the measure
of one tenth deal ; for a ram, two, and for a bull, three. This
they consecrate upon the altar, where it is mingled with oil,
eXatov. They bring the same quantity of oil that they do of
ivine, olvov ; but if any one brings FINE FLOUR, cre/ziSaXw,
only for a vow, he throws a handful upon the altar as its first
fruits." 3

" Moses now purified the tabernacle and the priests. He

frankincense, all eastern productions,, confirm the position that St. John is
speaking, not of an European, but of an eastern city.
1 Rev. xviii. 12, 13.
Sou's of men, (i vl/i^ac avQpwirwv" i. e. " urfyjcuTrovc," men. Compare
Luke, ix. />()'. " (/UK »/\(M ^u^uc,- at'0pw7r<.<n' urroXtcrat, d\\u <7w<7<u," he came
not to destroy men, but to save.
Alas for the criticism which supposes that the " souls of men" has any
reference to the traffic of the Roman church in indulgences. It is not at all
improbable but that .slaves were publicly sold in Jerusalem, as they are to
this day in Cairo or Constantinople. After the capture of the city, those that
were left alive were sold. " The soldiers sold the rest of the multitude, with
their wives and children,, and that at a very low price, because such as were
sold were very many, arid the buyers very few.' —Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 8.
(( Ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and rw
man xhall bay you." — Deut. xxviii. ()8.
2 Antiq. lib. iii. cap. (>. 3 Antiq. lib. iii. cap. <)

LECT. XV.J BABYLON. 375

commanded them to take 500 shekels of choice myrrh,
crfjivpvrjs, an equal quantity of cassia, and half the foregoing
weight of cinnamon, Kiva^fjiov, and calamus (this last is a sort
of sweet spice), to heat them small, and wet them with a hin
of oil of olives. There were also many, and those of various
kinds, of sweet spices, that belonged to the tabernacle, and
such as were of very great price; . . . but incense was to be
offered, exprjv Ov^iav, twice a day, both before sunrising and
at sunsetting; they were also to keep oil already purified for
the lamps." l

It will be seen that this merchandise was chiefly required for
the service of the temple, and that there is a close coincidence
between the Greek of Josephus and that of the Apocalypse.

As a powerful confirmation of this position, the historian
gives us an account of the triumph of Vespasian and Titus
after Jerusalem was destroyed ; in which it will be seen, that
many of the precious things here enumerated were actually
carried in triumphal procession through the streets of Rome.

" It is impossible," says Josephus, " to describe the mul-
titude of the shows as they deserve, or the magnificence of
them, for almost all the curiosities that the most happy men
ever get by piecemeal were heaped upon one another ; for
there was to be seen a mighty quantity of st/rer, <jold, and
iron/ contrived into all sorts of things. Some parts were
composed of the rarest purple hangings, embroidered by the
arts of the Babylonians ; there were also precious stones that
were transparent, and of these such a vast number was
brought, that they were no longer rarities. The men who
brought these stones were adorned \\i\\\purple garments all in-
terwoven with gold ; but for those that were taken in the
temple2 at Jerusalem, these made the greatest figure of all —
the golden table of the weight of many talents, the candlestick
made of gold ; the lamps were in number seven, and repre-

1 Antiq. lib. iii. cap. 8.
- Tacitus says,, u In that city there v.Tas a temple of immense wealth."
(Hist. lib. v. cap. 8.) l)io Cassias speaks of the temple as of immense si/.e,
and most beautiful : tk (.'ui templum summa* inolis pulcherrimantqiie ox-
truxcrunt."— Dio Cass. lib, xxxvi.

376 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
sented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews ; and
last of all the spoils was carried the law of the Jews." l
After the capture of the city, " Titus put on his soldiers*
heads crowns of gold, and golden ornaments about their necks,
and gave them long spears of gold, and ensigns that were
made of silver; and besides this he plentifully distributed
among them out of the spoils and the other prey they had
taken, silver, and (/old, and garments." 2
I need not point out to you the complete and perfect coin-
cidence. We can almost take up the lamentation of the Apo-
calypse,— " Alas, alas that great city that was clothed in fine
linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and pre-
cious stones, and pearls, for in one hour so great riches is come
to nought/' 3
Among the merchandise of precious things at Jerusalem
particular mention is made of " cinnamon, and odours, and
ointments, and frankincense" These, as we have seen, were
required for the service of the temple. Is there proof that such
precious spices were abundant in Jerusalem at this time ?
" But now at this time it was that one of the priests, the
son of Thebuthus, whose name was Jesus, delivered to Caesar
certain of the precious things that had been reposited in the
temple ; two candlesticks, like to those that lay in the holy
house, with tables, and cisterns, and vials, all made of solid
gold4, and very heavy. He also delivered to him the veils
and the garments with the precious stones, and a great number
of other precious vessels that belonged to their sacred worship.
" The treasurer of the temple also, whose name was Phineas,
was seized on, and showed Titus the coats and girdles of the
priests, with a great quantity of purple and scarlet, which was
there reposited for the uses of the veil, as also a (jreat deal of
cinnamon and cassia, with a larc/e quantity of other sweet
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap. 5. 2 Ibid. cap. 2.
3 Rev. xviii. If).
4 The trumpets used in the service of the sanctuary appear to have been of
silver. (Num. x. 2.) But the vials used also in the service of the temple
appear to have been of yohl: " Seven yolden vials, full of the wrath of God."
(Rev. xv. 7») It confirms the position that the trumpets and vials prefigure
the same events to remember that the scene which introduces them is The
Temple in heaven, and that trumpets and vials were both used in the service
of the sanctuary.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 377

spices^ which used to be mixed together, and offered as incense
to God every day." l

It is particularly mentioned that this merchandise was
brought to Jerusalem in ships ; that " the merchants of these
things which were made rich by her," wept and bemoaned her ;
that " every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and
sailors, and as many as trade by sea," lamented her. " Alas,
alas that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships
in the sea, by reason of her costliness, for in one hour is she
made desolate." 2

Here the opponents of these views think they have us in a
corner. How could ships, they ask, bring the wealth of the
world to Jerusalem, and how could the fall of Jerusalem be a
source of lamentation to as many as trade by sea ? Not that
they have much to boast of; for Rome, equally with Jeru-
salem, was not a maritime town.

But the Spirit of God does not write words in vain. The
wealth of the world was brought to the seaports of Judaea, and
thence to Jerusalem.

Josephus says, " Nor, indeed, is Judaea destitute of such de-
lights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as
far as Ptolemais." 3

And as if to anticipate this objection, it is particularly men-
tioned that these ships were represented in Vespasian's tri-
umph : " Moreover, there followed these pageants a great
number of ships " 4

I trust I may be not considered presumptuous when I affirm
that this proof amounts to demonstration. I beg of you to com-
pare it with those views which offer no proof at all, but which
utter the bare assertion that the destruction of Babylon is an
event yet to take place. 1 do not think that Home, with all its
priestly grandeur, will be found to contain much thyine wood
and ivory, and cinnamon and odours, and ointments and frank-
incense ; still less do I expect to find in it chariots, " pe8cn>,"
and human beings put up for sale. Surely it is not by accident
that the account is given us of the gold and silver, and precious
stones, and purple, and scarlet, and ivory, and garments, car-

1 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 8. 2 Hev. xviii. If).
3 Bell. Jud. lib. iii. cap. 3. 4 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap. 5.

378 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
ried through the streets of Rome in triumph. Surely the
mention of the cinnamon and cassia, and other sweet spices, is
not purely accidental, nor the convincing circumstance, that the
ships formed part of this splendid pageant. If all this is for-
tuitous, would that we had more of such fortuitous confirm-
ation ; it might serve to remove many a deep-seated prejudice,
and to establish us in the truth.
/ proceed next to show that the destruction of this city
was to come suddenly.
" Her plagues shall come in one day"
" In one hour is thy judgment come."
" In one hour so great riches is come to nought/'
" In one hour is she made desolate,"
This is not true of Rome Pagan. No such sudden destruc-
tion fell upon it; it died a natural death, slowly and gradually.
This is not true of Rome Papal ; it has never fallen.
It is true of Jerusalem. Our Lord said its destruction
should be sudden : "Watch, therefore, for ye know not n-It at
hour your Lord doth come." " In such an hour as ye think
not, the Son of man cometh." " Take ye heed lest that day
come upon you unawares ; for as a snare shall it come on all
them that dwell on the face of the whole earth."
Did the destruction come thus suddenly ?
Josephus says, c< They were come up from all the country to
the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up
by an army, which occasioned a pestilence, and afterward such
a famine as destroyed them more suddenly" l
" The entire nation if'as shut up by fate as in a prison;
the Roman army encompassed the city when it was crowded
with inhabitants. Accordingly, the multitude of those that
therein perished exceeded all the destructions that either men
or God ever brought upon the world." 2
There is no other record in the history of the world of a na-
tion perishing at a blow. The Roman tyrant wished that man-
kind had but one neck, that he might extirpate the human raw.
The Jewish people had but one neck. The blow was struck on
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. <). 2 Ibid. lib. vi. cap. (>.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 379
a sudden, when the Jewish capitol contained within its walls the
Jewish nation ; when " they were corne up from all the country
to the feast of unleavened bread;" when " the entire nation
was shut up by fate as in a prison ;" and as a nation the Jews
became extinct. Nineveh, Babylon, Tyre, lingered for years
after the periods of their desolation. Not so Jerusalem ; as a
nation the Jews are not heard of again. They are spared in
isolated grandeur to be witnesses for God's truth all over the
world, as at this day ; but their nationality fell with the destruc-
tion of their city, perhaps never again to be restored.
Next observe the nature of her destruction.
" Therefore shall her plagues corne in one day : death,
mourning, and famine, and she shall be utterly burned with
fire."1
" Death^ Was this fulfilled at that period ? Did Death
on a pale horse, followed by Hades, or the grave, ride ruth-
lessly over his innumerable victims? Was "the winepress
trodden without the city, till blood came out of the winepress
even unto the horse bridles ;" and were " all the fowls of the
air called to the supper of the great God?" u The number of
those that perished during the whole siege was 1,100,000 ; the
greatest part of whom were of the same nation with the citi/ens
of Jerusalem, but not belonging to the city itself." 2 " The
multitude of those that therein perished exceeded all the destruc-
tions that either men or God ever brought upon the world."
Nay, " had not the Lord shortened the days, there had no
Jlesh been saved ; 'but for the elect's sake lie hath shortened
the days."3
"Mourning" " rrtvOos :" " deploratio obitus propinquoruin
et amicorum conjunetissimorum :" intense grief and mourning
on account of lost friends.—Schh'usucr. Was this the case?
Was the valley round Jerusalem an Armageddon ? Was there
" in that day a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning
of Hadadrinmion in the valley of Megiddon ? "
Read the history of the times, and judge. " A deserter
1 Rev. xviii. 8. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. <).
3 " From the beginning to tbe conclusion of the Jewish war, Justus Lip-
sius has calculated the number of the slaughtered Jews at 1,337,490 ; but if
to these be added those who died in caves, woods, wildernesses, in banish-
ment, and as prisoners, the amount cannot be less than a million and a half

380 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.

came to Titus, and told him that there had been carried out
of one gate entrusted to his care, 115,880 dead bodies in 2^-
months."

" After this man there escaped to Titus many of the eminent
citizens, and told him that no fewer than 600,000 were thrown
out at the gates, and the number of the rest could not be dis-
covered." l

" Titus, in going his rounds along those valleys, saw them
full of dead bodies, and the thick putrefaction running from
them; he gave a groan, and, spreading out his hands to
heaven, called God to witness that this was not his doing."2

No such mourning ever took place before or since. " In
those days shall be affliction such as was not from the be-
ginning of the creation which God created unto this time, nei-
ther shall be." 3

" Famine" "A medimnus (bushel) of wheat was sold for
a talent," 3*751. ; " and that when awhile afterward it was not
possible to gather herbs, by reason of the city was all walled
about, persons were driven to that terrible distress as to search
the common sewers, and old dunghills of cattle, and to eat the
dung which they got there." 4

Josephus also gives us the terrible story of a woman eminent
for her wealth and family, discovered in the act of eating her
own child.

The famine, he tells us, " pierced through her very bowels
and marrow," till, unable to bear the gnawing of that agony,
she destroyed and eat the son of her womb. She is discovered
by the bands of famine-stricken murderers who were roaming
through the city for food, who smelling the horrid scent, threat-
ened her that they would cut her throat unless she showed them
what food she had gotten. She uncovers what is left of her
own son, with the dreadful words, "This is mine own son, and
what has been done was mine own doing ; come eat of this
food, for I have eaten of it myself. Do not pretend to be
either more tender than a woman, or more compassionate than
a mother."5

1 Bell. Jucl. lib. v. cap. 13. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. 12.
3 Mark, xiii. l.(j. 4 Ibid. lib. v. cap. 13.
5 Bell, Jud. lib. vi. cap. '>.

LECT, XV.] BABYLON. 381

It is recorded that when the Romans had come within the
walls, and had begun their work of plunder, " They found in
the houses entire families of dead men, and the upper rooms l
full of dead corpses of such as died by the famine ; they stood
in horror at the sight, and went out without touching any-
thing." 2

This is abundantly proved. Under that terrible pressure,
" The eye of the tender and delicate woman, who would not
venture to set the sole of her foot upon the ground, for deli-
cateness and tenderness, was evil towards her children, and she
eat them, for want of all things, secrefh/, in the siege and
straitness wherewith the enemy distressed the gates." 3

61 Burnin;/ with fire" " She shall be utterly burned with
fire, for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her." " And
when the shipinen saw the smoke of her burning, they cried,
What city is like unto this great city ?"

Our Lord said that Jerusalem should be burned with fire.
" He sent forth his armies and destroyed those murderers, and
burned up their c%."4

It is to this burning that St. Paul alludes.5

" The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his
mighty angels, injlaminf/jire^ taking vengeance on them that
know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus
Christ, who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from
the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power,
when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be ad-
mired in all them that believe."

Was Jerusalem thus burnt leithfire ? Was the Lord Jesus
revealed at his coming to take vengeance on them that knew
not God, " in fiamiuy fire ?"

We must look for the answer in Josephus. " One would
have thought that the hill on which the temple stood was seeth-
ing hot as full of fire on every part of it." " And now the
Romans, judging it was in vain to spare what was round the
holy house, burnt all these places ; they also burnt down the
treasury chambers, in which there was an immense quantity of

1 ci Aovrrcu'rec Sc avn}i' tOrjKav iv t/7repww." — Acts, ix. 37*
2 Bell. .lud. lib. vi. cap. 8. 3 Deut. xxviii. 50.
4 Matt. xxii. 7. 5 2 Thess. i. 7.

382 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
money, and garments, and other precious goods ; in a word,
the entire riches of the Jews heaped up together."1 After-
wards, " Titus gave orders to the soldiers to burn and to
plunder the city, who did nothing indeed that day, but on the
next day they setjire to the repository of the archives, to Acra,
to the council house, to the place called Ophlas, to the palace
of Queen Helena, which \vas in the middle of Acra. The
lanes also were burnt down" (i. e. the narrow streets, in
opposition to the TrXareca, the broad market place), " as were
also the houses that were full of the dead bodies of such as
were destroyed by famine."2
" Accordingly, as the people were now slain, the holy hoiisc
was burnt down, and the city ivas on fire, there was nothing
further left for the enemy to do." " And as all was burning
came that eighth day of the month Gorpheius (Elul) upon
Jerusalem.7' 3
" God who of old had taken the .Jewish nation into his
favour, had now condemned them to destruction, for had he
either continued favourable, or been but in a lesser degree dis-
pleased with us, lie had not overlooked the destruction of so
many men, or delivered his most holy city to be burnt and de-
molished by our enemies." l
These four sore judgments, " Death, mourning, famine,
and burning with fire," were fulfilled in the case of no other
city so completely as in the case of Jerusalem. Rome never
experienced these miseries ; there is no record of Rome being
burned with fire, or desolated to this extent by famine ; Rome's
plagues never came in one day, i. e. in the briefest possible
space of time. All this is true only of that city for which we
plead. " Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death,
mourning, and famine, and burning with fire, for strong is the
Lord God who judgeth her."
lint ire arc told this (/reat city must be Rome, because she
is " drunk with the blood of the saints ;" because " in her
was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all that
were slain upon the earth."
Dr. Gumming says, " Need I verify this characteristic of
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vi, cap. 5. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 6'.
3 Ibid. lib. vi. cap. 8. * Ibid. lib. vii. cap. 8.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 383
the Church of Rome ? The sounds of the Sicilian vespers
have not yet died away upon the ear ; the blood that stained
the fertile soil of France may be concealed by vineyards, and
by the golden corn that grows upon its surface, but it is seen
by God, and will be remembered in the hour of his judgments.
The Marian reign in our own country and Smithfield are riot
yet forgotten by those to whom Foxe's Book of Martyrs is
anything more than an old almanac."
Rome, it is true, Pagan and Papal, has been a furious per-
secutor of the Church ; there is not an era in her history, from
the exile into Patmos to the imprisonment of the Madiai, in
which she has not been drunken with the blood of the martyrs
of Jesus.
But was Jerusalem no persecutor of the Church — was not
the blood of prophets and saints found in her ?
" It cannot be," said our Lord, " that a prophet perish out
of Jerusalem"l
He thus apostrophised her — " O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,
lehieh killest the prophets, and stoncst them which are sent
unto thee"
" If^hleh of the prophets" asked Stephen of the inhabitants
of Jerusalem, "have not your fathers persecuted? and they
have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the
Just One/'2
And, mark, no other city hut Jerusalem has been drunk
witli the blood of " apostles and prophets"—of "prophets
and saints " — of martyrs of the- old and the new dispensation.
Of no other city could it be said, " Rejoice over her thou
heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets, for God hath
avenged you on her."
Rome Pasfan was drunk with the blood of Apostles — Peter
and Paul suffered martyrdom there. Nero, Dornitian, and
others, set themselves against the supreme God, and made
havoc of the Church of Christ. But winch of the prophets of
the Old Testament perished at Rome ? Was Isaiah sawn
asunder in the Forum, or Jeremiah cast into his pit in the
Capitol ? While the charge of persecution of the Apostles
can be fully made out against Rome Pagan, it would be diffi-
1 Luke, xiii. 3,S. 2 Acts, vii. f>2.

384 BABYLON. [LECT, XV.
cult to say in what respect Rome Pagan was a persecutor of
the prophets. So of Rome Papal ; she has shed Christian
blood in torrents, but no charge of persecution against the
prophets of old can be laid at her door.
Jerusalem alone stands out in guilty pre-eminence, as the
murderess of apostles and prophets — as the persecutor of the
old and new dispensation — as "drunk with the blood of the
saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus,"—in her
" was found the blood of prophets and of saints." Of Jeru-
salem alone could it be said, " Rejoice over her ye holy apostles
and prophets, for God hath avenged you on her." The Jews
only were guilty of this double murder—" Who both killed the
Lord Jesus and their own prophets and have persecuted us" 1
And observe, also, vengeance was required from no other
city but Jerusalem. " God hath avenged you on her "—" He
hath areiK/ed the blood of his servants at her hand." No ven-
geance for torrents of Christian blood has been taken on Rome,
Pagan or Papal. But such vengeance, ivas taken on Jerusalem,
" That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon
the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of
Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple
and the altar; verily I say unto you all these things shall come
upon this generation."
Need I tell you, how unmistakeably the prophetic warning,
" Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her
sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues/' was fulfilled in
the history of those times ? Need I say that a higher voice
than " Robert M'Ghee's" fulminating anathemas relating to
the Jews of the first century against Christians of the nine-
teenth, had previously uttered similar warnings ?
" When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then
know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them
which are in Jud<ea flee to the mountains ; and let them which
are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in
the countries enter thereinto." 2
Need I say, what I have so often repeated, that every oppor-
tunity for escape was afforded to the Christians, and that they
left Jerusalem as men leave a sinking ship ? " After this
' 1 Thess. ii. 15. * Luke, xxi, 20; 21.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 385

calamity had befallen Cestius, many of the most eminent of the
Jews swam away from the city, as from a ship when it was
going to sink ;"] and that Eusebius records the fact, "The
whole body of the Church at Jerusalem, having* been commanded
by a divine revelation given to men of approved piety there
before the war, removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain
town beyond the Jordan called Pella." 2

One other point must not be overlooked, and it is this. That
great city, even to the last moment of her existence, was not
aware of the destruction about to come upon her. The same
insensibility to her approaching desolation which characterised
her inhabitants in our Lord's day, and to which he so pathe-
tically referred, " If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in
this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace, but now
they are hid from thine eyes,"3 was persisted in to the end.
Even when her hour was come, " She said in her heart, I sit
a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow."

Did such fancied security prevail at this time in the minds
of that chosen people whose boast it was that "theynever were
in bondage unto any man ?" Let our unconscious witness
give the answer. " But the tyrant, John, added this withal that
he did never fear the taking of the city, because it teas God's
own city" 4

" As to the people, he (Titus), had them of a long time
ready to comply with his proposals £of surrender], but as to
the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of his
weakness, and they imagined that he made these proposals be-
cause he was not able to take the rest of the city" °

And even when their temple was in flames, and their city
all but destroyed, " a false prophet made a public proclamation
in the city that very day that God commanded them to get upon
the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs
of their deliverance." ('

It only remains for me to notice the complete and utter
desolation of this great city.7

1 Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 20. 2 Eus. lib. iii. cap. 5.
3 Luke, xix. 42. 4 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 2.
5 Ibid. lib. v. cap. 8. (J Ibid. lib. vi. cap. 5.
7 Rev. xviii. 21, 22, 23.
C C

386 BABYLON. [LECT. XV.
" And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into
the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown
down, and r.hall be found no more at all.1
" And the voice of harpers, and musicians and of pipers, and trumpeters,
shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft
he be, shall be found any more in thee ; and the sound of a millstone shall
be heard no more at all in thee ;
" And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee ; and the
voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee:
for thy merchants were the great men of the earth ; for by thy sorceries were
all nations deceived."
Rome Pagan or Papal never fell like this ; it always rose
again from its reverses, and is at this moment not only a city
of great importance in an ecclesiastical point of view, but a city
entitled to consideration as one of the magnificent capitals of
Europe.
But, says Dr. Gumming, she is yet to fall — she is to he li-
terally burnt with fire. I give his own words respecting this
literal burning of poor Rome, which is yet to take place.
" / believe that Rome will be destroyed by literal fire.
Rome itself is placed upon the ashes of a volcano. It is stated
that the whole chain of the Apennines which stretches across
Italy is volcanic. This seems as if it were a preparation for
future judgments : and her desolation shall be so sudden that
it shall come in one day, and not ' leave a rack behind.'' It
is followed by its smoke ascending up for ever and ever, and
hence the conclusion is forced upon the mind, that Rome is to
be overthrown by judgments, and not to be converted by the
agency of the Gospel — she is literally to be consumed by
fire"'*
Alas poor Rome — alas poor Pope — alas poor cardinals,—
and ye, ye dukes and duchesses, and lords and ladies, who
listen to these alarming predictions, and yet, in spite of these
denunciations, spend a few months every year in your Tuscan
villas, or amidst the departed glories of the Coliseum. Do ye
not fear the sudden earthquake — the irruption of tins terrible
1 " And it shall be when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that
thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of the Euphrates, and
thou shalt say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that
I will bring upon her." — Jer, li. 63, 6*4.
2 Apocalyptic Sketches, p. 43?.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 387
volcano ? Do ye not see it written on the scarlet robes of the
cardinals, on the tiara of the Pope, that Rome is " Great Ba-
bylon," and that she is too horribly lost ever to be converted—
but that she must BURN—BURN—BURN ? Do ye not regard
the warning, " Come out of her my people, that ye be not par-
takers of her plagues ?" Do ye not hear the "voice that is
sounding now through the length and breadth of the very land
in which we live?" I believe, in spite of your pretended ad-
miration, ye are as deaf as I am ; and that in your hearts ye
regard this terrible anathema as a harmless and idle declaration,
happy if it shall escape the sentence of impiety, from its daring
flight into scenes yet supposed to be future, and from its bold
presumption in pronouncing upon events which it imagines are
yet to come to pass.
But to return. Did Jerusalem fall like this? Was " that
great city Babylon thrown down with violence, and found no
more at all ?" Did " her smoke rise up for ever and ever ?"
and did she " become the habitation of devils, and the hold of
every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful
bird?"
Jerusalem fell so completely, so helplessly, was so " torn up
to its foundations, that they who came to see it after the Ro-
mans had finished their work of destruction, could not believe
that it ever had been inhabited." j " Where is now that great
city) the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified
by so many \valls round about ; which had so many fortresses
and large towns to defend it ; which could hardly contain the
instruments prepared for the war, and which had so many ten
thousands of men to fight for it ? —Where is this city that was
believed to have God himself inhabiting therein ? It is now
demolished to the very foundations, and hath nothing but that
monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those that have
destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins : some unfortu-
nate old men also lie upon the ashes of the temple ; and a few
women are there preserved alive of the enemy, for our bitter
shame and reproach." " They shall lay thee even unto the
ground, and thy children within thee; they shall not leave on
1 Bell. Jud. lib. vii. cap. 1,
c c 2

388 BABYLON. [LBCT. XV.

thee one stone npon another, because thou knewest not the day
of thy visitation."

As the city of God, Jerusalem perished, never again to be
restored. At the present day, nearly 2000 years since this
desolation took place, it is only the wreck, the shadow of de-
parted greatness. As the city of God it is found no more at
all. The Jew exists there on sufferance ; contending sects of
Christians squabble about petty differences ; and the Turk, the
haughty master of the spot, worships Mahomet on the very altar
of Jehovah.

There it is, " thrust down with violence," " found no more
at all." "Harpers l and musicians, and pipers and trumpeters,"
no more pealing their hallelujahs along the aisles of God's holy
house ; "no craftsman, of whatsoever craft," working silk and
purple hangings for the veil. The " voice of the bridegroom2
and of the bride," hushed and still. The deep and pathetic
words, so often repeated here, "No more at all," gathering an
intense and awful meaning from their stern reality. Where
the Jew was lord and prince he is now servant and slave —
where he was king and priest, he is " the offscouring of all
things unto this day."

His city perished, and has not been rebuilt.
His temple perished, and has not been restored.
His religion perished, and has not been renewed.
His nation perished, and has not been gathered again.

This, I confidently affirm, can only be said of the Jew and

1 " The voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters,
shall be heard no more at all in thee/' This refers to the musicians employed
in the service of the temple. Josephus relates, " The harpers also, and the
singers of hymns, came out with their instruments of music t and begged the
multitude not to provoke the Romans to carry off these sacred treasures." —
Lib. ii. cap. 15.
2 " The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall he heard no more at
all in thee.'* Compare the language of the warning cry of one of Christ's
witnesses: " A voice against the bridegrooms and the brides, and a voice
against this whole people/' (Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 5.) "And the light of a
candle shall shine no more in thee/' Compare Matt. xxv. 1. Where lamps
are carried by the bridal party to meet the bridegroom.

LECT. XV.] BABYLON. 389

Jerusalem.1 (t A mighty angel took up a stone like a great
millstone, and cast it into the sea: saying, Thus with violence
shall that great city Babylon he thrown down, and shall be
found no more at all."

1 " Dispersi, palabundi, et coeli et soli sui extorres vagantur per orbem sine
homine [nomine], sine Deo rege, quibus nee advenarum jure terram patriain
saltern vestigio salutare conceditur." — Tert. Apol. 20.

c 3

390

LECTUKE XVI.

THE COMING OF CHRIST.
SEVENTH TRUMPET. SEVENTH VIAL.

REV. xiv. 14-

14. And I looked, and behold a
white cloud, and upon the cloud one
sat like unto the Son of man, having
on his head a golden crown, and in
his hand a sharp sickle.

1,5. And another angel came out
of the temple, crying with a loud
voice, to him that sat on the cloud,
Thrust in thy sickle, and reap : for
the time is come for thee to reap ;
for the harvest of the «arth is ripe.

16. And he that sat on the cloud
thrust in his sickle on the earth ; and
the earth was reaped.

17. And another angel came out
of the temple which is in heaven, he
also having a sharp sickle.

18. And another angel came out
from the altar, which had power over
fire ; and cried with a loud cry to
him that had the sharp sickle, saying,
Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and ga-
ther the clusters of the vine of the
earth ; for her grapes are fully ripe.

19. And the angel thrust in his
sickle into the earth, and gathered
the vine of the earth, and cast it into
the great wine-press of the wrath of
God.

20. And the winepress was trod-
den without the city, and blood came
out of the winepress, even unto the
horse bridles, by the space of a thou-
sand and six hundred furlongs. : kings, and the flesh of captains, and

REV. xix. 11—21.

11. And I saw heaven opened, and
behold a white horse; and he that
sat upon him was called Faithful and
True, and in righteousness he doth
judge and make war.
12. His eyes were as a flame of
fire, and on his head were many
crowns ; and he had a name written,
that no man knew, but he himself.
13. And he was clothed with a
vesture dipped in blood; and his
name is called the Word of God.
14. And the armies which were in
heaven followed him upon white
horses, clothed in fine linen, white
and clean.
15. And out of his mouth goeth
a sharp sword, that with it he should
smite the nations : and he shall rule
them with a rod of iron : and he
treadeth the winepress of the fierce-
ness and wrath of Almighty God.
16'. And he hath on hw vesture
and on his thigh a name written,
KING OF KINGS, AND LORD
OF LORDS.
!? And J saw an angel standing
in the sun ; and he cried with a loud
voice, saying to all the fowls that fly
in the midst of heaven, Come and
gather yourselves together unto the
supper of the great God ;
18. That ye may eat the flesh of

LECT. XVI] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 391
the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh
of horses, and of them that sit on
them, and the flesh of all men, both
free and bond, both small and great.
19- And I saw the beast, and the
kings of the earth, an<| their armies,
gathered together to make war against
him that sat on the horse, and against
his army.
20. And the beast was taken, and
with him the false prophet that
wrought miracles before him with
which he deceived them that had re-
ceived the mark of the beast, and
them that worshipped his image.
These both were cast alive into a lake
of fire burning with brimstone.
21. And the remnant were slain
with the sword of him that sat upon
the horse, which sword proceeded out
of his mouth ; and all the fowls Were
filled with their flesh.
In our last lecture we entered at some length into the much
disputed question of Great Babylon. We showed, and I trust
successfully, that great city to have been neither Rome Pagan
nor Rome Papal, but Jerusalem. Indeed, when it is remem-
bered that only one city is spoken of in the Apocalypse as about
to experience the wrath of God, and that city is defined by such
terms as " That (/reat city " — " The holy city" — " The be-
loved city "—" The city to he trodden down of the Gentiles"
—" The (/reat city where a/so our Lord was crucified"—
" That y reat city which reiyneth orer the kinys of the earth "
(Judaea)—and when to this is added the complete and magni-
ficent confirmation of the fall of that great city from the pen of
the only man capable of giving such an account, who says of
that memorable siege, that " dnrim/ that time nothing ivas
done which escaped his knowledge^ it would seem as if the
Providence of God had so heaped up irrefragable testimony
that no stand could possibly be made against it-
It is not a little remarkable that before the vision of this great
city is given to St. John, he is " carried away in the fytirif
into the wilderness" { (a sufficiently clear intimation that a
1 Compare "Toreo "li/troi/t; arii\Qt) tig r//»' tprip.ov inro rou IIruy<ctroC'
—Matt. iv. 1.
c c 4

392 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI.
communication connected with Judaea and Jerusalem is about to
be vouchsafed unto him) and there he sees the woman sitting
on the scarlet-coloured Beast whose desolation he so minutely
and so graphically predicts. Now when the symbol of Pagan
Rome was presented to the mind of the same Apostle, it is said
that "he stood upon the sand of the sea, (the sea being con-
stantly used in Scripture to denote the heathen world) and saw
a Beast coming up out of the sea having seven heads and ten
horns." In the present instance the vision relates to Judaea arid
Jerusalem, and therefore he is most appropriately " carried
away in the Spirit into the wilderness"
But not to recapitulate the evidence adduced in the preceding
chapter, I shall merely answer the objection which might be
urged against the view now taken of Great Babylon, that she
is not so utterly fallen as she is represented in this description.
It is true " wild beasts of the forest " do not dwell on the
site of Jerusalem as on the site of ancient Babylon, and she is
not literally " the habitation of devils, and the hold of every
foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird/'
In one sense, her fall does not come up to the imagery borrowed
from the fall of ancient Babylon, althouyh she was as utterly
destroyed at that+period ; and, indeed, I have had to answer
the silly objection, that because in a city of 30,000 inhabitants,
such as Jerusalem now is, the voice of the bridegroom and the
bride might be heard from time to time, therefore she did not
fall. It is as the city of God that she is " fallen, is fallen."
It is as the dtvel/iny-plaee of Jehovah that she is " found no
more at all/' It is as the metropolis of the Jewish nation
that she is " thrust down with violence." It is as "the joy of
the whole earth " that her " smoke rises up for ever and ever."
At the date and age of the Apocalypse she was a heap of
ruins ; for Terentius Rufus, the Roman officer left in charge
of Jerusalem, ploughed up the foundations of the temple,
according to the prophecy of Micahl — " Zion shall be ploughed
as a field ;"~ and no desolation could possibly be more corn-
1 Micah, iii. 12.
2 Pausanias, who wrote A. n. 180, speaks of a monument of Queen He-
lena at Jerusalem, which city an emperor of the Romans destroyed to the
foundations: —
'* 'EAo'/yf (/£ yvi'atKor Eiri^titpiac TU'poc Inriv tv 7ro'\tt ^u\vfjL(n^f i}v t'c
KarlGaXtv o '1'oi/jcuW fiatrtXtvr."— Paus. viii. cap. 16.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 393
plete. As the city of God, her desolation is as complete now
as it was then. As the city of God, Jerusalem was to lie
prostrate, and to lie prostrate for ever. Has this been the
case ? is this the case now ?
First, the Jews themselves attempted the restoration of their
city. " The dispersed Jews hegan to multiply, and in the course
of a century made many attempts to reinstate themselves in the
city of their forefathers, and as their numbers increased, they
openly rebelled against the Roman power. Hadrian sent against
them Julius Severus, who utterly routed them. 50 of their best
forts, 985 of their finest and best towns, were utterly destroyed,
so that Judaea was left little better than a desert. Hadrian after-
wards built anew city upon Acra, which he called JEAia after his
own name. Here he founded a Roman colony, and erected a
temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, and afterwards another to Venus ;
the former near Moriah, the latter on Calvary. He also issued
an edict by which he not only prohibited the Jews from entering
Juda'a, but denied them even the sight of it from a distance;
but, before this period, it appears that only upon one day in the
year they were permitted to shed tears over the place where
their temple formerly stood." l
Then came Julian2 the apostate, endeavouring to rebuild the
temple, hoping to overthrow the religion of Jesus by the erec-
tion of that temple of which our Lord said, " there shall not
be left one stone upon another which shall not be thrown down."
But history tells us that flames of fire bursting out from the
foundations " rendered the place inaccessible to the scorched
and blasted workmen ; and in this manner, the fire obstinately
and resolutely repelling them, the work ceased." Be this true
or not, the grand fact remains the same, the temple has never
been rebuilt.
Then the heroic champions of the cross, the mailed crusaders,
1 Archdeacon Wilkin's History of the Destruction of Jerusalem, p. 176.
<J " Ambitiosum quoddam tern plum apud Ilierosolymam sumptibus immo-
dicis instaurare cogitabat, negotiumque maturandum Alypio dederat Antio-
chensi — cum itaque rei idem fortiter instauret Alypius, juvaretque provincial
rector, inetuendi globi flammarum prope fundamenta crebris assultibus erum-
pentes fecere locum, exustis aliquoties operantibus, inaccessum : hocque modo
elemeuto destinatius repellente, cessavit inceptum." — Ammianus Marcellinus,
lib. xxiii.
This event is confirmed by Ambrose, Chrysostom, and Gregory Nazianzen.

394 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LBCT. XVI.
fainting beneath their iron panoply, yet resolved to plant the
cross above the crescent, and to win back the holy city from
the polluting grasp of the infidel. Vain efforts, vain expendi-
ture of blood and zeal. Babylon was to be " thrown down/'
"to be found no more at all ;" her "smoke was to rise up
for ever and ever," and the religious enthusiasm of assembled
Europe could not prevail above the righteous judgments of
God.
In our own day and our own times a mission of a different
kind is hoping to accomplish the same result by different means.
My impression is, that if they seek the literal restoration of
Jerusalem they will fail of their purpose. If they expect that
Zion is yet to rise from the dust and to become once more the
city of God, they will find they have not sufficiently weighed
the judgments of God respecting her. Hitherto their palpable
want of success is matter of public notoriety1, and the pre-
mature establishment of an episcopal seat at Jerusalem seems
to be rather a gratification of Protestant pride than real and
substantial progress in the work of evangelising the Jews. In
whatever way the Jews will be gathered into Christ, I do not
look for the literal restoration of the holy city; and 2000
years of past desolation is presumptive proof, that if Jerusalem
shall share the common blessings of Christianity which are
likely to pervade the East, she will share them in the same
degree with the rest of mankind.
Mark; then, as the city of God, Jerusalem has lain prostrate
for nearly 2000 years. Romans, Saracens, Egyptians,
Mamelukes, Franks, and Turks, have said their orisons within
her walls ; but the Jew, according to our Lord's words,
" neither in Samaria, nor yet at Jerusalem, has worshipped
the Father/' As the eity of God, Jerusalem is prostrate now.
Her name is Ichabod, for the glory has departed. The king-
dom of Christ is set up, its bounds are only circumscribed by
the habitable globe ; but Jerusalem has not risen from the dust,
and the streets of the daughter of Zion do not resound with
Hosannahs to his name. It is the finger of God. Every Jew
you meet with tells you that God's word is truth; every child
of Abraham, without home, country, temple, altar, standing by
1 I am given to understand, on good authority, that there are not more
than one hundred Jewish members of the Protestant church in Jerusalem.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 395
himself in isolated grandeur, repeats the lesson of the Apoca-
lypse, "Babylon is fallen, is fallen." " Thus with violence shall
that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no
more at all." " And her smoke rose up for ever and ever."
Our immediate subject is The Coming of Christ, which was
to succeed the fall of Babylon. And here I once more call
attention to the argument which I have pursued throughout
this interpretation, viz., the identity between the Trumpets and
Vials. It must be kept in mind that we are still interpreting
the Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh Vial. The fall of
Babylon has already been described by each, the only difference
being that the Vial extends over the minute particulars of that
fall, which the Trumpet does not.
Trumpet. "Babylon is fatten, is fallen"
Vial. "Babylon is fallen, is fatten"
T. " That great city."
V. " Babylon the great"
T. " Because she made all nations drink of the wine of the
wrath of her fornication"
V. " For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath
of her fornication"
This literal and verbatim description of the fall of Babylon
under the Trumpet and Vial is immediately followed by The
Coming of the Son of Man ; and here again the exemplification
of this duplicate principle is clear and decided, and Trumpet and
Vial alike describe that awful coining with marks of undisguised
coincidence.
Trumpet. " Behold a white cloud"
Vial. " Behold a white horse"
T. " Upon the cloud one sat"
V. " He that sat upon him."
T. " Like unto THE SON OF MAN."
V. " His name is called THE WORD OF GOD."
T. " On his head a golden crown"
V. " On his head were many crowns."

396 THE COMING OF CHEIST. [LECT. XVI.
T. " In his hand a sharp sickle"
V. " Out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword"
T. " And the winepress was trodden"
V. " He treadeth the winepress"
T. " The great winepress of the wrath of God"
V. " The winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty
God."
T. The vine of the earth trodden without the city.
V. The kings of the earth and their armies slain.
T. Blood flows to the horse bridles.
V. The fowls of the air gathered to the supper of the great
God.
This identity I am also content to leave without comment,
simply observing that in each of the Trumpets and Vials some
new idea, not before mentioned in the Book, is generally deve-
loped. I need only allude to the same Trumpets and Vials pour-
ing out their contents upon the earth, the sea, the rivers, the sun,
and to the circumstance of the Euphrates, Babylon and Rome,
introduced for the first and only time into their respective
Trumpets and Vials, to show the correctness of this observa-
tion. We may add to this the detailed account given in this
Trumpet and Vial of the coining of Christ, a description no-
where eke given in the Book.
I do not know that I have much to explain in this Trumpet
and Vial.
" The white cloud" 1—the chariot of the Deity. "A cloud"
at his ascension, "received him out of their sight;5' and the
promise was given, " this same Jesus which is taken up from
1 Under the Trumpet the Son of man is described as sitting on " a white
cloud," under the Vial on ei a white horse." This cannot be taken literally,
for he could not be sitting upon a white cloud and a white horse at the same
time; and possibly nothing more is intended to be conveyed than his coming
as a conqueror with power and great glory. The very vagueness of the de-
scriptions serves to show that a literal coming with clouds was not the thing
signified.—Compare Jer. iv. 13., where the Babylonians, who execute God's
wrath against the Jews, are said to come " as clouds/' " Behold, he shall
come up as clouds, and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind."

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 397
you into heaven shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen
him go into heaven." (Acts i. 11.)
" The white horse"l—the emblem of victory. So Vespa-
sian goes forth on a " white horse conquering and to conquer."
The titles, « The Son of Man? " The Word of God?—
titles belonging exclusively and solely to Christ.
" The golden crown? and " The many crowns?—expres-
sive of "the power and great glory" of his coming.
" The armies in heaven?—The coming of the Son of Man
in the glory of his Father, " with all the holy angels with
him"
" The sharp sickle? " The sharp sword?—the terribleness
of his avenging wrath upon the disobedient Jews.
" The winepress of the wrath of God? " The rcinepress of
the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God?—that bitter deso-
lation and affliction, " such as was not from the beginning of
the world, no, nor ever shall be."
" Blood coming out of the winepress unto the horse bridles,"
— " The destruction which exceeded all the destructions that
either God or men ever brought upon the world." 2
" The fowls of the air called to the supper of the great God?
—the Roman eagles fattening on the flesh of kings and cap-
tains ; " For wheresoever the carcase is there will the eagles
be gathered together." 3
But what becomes of that continuous history of the world
and of the Church which we have been endeavouring to expose ?
According to those views the first coming of Christ under the
Trumpet must be altogether distinct from the second coming
under the Vial. Perhaps, with Cornelius a Lapide, Dr. Cum-
ining thinks that there are in this Book " anticipations, recapi-
tulations, omissions, and again retrogressions and repetitions of
the same events, and moreover sudden transitions." Perhaps he
1 " St. Jerome speaks of the white horse as the body of our Lord assumed
after the resurrection, and those that follow with white horses, as with bodies
like himself, immortal and incorruptible."—Apocalypse, by the Rev. Isaac
Williams, p. 397.
2 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 9. 3 Matt. xxiv. 28.

398 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI.
imagines, with Victorinus, that St. John " is ever recapitulating
from the beginning." Whatever he thinks he does not express
it; for he gives us no account of this coming under the Trumpet.
I suppose, according to his plan, he could not very well tell
what to make of it. According to his system it must have
happened somewhere between the days of Luther and the French
Revolution, for it follows the resurrection of the Witnesses,
and precedes the pouring out of the Vials. I wonder to what
it could possibly refer.
The object of this Lecture will be to show that our Lord
came, as he said, to destroy Jerusalem, and to close the Jewish
dispensation, and that agreeably to the prediction of the Apoca-
lypse, " The Son of Man," — " followed by the armies of
heaven,"—"reaped the harvest of the earth," Judaea—"trod
the winepress without the city" Jerusalem —" and gathered
the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven unto the supper of the
great God."
And before entering upon the subject may I be excused for
saying that a more momentous subject, both in itself and in its
consequences, does not exist in the whole range of theology.
If true, the belief in an advent yet to take place must be erro-
neous ; if false, it ought to be refuted, and surely those are to
be found who shall be able to demonstrate its incompatibility
with the general tenor of God's Holy Word. If true, its prin-
ciples ought not to be held in silence by those to whom truth is
dearer than place or position ; if false, no punishment is too
great for so daring an innovation upon established orthodoxy.
In a word, this chapter must either be answered, or else its
views must be adopted. There is no alternative,— if Christ
has come the second time, he cannot come again ; and if his
kingdom is now set up, it is folly to look for the establishment
of another upon earth.
Let us approach the consideration of it in deep humility
and earnest prayer, beseeching Him " who loved us and
washed us from our sins in his own blood," to open to us by
his Spirit the sealed book of his mysterious coming, " grant-
ing us in this world knowledge of his truth, and in the world
to come life everlasting."
There is an expression here, incidentally given, which defines
the object for which Christ came. It is said, " The winepress
was trodden WITHOUT THE CITY." What city0? Rome, Paris,

LBCT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHKIST. 399
London, or Constantinople ? It is plain, then, that the coming
of our Lord has to do, in this vision, with the destruction of
a particular city. That it must have been local, not general—
specific and definite, not universal. That it cannot be made to
refer to the proceedings of the so-called general judgment, un-
less we suppose the events of that great day of assize to be as-
sociated with the desolation coming upon some particular city.
Now the only city he came to destroy was Jerusalem.
So the enemies of Stephen represented him as saying " Jesus
of Nazareth shall destroy this place"1 So our Lord himself
declared, " O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the pro-
phets," &c., " behold your house is left unto you desolate, for
I say unto you, ye shall not see me henceforth" (air apn, from
just now} " till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the
name of the Lord."2
Another circumstance which serves to point out the time and
object of his coming, is, that it is spoken of in connection with
most terrific desolation. Blood is said to flow out of the wine-
press3 unto the horse-bridles. All the fowls of the heaven are
said to be gathered to the supper of the great God.
Now, this desolation corresponds exactly with the " tribula-
tion " of those days. In spite of the description of the terrific
battle of Armageddon described in the pamphlet called the
" Corning Struggle," no man possessed of common sense will
believe that such a scene as is here depicted can ever happen
again on earth. The refinement of modern warfare (as abun-
dantly evidenced in the present unhappy contest) negatives such
1 Acts, vi. 14.
2 Matt, xxiii. 37, 38, 39. The inference is that the period when they would
see him again after the short interval described by the words aw' apri, from
fust now, would be the time when " tiieir house (temple) was left unto them
desolate." So Luke, xiii. 35. " Behold your house (temple) is left unto
you desolate, and verily I say unto you., ye shall not see me until the time
come, £o>e av f/£r;, when ye shall say, Blessed is he tbat cometh in the name
of the Lord."
3 Not only is the winepress said to be trodden without the city (Jerusa-
lem) but the vine which pours out blood out of the winepress is said to be
"the vine of the earthy r>"/c y?]c, Judaea." " Thrust in thy sharp sickle and
gather the clusters of the vine of the earth — TIJQ yijg, Judaea, for her grapes
are fully ripe ; and the angel thrust in bis sickle into the earthy elff TJ}V yi]*',
Judsea — and gathered the vine of the earth—rf/e yi^, Judaea. . . . and the
winepress was trodden without the city." — Rev. xiv. 18, 19, 20.

400 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LBCT. XVL
a supposition. But there was a time when this desolation was
fulfilled to the very letter; when Christ came, as he said,
" miserably to destroy these wicked men " — when the wine-
press1 was trodden "without the city" and blood, not wine,
came out of the winepress in such quantities, that it reached to
the "horse-bridles2 by the space of 1600 furlongs.3'3
I need not say that this desolation had its complete accom-
plishment at that time. Then, in the words of the faithful
historian, who little suspected the confirmation his words
would give to the sayings of Christ, " The Romans went in
numbers through the lanes of the city, with their swords
drawn : they slew everyone they overtook without mercy .
. and made the whole city run down with blood to such a
degree, that the Jire of many of the houses was quenched ivith
these metis blood." 4 Then the Roman eagles were glutted
upon the carcases, and the fowls were gathered unto the supper
of the great God, till " The army had no more people to slay
or to plunder, because there remained none to be the objects of
their fury; for they would not have spared any, hnd there
remained any other such work to be done." ° No such vintage
of blood had ever before been trodden from the winepress ; no
such supper of gory carcases had ever before regaled the fowls
of heaven. It was " tribulation, — #Xu//i9, — /3acravto-/xos, —
such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time,
no, nor ever shall be." G
I have yet to show that our Lord came, as he said, to destroy
these wicked men. And here I beg the reader of these Lectures
to disabuse his mind of every previously formed opinion, arid
to come at once to the fountain-head, the Scriptures of truth.
No matter what others may have said, or what may be the
prevailing sentiments of the world, if this truth is essential, it
1 Compare the parable: C( A certain householder planted a vineyard, arid
digged a winepress?' &c....." When the Lord therefore of the vineyard
cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen ? .... he will miserably
destroy those wicked men, and will let out/' &c. — Matt. xxi. 33.
2 <f The Jews said f When Hadrian besieged the city called, Bitter, he
slew so many that the horses waded in Hood up to their mouths? "— Dr. Adam
Clarke.
3 St. Jerome supposes this to be the length of the Holy Land.
4 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 8. 5 Ibid. lib. vii. cap. 1.
6 Matt. xxiv. 21.

LECT. XVI.J THE COMING OF CHRIST. 401
will be clearly expressed ;—it will be expressed not merely once
or twice, but continuously; — and so expressed as to leave no
doubt whatever on the mind. " To the law," then, "and the
testimony." " Let God be true, but every man a liar." If
this doctrine be not one of the clearest and most decided in the
New Testament, I pray that this book and all that it contains
may perish. But if it is truth, and truth that cannot be gain-
sayed, then may the truth prevail; may it triumph over pre-
judice and error; may it fill our hearts with enlarged notions
of our Lord's glorious kingdom ; and may the fact of Christ
already come influence our minds more powerfully than the
hope of Christ about to corne at some indefinite period—a
period which visionaries have fixed a thousand times, and whicli
has a thousand times deceived those who trusted them, a period
which is now fixed between 1864 and 1885, and which when
1885 is passed, some other visionary will fix for another epoch
still more distant, each generation failing to gather lessons of
wisdom and prudence from the follies of those who have pre-
ceded them. So it will go on. 2000 years of patient wait-
ing for the Church's absent Head has not convinced mankind
that their expectations may not be founded in fact. Generation
after generation, already gone to their rest, to whom a literal
coming of Christ to earth can be of no more consequence than
the wind howling over their graves, has not decided the ques-
tion that to them at any rate such a coming would be unpro-
ductive of any advantage. As the ancient Fathers always sawr
an Antichrist in their own day, and as the Chiliasts, whether
of the times of Papias, Luther, or our own, always fancied a
milleniurn close at hand, so men in every age have thought
that a coming of Christ impended, which the Saviour most
unequivocally declared should be restricted to a particular
people, and confined within the limits of a particular genera-
tion. Strange to say, in matters of religion men will neither
use common sense, nor abide by the conclusions of critical ex-
amination. Nay, they ever think that argument is an insult to
faith, and that reason, the use of which they freely admit as
applied to other things, is altogether out of place when brought
to bear on Revelation. No, it must be faith, as it is called, or
rather prejudice, strong as death, first assuming a position and
then rearing a superstructure which, if the veil were removed,
D D

402 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LEOT. XVI.*
a child's breath would be sufficient to blow down. Oh, that
we had faith to believe that there is no attempt at deception in
the glorious Gospel of the ever blessed God! Oh, that we had
faith to believe that holy Scripture has a plain and definite
meaning, not to be glossed over by special pleading, or to be
perverted by sophistry! Oh, that we had faith to trust im-
plicitly to its declarations respecting the time of Christ's second
advent, believing that whatever darkness exists must be in us
and not in God I Oh, that we had faith to see in the lasting
dispersion of Israel an imperishable memorial of the coming
of the Lord, chronicled for 2000 years in the history of man-
kind, testifying to men of every age and clime,—The Lord has
come,—has effected the object for which he came,—has cast
down the city, temple, and nation of his choice,—has erected a
new and universal kingdom upon the ashes of Judaism, arid
has made his once favoured people the undying witnesses, from
generation to generation, that " THE END " HAS ARRIVED,
AND THAT " ALL THESE THINGS " HAVE BEEN LONG AGO
FULFILLED.
^4nd9 first, I would observe, that it is not at all necessary to
believe that his coming was a literal descent upon earth.
Not one word can be found in the Bible respecting such a
coming. His coming is described as the " Manifestation," the
"Appearing," the "Apocalypse" of Jesus Christ, " irapovcria"
" €7ri(£cu>e<,a," " diroKaXvifjis" The sign of the Son of Man
is said to " appear in heaven" His coming was to be momen-
tary "as the lightning" shining from the "east unto the west,"
from the " one end of heaven unto the other." He is said to
come "in the clouds of heaven" The saints who meet him
are "caught up to meet the Lord in the air" Nay, he
warned his disciples, that if told of a literal coming upon earth,
they were not to believe it: " Wherefore, if they shall say
unto you, Behold he is in the desert1, go not forth ; Behold he
is in the secret chambers, believe it not; for as the lightning
cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so shall
1 It is remarkable that Christ foretold not only the appearance of these
false prophets,-but the very places to which they would lead their deluded
followers. These were the desert and the secret chamber. An Egyptian de-
ceived 30)000 in the wilderness; and another impostor ()()()0 others in a
gallery or secret chamber. — Bishop Porteus.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 403
also the coming of the Son of man be"l " And he said unto the
disciples, the days will come when ye shall desire to see one of
the days of the Son of man [Y. e. to see him visibly upon
earth as now], and ye shall not see it; and they shall say to
you, See here; or See there \_i. e. Behold he is in the desert,
or in the secret chambersJ: go not after them nor follow them;
for as the lightning that lighteneth out of the one part under
heaven shineth unto the other part under heaven, so shall also
the Son of man be in his day" 2 Nothing can be more evident
than that our Lord intended in these passages to check erro-
neous impressions respecting a literal coming to this earth, and
to convey the idea that although false Christs and false prophets
should announce such a corning, as we know from Josephus
that they did, yet this his advent would be of a totally
different kind.
Hence we find that advent described in terms which repre-
sent it as a heavenly Manifestation or Apocalypse.
" When Christ who is our life shall appear (<j>avepa>0rf)"-
Col. iii. 4.
" When the chief Shepherd shall appear (^>avepa)6€VTo^)"—
1 Peter, v. 4.
" When he shall appear (<j>avep<t)drj}"—1 John, ii. 28.
" The appearing (eTTKjta^etag) of our Lord Jesus Christ,
which in his times he shall shew (Se't^et)."—1 Tim. vi. 14, 15.
" His appearing (cVt^cx^eta^) and his kingdom."—2 Tim.
iv. 1.
" The brightness (eVi<£cu>eia) of his coming (Trapovcrtas)."
—2 Thess. ii. 8.
" The glorious appearing (e7ri(£ai>eiaz/ rr)<; Sofjjs) of the
great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ."—Titus, ii. 13.
" What shall be the sign of thy coming (Trapovcrtas) and of
the end of the world ? "—Matt. xxiv. 3.
1 Matt. xxiv. 2(), 27. 2 Luke, xvii. 22 — 25.

404 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [Lacx. XVI;

" The power and coming (Swa/up /cat Trapowiav} — i. e. the
powerful — coming of our Lord Jesus Christ/' — 2 Peter, i. 16.

" We beseech you, brethren, by the coming (jrapovcrias} of
our Lord Jesus Christ." — 2 Thess. ii. 1.

" The coming (jrapovcria) of the Lord draweth nigh." —
James, v. 8.

" When he shall appear (<j>avepa)0rj} we may have confi-
dence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming (Trapovcria)."
— 1 John, ii. 28.

" Rest with us when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed" (iv
TTJ d7ro/caXvi//€t Irjcrov XpiaTou, in the Apocalypse of Jesus
Christ.)— 2 Thess. i. 7.

" Waiting for the coming (ciTro/caXui//^, Apocalypse^ of our
Lord Jesus Christ." — 1 Cor. i. J.

" At the appearing (a7TOKaXi;i//et, Apocalypse} of Jesus
Christ."—! Peter, i. 7.

" At the revelation (ci7ro/caXvi//ei, Apocalypse} of Jesus
Christ."—! Peter, i. 13.

" The revelation ('^TTOKaXvi//^, Apocalypse} of Jesus
Christ."— Rev. i. 1.

It will be seen that the terms in which this coming is
described not only discountenance the notion of a literal coming
to this earth, but serve to show that a Manifestation, an Apo-
calypse, was all that was intended.1 Hence St. Paul calls it
" The brightness of his coming" (e7ri<£cu>e/ta 7-779 irapovcrias
avTov — The manifestation of his presence}, " The glorious
appearing of the great God and our Saviour." Hence he says
that God shall " shew" this appearing, and that Christ shall

1 This Apocalypse is called by Clement 'ETrio-fcoVr; rrJQ @afft\eiac rov
\pi<TTOv. " The visitation of the kingdom of Christ/' " La revue du Iloy-
aume de Jesus Christ." S. Clement ad Cor. i. 50. ; and in his second epistle,
' TTJG £7ri(f>ayeiaQ TOV QEOV." S. Clement, JSpist. ii. 12,

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 405
be seen (o^^crerat, seen as in a vision), by those that
" love his appearing." l
We may conceive that his appearing was like that vouch-
safed to Stephen, who saw " the heavens opened and the Son
of man standing on the right hand of God2;" or like the
descent of the Holy Spirit at our Lord's baptism, when " the
heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God
descending like a dove and lighting upon him3;" or like
the vision of Ezekiel, to whom " the heavens were opened and
who saw visions of God." 4 Our Lord said it should be of
this kind : "Verily, verily I say unto you, hereafter" (a?r* aprC),
from just now (used only of events soon to take place) "ye shall
see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descend-
ing upon the Son of man." 5 This can refer neither to his
baptism nor to his transfiguration; his baptism was past, and at
his transfiguration no angels of God ascended nor descended
upon the Son of man.
This is confirmed by the vision of the Apocalypse in which
St. John says, " / saw heaven opened, and behold a white
horse, and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True
and his name is called The Word of God." G
Or we may conceive his appearing to have been similar to
his transfiguration upon Mount Tabor. St. Peter seems to
say it would be of the same kind : " We have not followed
cunningly devised fables when we made known unto you the
power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (Y. e. the manner
in which he would come with power and great glory), but were
eye-witnesses of his majesty, for he received from God the
Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to
him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom
I am well pleased ; and this voice which came from heaven
we heard when we were with him on the holy mount." 7
Here St. Peter evidently leads us to believe that the power
1 It ought not to be overlooked that our translators have indiscriminately
employed the words which are translated — Coming, Appearing, Revelation,
thereby showing that they supposed they related only to one event, and thai
one of the words which is thus indiscriminately used by them — Trapovtrla,
is the word used of the coming which was to take place ere that generation
had passed away. Matt. xxiv. 3.
2 Acts, vii. 56. 3 Matt. iii. 16. 4 Ezek. i. 1.
5 John, i. 51. 6 Rev. xix. 11 — 13. 7 2 Peter, i. ifi—18.
j> j> 3

406 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LBCT. XVI;
and coming of the Lord Jesus Christ (i. e. his powerful
coming, of which most probably the transfiguration was thfe
type) would be of the same nature as the majesty of which
those who were with him on the mount had already been eye-*
witnesses. St. Paul manifestly conveys the same idea when he
says, " unto them that look for him shall he appear (o^^orerat,
shall he appear as in a vision ; the word is used of the glorious
appearance of Moses and Elias at the transfiguration) the
second time without sin unto salvation." l
These scriptural descriptions of the mode and manner of his
coming entirely do away with that notion, which has no deeper
foundation than our own fancy, of a literal and personal coming
to this earth. Indeed they seem to say that such a literal
coining would be the very subject of the teaching of those false
Christs and false prophets who should arise at that time. On
the contrary, they declare with sufficient plainness that his coming
would be a Manifestation, an Apparition, an Apocalypse, similar
to the vision of Stephen, or to the glory of the transfiguration.
That it would be instantaneous and momentary, like " the
lightning shining from the east unto the west/7 That in that
"moment" of time, that "twinkling of an eye," his saints
would be " caught up to meet the Lord in the air," his angels
would " gather his elect from the one end of heaven to the
other;" and that this would take place whilst his judgments
fell upon guilty Jerusalem.
Shall we dare to say that it did not take place ? Shall we
presume to substitute our own views for the plain declarations
of the revealed Word of God ? The writers of those days
have left us the wonderful history, that such heavenly appari-
tions did occur at that time. Is it for us to say, that the
armies in heaven did not follow him, when Josephus says,
" that chariots and troops of soldiers in their armour were
seen running about among the clouds and surrounding of
cities ?"2 Shall we dare to say that his coining was not as the
lightning, when a heathen historian records the fact, that
" the temple shone with sudden flashes of fire out of the
clouds?"* Do we so clearly understand the mystery of the
1 Feb. ix. 28. '2 Bell. Jml. lib. vi. cap. 5.
;; Tacit. Hist. lib. v. cap. IM.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 407
resurrection spoken of by St. Paul, "Behold, 1 shew you a
mystery ; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump,"1
that we can afford to despise the awful statement of Josephus?—
" The priests who were going by night into the inner court of
the temple said, that in the first place they felt a quaking and
heard a great noise, and after that they heard a sound as of a
great multitude, saying, Let us depart hence." 2
The men who journeyed with Saul to Damascus, when the
persecutor was struck down to the earth by that " light above
the brightness of the sun," " saw the light, and were afraid,
but they heard not the voice of him that spake." " They
stood speechless, hearing a voice," (j&awrjs, or sound, " but
seeing no man/' Not so with Saul ; he " heard a voice
speaking unto him, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul,
Saul, why persecutest thou me?"3 When the answer came to
the Saviour's prayer, " Father, glorify thy name," "the people
therefore that stood by and heard it, said that it thundered;
others said, An angel spake to him/* 4 Elisha's servant, till
his eyes were opened, saw not the " mountain full of horses
of fire and chariots of fire round about Elisha." 5
So with this Jewish and heathen description of the prodigies
of those days ; enough was revealed to make men sensible of
the presence of great and awful mysteries,—to the servants of
Christ those mysteries revealed the coming of the Lord Jesus.
1. / shall endeavour to show first from the prophecies of the
Old Testament that his coming ivas expected at that time.
St. Peter warrants us to expect that this advent would be
foretold by the prophets. " Whom the heavens must receive
until the times of restitution of all things6, which God hath
* 1 Cor. xv. 51, 52. 2 Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 5.
3 Acts, ix. 7. ; xxii. 13. 4 John, xii. 28, £9.
r> 2 Kings, vi. 17.
G It is here said that the heavens must receive Christ "until the times of
restitution of all things" —^XPL Xp°^Ml/ ttTroKaratrTciffewg TTLIVT^V^ and that
ef when the times of refreshing should come from the presence of the Lord,
he shall send Jesus Christ which before was preached unto you/' These
" times of restitution of all things " are doubtless identical with " the time of
reformation" Kaipov t)iof)0u><T£wc> of Heb. ix. 10. Now the law was to con-
tinue until " the time of reformation." The inference is that the period of
Christ's coining would be the abrogation of the Jewish law. That "the
i> i) 4

408 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI.
spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world
began.....Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel
and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have like-
wise foretold of these days" *
And here, although "the prophets from Samuel" foretold of
these days, I hesitate to adduce their predictions, because it
may be objected that the first desolation of Jerusalem by
Nebuchadnezzar may be the "day of the Lord" alluded to,
just as I could not with any confidence employ any prophecy
delivered before the return from the captivity to establish the
unscriptural notion of the return of the Jews to their own land.
This objection, however, cannot reach the prophecies delivered
after that event. I invite attention to a few of the plainest of
these.
Let us first take the prophecy of Daniel, vii. 13, 14. " I
saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of
man came with the clouds of heaven, and carne to the Ancient
of days, and they brought him near before him : and there was
given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people,
nations, and languages should serve him : his dominion is an
everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his king-
dom that which shall not be destroyed." The time of this
coming of the Son of man with the clouds of heaven is
accurately defined in this prophecy. It is the time of the
fourth great universal kingdom upon earth—the iron kingdom
of Rome. The three preceding beasts of this vision are gene-
times of the restitution of all things" cannot relate to any time in the distant
future, is evident from the circumstance that "Elias was to come first and re-
store all things;" and that our Saviour says, " Elias is come already." —
Matt, xvii. 11, 12.
It is worthy of notice that under the law the High Priest went alone
once every year into the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all, not
without hlood which he offered for himself and for the sins of the people;
he then came out (and till he came forth out of the Holy of Holies the atone-
ment was not considered to have heen made), having made the atonement,
with a blessing for the people. So Christ, our Great High Priest, " which is
passed into the heavens," entered in once "by his own blood" "into the holy
place;" and at the period of the restitution of all things, came out of the
Holy of Holies, " having obtained eternal redemption for us." " Now
once, in the end of the world, hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice
of himself; .... arid unto them that look for him shall he appear (vfyOrj-
fTerai) the second time without sin — (a sin-offering) — unto salvation." —
Heb. ix. 28.
1 Acts, iii, 21—24.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 409
rally allowed to be the kingdoms of Babylonia, Persia, Media,
and Greece. One only universal kingdom remains—the great
Roman kingdom. If the three first kingdoms were heathen
kingdoms, the fourth must be a heathen kingdom also, or else
the whole force of the antithesis would be lost which represents
this fourth heathen kingdom succeeded by the last universal
kingdom—the kingdom of Christ. In the days of that fourth
kingdom, which " was diverse from all the others, exceeding
dreadful, . . . which devoured, brake in pieces, and
stamped the residue with his feet," " the Son of man came
with the clouds of heaven, and the kingdom, and dominion,
and greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall
be given to the people of the saints of the most High." l
Let us next consider the prophecy contained in Zechariah
xiv.: " Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, and thy spoil
shall be divided in the midst of thee. For I will gather all nations
against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and
the houses rifled, and the women ravished ; and half of the
city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people
shall riot be cut oft' from the city. Then shall the Lord go
forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the
day of battle. And his feet shall stand at that day upon the
mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east2, and
the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward
the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great
valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the
north, and half of it toward the south. And ye shall flee to the
valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall
reach unto Azal : yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before
the earthquake in the days of Uzziah, king- of Judah : and the
Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with thee."
Now what is the time with which this prophecy is concerned ?
It is concerned with the spoil and capture of Jerusalem by the
heathen. " I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to
battle, and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and
the women ravished" It is the time of the spread of the
Gospel throughout the world. " It shall be in that day that
living waters shall go out of Jerusalem: ... in summer
1 Dan. vii. 26, 27« ^ Compare Rev. vii. 2.

410 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVL
and winter shall it be, and the Lord shall be king over all the
earth.5* This time, so clearly defined, is the time of his awful
coming". " ^4nd his feet shall stand at that day upon the
mount of Olives" l (which, like the holy city in Rev. xvi. 19«>
is said to be divided into three parts, meaning rendered utterly
desolate by the invasion of the Romans), " and the Lord my
God shall come, and all the saints with thee"
The last of the Old Testament prophets has also clearly marked
out the time of our Lord's second coming. " The Lord, whom ye
seek, shall suddenly come to his temple. . . . but who may abide
the day of his coming ? and who shall stand when he appeareth ?
. . . For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven ;
and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble :
and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord
of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch. . . .
Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming
of the great and dreadful day of the Lord." 2
Now, when was this day to come ? // was to follow the coining
of Elijah the prophet^ — the Elijah marked out by our blessed
Lord as John the Baptist : " If ye will receive it, this is Elias,
which was for to come." The Elijah who warned his countrymen
of the coming of that day : " O generation of vipers, who hath
warned you to flee from the wrath to come ? " (7-779 /xeAAovoTjs
0/97775), the wrath soon about to come. The Elijah who fore-
told that day would come after the Pentecost: " He shall
baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with jire: whose fan is
in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor " (rirp aXcom
dvTov)—the Jewish people—" and gather his wheat into the
garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire."3
If we do riot take this plain and obvious view of the passage,
we shall be driven to the necessity of believing that Elijah has
yet to come in person, although our Lord has said that Elijah
has come already; or else that a "represented Elijah who is to
1 Theodoret on Zech. xiv. 4. explains his standing on Mount Olivet, of his
standing there at his coming to avenge himself on Jerusalem. It is not a
little remarkable that the ascension took place on Olivet, for " they returned
unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet;" and that angels assured them
that " this same Jesus which is taken up from you unto heaven, shall so come
in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven."—Acts i. 11.
2 MaJ. iii. 1. ; iv. 1. 5. 3 Matt. iii. J2.

LBCT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 411

restore everything through such means as fall within an Elijah's
work," is somewhat fancifully intended. Observe it well, then,
that the day of the Lord was to be immediately preceded by
the coming of John the Baptist, and that no such day has suc-
ceeded those times but the day of the final desolation of the
Jewish people.

2. But, leaving the argument from prophecy, I get at once
to the proof, from the New Testament, that this appearing of
the Lord Jems took place at that time.

In three of the gospels, St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St.
Luke, the disciples ask our Lord respecting the time of his
coming. As he was sitting on the mount of Olives, over
against the temple, the destruction of which he had just fore-
told, they put to him a plain and definite question respecting
the time when he would come to destroy the temple and to
close the age.

" As he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came
unto him privately, saying, Tell us when shall these things be,
and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of
the world," (Matt. xxiv. 3.) — the consummation of the seon
or age.1

" And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, over against the
temple, Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, asked him
privately, Tell us when shall these things be, and what shall be
the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled ?"—Mark, xiii. 4.

" Master, but when shall these things be, and what sign

TOV atwroe." Ct The context here makes it quite impossible
that the end of the world generally can be meant, unless we suppose it was
to end with that generation, which is absurd. St/rreXe/a, therefore, in this
place, must mean consummation rather than end." — Professor Lee, p. 282.
The same expression is used (Heb. ix. 26.) : " Now once in the end of the
world, * tTTi ffvrTt,\f.iOf Twr atwvwv9r hath he appeared to put away sin by the
sacrifice of himself." If the end of the world generally is meant, Christ will
will not suffer for sinners until the final judgment. So Matt. xiii. 39.: " The
harvest is the end of the world" vvi>Te\eia TOV alwvoG. This is further defined
as " the end of tlm world/' 0-uj/rtXe/p TOV «iwj/oe TOVTOV ; where the de-
monstrative pronoun TOVTOV makes it certain that the end of that dispensation
was intended.

412 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI.
will there be when these things shall come to pass?"—Luke,
xxi. 7*
Here the tvhole question is a question of time. " Master,
WHEN?" A question plainly relating* not to a variety of sub-
jects, but to one definite subject; not to events separated by
great intervals, but to one distinct event, and that, the time
when the destruction of the temple should take place which
had been just foretold. And, indeed, from the circumstance
that the same question is put three times to our Lord, as
recorded by the three evangelists, and put each time in a
different form, whilst the answer given in each case is sub-
stantially the same, it is made matter of moral certainty that
the question cannot be divided into three or more separate
inquiries, but that it refers to one definite and specific object.
" Master, WHEN ? " Not, when shall the millenium take
place ? of which the disciples then had not heard a word. Not,
when shall the so-called end of the world arrive ? for they
believed that " the end of the world " was the close of the then
existing economy. But WHEN shall these things be of which
thou hast spoken ? What shall be the sign of thy corning to
destroy the city and temple, and to close the age ?
To this question our Lord replied without equivocation and
without disguise, without mixing up two sets of homogeneous
predictions, and without saying that part of his words should
receive a present, and part a future accomplishment. To a
straightforward question he gave a straightforward answer.
He said indeed that the precise day and hour wras not known
to the angels nor to himself, but that THE END should come,
and his appearing should take place, before THAT GENE-
RATION HAD PASSED AWAY. And that this was the idea
which he intended to convey, is made certain not only from
the evident meaning of the words themselves, but from the
well-known fact, that they who heard them attached no other
sense to the predictions.
" Master, WHEN ?" Did our Lord determine that " WHEN?"
"Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun
be darkened, and THEN " (rore) " shall appear the sign of the
Son of man in heaven, and THEN " (rore) " shall all the tribes
of the earth " (TTJS yrjs), Judaea, " mourn ; and they shall see the

LBCT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST, 413

Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and
great glory "—Matt. xxiv. 29.

That coming, according to St. Matthew, was to take place
" Immediately after the tribulation of those days."

St. Mark is still more explicit with regard to the time.

" But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be
darkened, .... and THEN " (Yore) " shall they see the
Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory "
There is no avoiding the statement, that the Jews were to see
the Son of man coming " In those days, after that tribu-
lation"—Mark, xiii. 2<k

St. Luke points out the time with still greater distinctness.

" These be the days of vengeance . . . but woe unto
them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those
days . . . they shall fall by the edge of the sword . . .
and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the
times of the Gentiles be fulfilled . . . and there shall be
signs in the sun . . . and THEN " (rore) " shall they see
the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great
glory."

This would be quite sufficient to show, that as the whole
question was a question of time, so our Lord answered it by
pointing out the time of his coming as the time of Jerusalem's
downfal. But he confirmed these assertions in a manner that

1 e( Bishop Newton resolves all these declarations of our Lord's coming with
power and great glory, into the statement, that the destruction of Jerusalem
would be such a remarkable instance of Divine vengeance, that many would
be led to acknowledge Christ and the Christian religion." — Diss. on the
Prop. p. 51.
" This prophecy is conceived in such high and swelling terms, that not
only the modern interpreters, but the ancient likewise, have supposed that
our Lord interweaves into it a direct prediction of his coming again to judg-
ment ... To which the defenders of religion (query irreligion ?) have op-
posed this answer, that the distinction of short and long, in the duration of
time, is lost in eternity, and with the Almighty f a thousand years are as one
day, and one day as a thousand years/ " — Warburton's Julian, book i.

414 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LKCT. XVI.
leaves no room for doubt. He appealed to the common course
of nature as a proof that his words would receive an immediate,
fulfilment. In each of the three Gospels he records the parable
of the fig-tree.
" Now learn a parable of the fig-tree ; when his branch is yet
tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh :
so likewise ye, when ye shall SEE all these things, know that it
is near, even at the doors."—Matt. xxiv. 32, 33.
"Now learn a parable of the fig-tree ; when her branch is
yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is
near : so ye in like manner, when ye shall SEE these things come
to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors"—Mark,
xiii. 28, 29.
" Behold the fig-tree, and all the trees ; when they now
shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer
is now nigh at hand. So likewise ye, when ye SEE these tilings
come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at
hand."—Luke, xxL 29—31.
And then he added the clinching and convincing words,—
"Verily I say unto you, THIS GENERATION shall not pass till
all these things be fulfilled."—Matt. xxiv. 34.
*' Verily I say unto you, that THIS GENERATION shall not
pass till all these things be done."—Mark, xiii. 30.
" Verily I say unto you, that THIS GENERATION shall not
pass away till all be fulfilled."—Luke, xxi. 32,
Remember what " ALL THESE THINGS " include : "Nation
rising against nation,"—persecution of the Christian Church —
Jerusalem compassed with armies—Jerusalem trodden down of
the Gentiles—signs in the sun, and moon, and stars—the
coming of the Son of man—the sending forth of the angels—
and the gathering of his elect; and if you can, and if you
dare, separate into distinct periods what Christ said should be

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST, 415
SEEN BY THE MEN OF THAT GENERATION 19 put your Own
interpretation upon the plain words of Christ, and put off that
coming which he said should then take place, to some indefinite
period treasured up in the fancy chambers of your own imagi-
nation.
3. This, all powerful as it is, does not stand alone. I refer
you next to the passages immediately preceding the transfigu-
ration recorded by the three evangelists, St. Matthew, St. Mark,
and St. Luke, as additional proof that our Lord would come in
the lifetime of the then existing generation. That the passages
in question do not refer, as some have supposed, to the glory
of the transfiguration, is evident from the circumstance that in
all three Gospels allusion is made to Christ's coming in the
glory of his Father, " with the holy any eh ;" and St. Matthew
adds, to " reward every man according to his works," which
he did not do at his transfiguration.
" For the Son of man shall come (/x-eXXei ep^ecr^at, shall
soon come) in the glory of his Father with his angels, and then
he shall reward every man according to his works ; verily I say
unto you, there be some standing here which shall not taste of
1 " This generation shall not pass away." I know of no passage in the
New Testament in which the word " yevea," "generation," is not used in the
common acceptation of the term,, " Generatio hominum simul viventium." —
Schleusner.
" An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign " (Matt. xii. 39.) ;
" The men of Nineveh shall rise up against this generation, and shall con-
demn it" (Luke, xi. 32.); " Whereunto shall I liken the men of this gene-
ration" (Luke, vii. 31.); C( As Jonas was a sign to the Ninevites, so shall
also the Son of man be to this generation" (Luke, xi. 80.); "Save yourselves
from this untoward generation " (Acts, ii. 40.); " All the generations from
Abraham to David are fourteen generations " (Matt. i. 17-)»
Why should the word fe yevea " be twisted into a sense nowhere else given
to it in the Scriptures, and made to signify the present existence of the
Jewish people ? or how is it possible to avoid the force of the demonstrative
pronoun, " THIS generation ? " Not only is the liberty thus taken with the
Word of God, sufficient, if it might be taken in other cases, to overthrow every
doctrine of Christianity, but the argument (if argument it can be called)
which supposes "THIS GENERATION" to mean the present existence of the
Jewish people, is one of which the veriest tyro ought to be thoroughly
ashamed. Such special pleading argues a bad cause. The Word of God does
not stand in need of such patching; and if it did, we should do right, as
reasonable beings, in rejecting it altogether.

4:16 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI;
death till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom."—
Matt. xvi. 27, 28.
" Whosoever, therefore, shall be ashamed of me and of my
words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also
shall the Son of man be ashamed when he cometh in
the glory of his Father with the holy angels. And he
said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that there be some
of them that stand here which shall not taste of death till
they have seen the kingdom of God come with power."—
Mark, viii. 38. ix. 1.
" Whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words,
of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come
in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels ;
but I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here which
shall not taste of death till they see the kingdom of God."—
Luke, ix. 26, 27.
Two of those who stood there did " taste of death " before
they saw " the Son of man coming in his kingdom." James
the brother of John was slain with the sword, before the
Church had welcomed back her absent Head. Peter, accord-
ing to our Lord's prediction, was made to " stretch forth his
hands" upon the cross, whilst "another girded him, and
carried him whither he would not." But the promise of this
glorious coming was not forgotten ; — with his dying breath
he bequeaths the assurance of its speedy advent to the
Church : — "I think it meet," he says, "as long as I am
in this tabernacle, to stir you up by putting you in remem-
brance . . . for we have not followed cunningly devised fables
when we made known unto you the power and coining of our
Lord Jesus Christ" He knew that he should die before
Christ came ; — he knew that he must " shortly put oft' his
tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ had showed him,"
and his anxiety was, that " after his decease they might have
these things always in remembrance." 4 It was not so, hotv-
ever, with another of those who stood there. After our Lord
had shown Peter " by what death he should glorify God,"
" Peter seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following, and
1 2 Peter,!. 13. 16.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 417
saith unto Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do ? Jesus
saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is
that to thee ?" " This is the disciple which testifieth of these
things, and wrote these things, arid we know that his testimony
is true." * This is the disciple which saw " heaven opened,"
and " one like unto the Son of Man," reaping the harvest of
the earth. This is the disciple who could say, " Even so,
arnen." " d.men, even so come, Lord Jesus" 2
4. The next proof to which I invite your attention is the
answer given by our Lord to the solemn question put to him
by the high priest immediately before his execution ; and this
comes to us with all the greater force, inasmuch as it bears the
character of the dying testimony of the Lord Jesus.
The question, as given by the evangelists, is as follows : —
" I adjure thec by the living God, that thou tell us whether
thou be the Christ, the Son of God." 3
" Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art
thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed ?"4
" Art thou the Christ ? tell us." 5
What reply did our Lord make to these questions ?
" Jesus saith unto him, thou hast said [equivalent to, I am] ;
nevertheless I say unto you, hereafter — an apn? from almost
immediately—shall ye see the Son of Man sitting on the right
hand of power, and coming in the clouds of hcacen" '
" And Jesus said, I am ; and ye shall see the Son of Man
1 John, xxi. 24. 2 Rev. xxii. 20.
3 Matt. xxvi. 63. 4 Mark, xiii. 6l. 5 Luke, xxii. 67.
6 (< 'ATT' apri; " i. q. 'ATTO rov vvv: used only of events soon about to happen.
'ATT' apn o^ecrOe rov VIOY," K. T. X.—Matt, xxvi. 64.
Ou firi Trid) air' aprl £/c rovrov rov yevyii^aroQ r?ig dyuTreXou."—Matt,
xxvi. 2.Q.
'ATT* aon o^eade Tor ovpavbv avtMyora."—John^ i. 52.
'Air' apn Xe'yw V[Mr irpo rov yevltrdai." — John, xiii. 19-
'ATT* apri yirujffk'ere avrbv."— John, xiv. 7-
Matt. xxvi. 64.
E E

418 THE COMING OF CHEIST. [LECT. XVI.
sitting on the right hand of power and coming in the clouds
of heaven"l
"Hereafter—diro rov vvv^^from the now—shall the Son
of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God." 3
Observe it well, then, that in answer to the most solemn ques-
tion which the Jews ever put to our Lord,—a question touching
his Messiahship,— he publicly gave out, as the proof of that
Messiah ship, that from almost immediately, CXTT' apri (and the
words are never used except of events soon to take place)
or, according to St. Luke, from the now — euro rov vvv (an
expression only found in five other places in the New Testa-
ment, and always referring to things directly about to happen},
they of that day and generation should SEE the " Son of Man
sitting on the right hand of power, AND COMING IN THE
CLOUDS OF HEAVEN/' And that they to whom these words
were addressed understood them in the sense of an assertion
of Divine power, and of an immediate coming to judgment, is
evident from the manner in which they received them.
" Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, he hath
spoken blasphemy."1
" Ye have heard the blasphemy."0
" What need we any further witness ? for we ourselves
have heard of his own mouth."6
Is it a wonder that our Lord should elsewhere have abun-
dantly confirmed these statements respecting his immediate
coming, and that he should have defined that time by unmis-
1 Mark, xiv. 62.
2 " 'ATTO TOU vvv'' from the now> — found only five times in the New
Testament, and employed only of events soon about to take place.
f *ATTO TOV vvv tlr ret tOvrj 7roptv(TOf.ictL,"—Acts, xviii. 6.
4 "Rffovrai yap UTTO rov vvv TTEVTE iv (JIKW tvi ciapepepierpivot.*—Luke,
52.
'ATTO TOV vvv (tvOptoTrovQ trTT) £o.»ypw)'. —Luke, v. 10.
'TTO rov vvv paKupLOvai pe Traaai at yEvsai"—Luke, i. 48.
ore ijp.u.Q CITTO TOV vvv ovcivo. oificifjitv Kara ffapKa."—2 Cor. v. 16.
3 Luke, xxii. 69. 4 Matt. xxvi. 6,5.
* Mark, xiv. 64. 6 Luke, xxii. 71.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 419
takable and impassable limits ? That he should have said to
his disciples, " Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel
till the Son of Man be come."1 That he should have said
that one of his disciples should be quick upon earth at the
time of his coming". t(ff I will that he tarry till I come,
what is that to thee"2 That he should have elsewhere re-
peated this statement, as recorded by the three evangelists,—
" There be some standing here ivhich shall not taste of
death till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom."8
That he should have represented his absence as temporary,
and hut for " a little while." " I will not leave you comfort-
less, I will come (e/o^o/xa^ / am coming} to you. Yet a
little while (en, piKpov}, and the world seeth me no more
. . . . at that day ye shall know/' &c.4 "A little
while (fiLKpov), and ye shall not see me (^ecyyoelre), and again
a little while (/UK/>OZ>) and ye shall see me5 (oi/fecr#e), because
I go to the Father"** " I go to prepare a place for you ; and
if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again (7raAu>
epXOjjLai, I am coming again} and receive you unto myself."7
That in innumerable passages he should have declared that
his coming should be seen by those whom he addressed.
" Shall ye see the Son of Man." 8
" Ye shall see the Son of Man/'9
1 Matt. x. 23. — Then his coming must have taken place before the cities
of Israel perished ; and where have these been for the last 2000 years ?
These cities are moreover defined by the context as cities then existing,—
" Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans
enter ye not, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.''—
Matt. x. 5, 6.
2 John, xxi. 22, 23.
3 Matt. xvi. 28.; Mark, ix. 1.; Luke, ix. 27.
4 John, xiv. 18—20.
5 It is worthy of notice, that the verb used to designate the human appear*
ance of Christ upon earth is ^cwpeere, whereas the verb used to describe his
second coming is o^eade, — " ye shall see as in a vision." — Compare Heb.
ix. 28., John, i. 52., 1 Cor. xv. 5, 6, 7, 8.
6 John, xvi. ] 6. — That " little while " could not refer to the period of
forty days between his death and his ascension, for it is added : " Because I
go to the Father" During that interval he had not gone to the Father: e( Touch
me not, for I am not yet ascended unto my Father." — John, xx. 17.
7 John, xiv. 2—3. 8 Matt, xxvi. 64. * Mark, xiv. 62.
KF, 2

420 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LECT. XVI.

" When ye see these things come to pass."l

" Watch ye, therefore, and pray always that ye may he
accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to
pass—ra [L&Xovra yivecrdai, that shall soon come to pass —
and to stand befove the Son of Man"2

So, also, in all those texts which relate to the institution of
the Christian passover, there is a manifest allusion to the
speediness of his coming.

" I say unto you I will not drink henceforth — air apri,
from just now—of this fruit of the vine until that day when
I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom "^ " Verily
I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine,
until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God." 4
" For I say unto you I will not any more eat thereof until it
be fulfilled in the kingdom of God"^ " For I say unto you
I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of
God shall come" ^ But St. Paul says, "As often as ye eat
this bread and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till
he come"7 And the time of his coming1 is the time also of
the kingdom. " When ye see these things come to pass,
know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand." 8

The unavoidable inference is, that the coming, the kingdom,
and the gathering together of those who should drink it new
with him in his kingdom, are synchronical, and that coining is
declared to be, air d/m, from just now, and within the life-
time of the existing generation.9

1 Luke, xxi. 31. 2 Luke, xxi. 36.
3 Matt. xxvi. 2.Q. 4 Mark, xiv. 25.
5 Luke, xxii. 16. 6 Luke, xxii. 18.
7 1 Cor. xi. 26. 8 Luke, xxi. 3i.
" 9 The consideration that the passover was " fulfilled in the kingdom of
God," need not in any way detract from our observance of the Christian
sacrament. The first passover was fulfilled in Egypt; the lamb slain and
the blood sprinkled were the tokens of safety to the Israelites in their house of
bondage. But that " night of the Lord was to be observed of all the children
of Israel in their generations." — Exod. xii. 42. So " Christ our passover
is sacrificed for us," and that passover was "fulfilled in the kingdom of
God j " but this is no reason why the universal church in every age should not
profess a grateful recollection of that stupendous mystery.

LBCT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 421
5. But I pass on to show you that our Lord's coming was
connected with the destruction of a particular city and people,
and that the two events are inseparably united in the word
of God.
In the parable of the wicked husbandmen he connects his
coming with the destruction of the Jewish people.
" When, therefore, the Lord of the vineyard cometh, what
will he do unto these husbandmen ? They say unto him, He
will miserably destroy those wicked men."1
" What shall, therefore, the lord of the vineyard do ? He
will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vine-
yard unto others." 2
" What, therefore, shall the lord of the vineyard do unto
them ? He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall
give the vineyard to others." 3
There is no evading the great truth here unfolded, that our
Lord connects his coming with the time of the judgments upon
the Jewish people ; for not only is he represented as giving
the vineyard unto others, but at the close of each of the three
parables, it is added, " they perceived that he had spoken the
parable against them."
In Luke, xvii. 20—37-5 we have a most clear and decided
statement that the time when the Son of Man should be
revealed should be the time when Jerusalem should be com-
passed with armies, when the Christians should escape from
the doomed city, when one should be taken and another left,
and when the Roman eagles should be gathered together to
fatten on the slain.
Our Lord is demanded of the Pharisees " when the Kingdom
of God should come " [/. e. when he should come in his king-
dom ; compare Luke, xxi. 31.]; and his answer was that the
kingdom of God should not be a visible kingdom upon earth.
" The kingdom of God cometh not with observation, neither
shall they say Lo here, or Lo there, for the kingdom of God is
1 Matt. xxi. 40. 2 Mark, xii. 9, * Luke, xx. 15..
E K 3

422 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LBCT. XVI.
within you/5 And this he subsequently explained to his dis-
ciples to mean, that a time was coming when they should no
more see him on earth as they did then; " The days will come
when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man,
and ye shall not see it," and that when " false Christs and false
prophets should say, See here or See there," "Behold he is in
the desert," " Behold he is in the secret chambers," Behold
Christ has once more come personally upon earth; they were not
to "go after them or follow them/'^/or his coming would be a
sudden and heavenly apparition, a momentary and glorious
^Apocalypse. " For as the lightning that lighteneth out of the
one part under heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven,
SO SHALL ALSO THE SON OF MAN BE IN HIS DAY."
And then he pointed out the time of this awful coming. He said
indeed that "first he must suffer many things, and be rejected
of this generation." But that after that—evil days should come
on like the days of Noah and the days of Lot when the flood
came on the world of the ungodly, and the fire and brimstone
from heaven destroyed them all. " EVEN THUS SHALL IT
BE IN THE DAY WHEN THE SON OF MAN IS REVEALED."
" In that day" the Jew who was " upon the house-top and
his stuff in the house" (evidently referring to eastern modes of
life) was not to come down to take it away. He who was in
the field, outside the doomed city, was not to turn back. Of
the women grinding at the mill (a custom purely Jewish) one
was to be taken, and the other left. And all this was to happen
whilst the Roman armies were gathered around Jerusalem, and
the Roman eagles preying upon the carcase of the Jewish na-
tion. "And they answered and said unto him, Where Lord?
And he said unto them, Wheresoever the body is, thither will
be eagles gathered together."
So again in that parable in which he checked the false
impression prevalent at that time respecting the immediate
development of his heavenly kingdom, the period of his
coming is connected with the punishment of the Jewish people.
We are told, " He added and spake a parable because he was
nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom
of God should immediately appear." The parable represents
" a certain nobleman " [an allusion to the custom of provincial

LECT. XVL] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 423

deputies going to Rome to be confirmed in their government],
" who went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom
and to return." Before, however, he undertakes this journey,
he calls his servants, and bids them " Occupy till 1 come"
" But his citizens (the Jews) hated him, and sent a message
after him saying, ive will not have this man to reign over us"

" And it came to pass when he was returned, having received
the kingdom " [showing that the kingdom was not fully deve-
loped until his return]], he punishes those disobedient citizens
who rejected him as their Messiah. " But those mine enemies,
which would not that I should reign over them, brim/ hither
and slay them before me" l Here the coming, the kingdom,
and the punishment of the disobedient Jews are synchronical.

So, in Luke xviii., our Lord declared not only that he would
come speedily for the purpose of vengeance upon the disobedient
Jews, but that his coming would be local, and restricted to a
particular land.

The passage occurs at the close of the parable of the unjust
judge. " And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge
saith. And shall not God avenge his own elect ? . . . I tell
you that he will avenge them speedily (eV ra^et). Neverthe-
less when the Son of Man cometh shall he Jind faith on the
earth" (CTU TT^S y*?s) — Judaea?

Now, by comparing this with the parallel passage 2 it will
be seen that " the earth " can only mean the land of Judaea : —

" Shall not God avenge (Troi/rycrei e/cSi/c^Grw) his own
elect?"3
" These be the days of vengeance (e/cSi/o^crecos)." 4
" When the Son of Man cometh." 5
" Then shall they see the Son of Man coming." 6
" Shall he find faith on the earth (evrt TTJS y^s) Judaea." 7
" There shall be great distress in the land (eVl 7775 y^?)
Judaea — and wrath upon this people" — the Jews, — where the
1 Luke, x. 11-— 27- 2 Luke xxi. 22, 23.
3 Luke, xviii. 7- 4 Luke, xxi. 22.
5 Luke, xviii. 8. 6 Luke, xxi. 27«
7 Luke, xviii. 8
B K 4

THE COMING OF CHKIST. [LBCT. XVI.
qualifying clause «this people" makes it certain that the land
of Judaea must be intended.
There is no evading the conclusion that his corning was for
the purpose of executing vengeance upon the disobedient Jews,
and that it was a coming " to the earth"—-Judaea.
But why multiply proofs ? Stephen was put to death for saying
44 Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and shall change
the customs which Moses delivered us."1 James the Just was
martyred for his glorious testimony to the speedy coming of
Christ. " Why do ye ask me respecting Jesus the Son of
Man ? he is now sitting in the heavens on the right hand of
great power and is coming — (/xeXXet tpye&OaC) is soon about
to come—in the clouds of heaven." 2 Clement, who wrote his
first Epistle before the destruction of Jerusalem,3 said that his
coming should take place before the destruction of the temple,
and that it would be accompanied by a resurrection of his
saints.
" Of a truth, quickly and suddenly shall his will be accom-
plished : for lie shall come quickly and shall not delay, and
suddenly the Lord shall come to his temple, and the Holy one
whom ye expect. Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord
shows explicitly to us the resurrection which is soon to take
place j of which he made the Lord Jesus the first fruits, raising
him from the dead." 4
With every stone hurled by the engines of the tenth legion
against the walls of Jerusalem the watchmen on the towers
gave notice of the stone when it was let go, and cried out in
their own country language, " THE SON COMETH." 5 Euse-
1 Acts, vi. 14. 2 Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 23.
3 Clement, mentioned as the fellow-labourer of St. Paul, whose name is
"in the Book of Life," Phil. iv. 3., speaks of the apostles as living in his
clay. Aa/3wjue»> Trpo o(fj{)a\fjLu)i' JJJJLWV rovt; ayctOovc (iiroffroXovc. ' \L\Owpfv
€7rt rof£ tyyiffTO. ytvofAtrovG a^Ar/rac. Aa/3w/x£y rrjQ yivtug ijfjiwi' TCI ytv-
vala. vrroceiyfiard. — St. Clement, Kpist. i.
Jerusalem is also spoken of as still existing, and the temple service still
continued. ()u Trarra-^ov dce\(f>ai Trprtfftiipoi'Tai Svariai it'CitXe^LfTfJiov, >/
ft/^fDr, // 7rtf)i apapriar k'ui irXrinptKiaQ, d\\' i) tv 'JtftovcrciXiifi p<»'y
t^TrporrBf^ rov raou TT^OC TO ^vmuirrJipiov fjLMf.iofTKotrriQe^ TO irpofffyepOfJLFVov
Cia TOU ap^ttpewc KU* T&r TrpottprjiJLU'ujv \eiTovpyu>v, — St. Clement, Epist.
i. 40.
4 1 Epist. ad Cor. xxiv.
5 Bell. Jud. Jib. v. cap. 6.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 425
bius records the fact that the Jewish people at that time
expected that Jesus would corne as their Messiah. He tells us
of the period immediately preceding the destruction of Jeru-
salem that, "As there were many of the rulers that believed . .
there was danger that the people would now expect Jesus
as the Messiah" And he adds that immediately upon the
martyrdom of James, who, as Hegesippus says, " became a
faithful witness both to Jews and Greeks that Jesus is Christ,'*
the temple and the city fell.
" The wiser part of the Jews were of opinion that this was
the cause of the immediate siege of Jerusalem, which happened
to them for no other cause than the crime against him."
"These things," says Josephus, "happened to the Jews to
avenge James the Just, who was the brother of him that is
called Christ." x
6. St. Paul accurately points out the time of our Lord's
coming, as that when some enemy then hindering the church
should be removed.
" That day shall not come except there be a [THE] falling
away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdi-
tion .... and now ye know what withholdeth that he
might be revealed in his time, for the mystery of iniquity doth
already wor/c, only he who now letteth, will let, until he be
taken out of the way, and then shall that wicked be revealed,
whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth,
and destroy with the brightness of his coming" 2 Here it is
evident that St. Paul intended to designate some enemy whose
schemes were then in operation, and who then opposed the
prosperity of the church. This enemy (then existing) was to
be destroyed " with the brightness of his coming" This at
once determines the immediate character of the advent, or else
we must be driven to the conclusion that the enemy existing in
St. Paul's day, an enemy well known to those to whom the
Apostle wrote, " Ye know what withholdeth that he might be
revealed in his time," is still existing in the ThessaJoniau
Church, and has yet to be destroyed.
Added to this the Apostle connects the coming of the Lord
1 Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 23. 2 2 Thcss. ii. .3—8.

426 THE COMING OF CHRIST. [LBCT. XVI.

with the punishment of the Jewish people. " Seeing it is a
righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them
that trouble you, and to you who are troubled rest with us,
when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his
mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that
know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord
Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruc-
tion from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his
power, when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to
be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony
among you was believed) in that day." (£ Thess. i. ()—10.)

" The day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night;
for when they—the Jews—shall say, Peace and safety, then
sudden destruction cometh upon them as travail upon a woman
with child, and they shall not escape." *

" God hath not appointed us [the Christians of those days]
to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus
Christ, who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep we
might live together with him." 2

This is no new idea set forth by the Apostle ; it is only a
repetition of his Master's words: " When, therefore, the Lord of
the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto these husbandmen ?
They say unto him he will miserably destroy those U'ickcd men,
and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen."

7- That this immediate coming of the Lord Jesus was the
settled belief and the subject of the continual teaching of the
Apostles, is proved abundantly by expressions everywhere scat-
tered throughout the Epistles, showing that they expected an
advent close at hand.3

" And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time

to awake out of sleep, for now is our salvation nearer (eyyv-

t

1 1 Thess. v. 2. 2 1 Thess. v. 9, 10.

3 " Absentia vero illius patris-familias tempus est quod in advcntum ejut

restat"

This is elsewhere called:
" Post aliquant urn vero ternporis,
Punt dies delude non multos."—
Pastor, Similitude />. LjscT.XVL] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 427

repoz>) than when we believed ; the night is far spent ; the
day is at hand

" But this I say, brethren, the time is short," (6

aXjLL€^o9 TO \OITTOV ecrni>, the time is contracted as to
what is left;} "it remaineth that both they that have wives
be as though they had none, and they that weep as though
they wept not, and they that rejoice as though they rejoiced
not, and they that buy as though they possessed not, and
they that use this world as not abusing it, for the fashion
of this world passeth away." 2

" To wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from
the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to
come." (TOP pvo/jitvov ^/ms euro TT^S opyrjs rfjs
who shall deliver us from the wrath, the coming one.)'6

" I give thee charge .... that thou keep this command-
ment without spot unrebukable until the appearing of our Lord
Jesus Christ.^

" Yet a little while, ert yap piKpov ocrov ocrw, and he that
shall come will come, and will not tarry (ov

" So much the more as ye SEE the day approaching^ (eyyt-
tpvcrav TTJ " G

" Be patient, therefore, brethren, unto the coming (jrapov-
crias) of our Lord"1

" Be ye also patient .... for the coming (Trapovcria) of
the Lord draweth nigh (V/yyt/ce)." 8

1 Rom. xiii. 11, 12. 2 1 Cor. vii. 2Q, SO, 31.
3 1 Thess. i. 10.
4 2 Tim. vi. 14----If it could not be said that St. Paul meant Timothy to
keep this charge only until the fall of Jerusalem, could it be said with greater
propriety that he was to keep it until the so-called end of the world ? or, is
it not possible that St. Paul might have believed that Timothy would be
among those who " should not all sleep," but who " should be alive and remain
unto the coming of the Lord ? "
* Heb. x. 37. * Heb. x. 25.
7 James, v. 7- * James

458 THE COMING OF CHBIST. [L»CT. XVI.

" Behold the Judge standeth before the door." l

*

" Hope to the end (reXeuos) [compare " Then shall the end
come " 2] for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the
revelation (aTro/caXui/fei) of Jesus Christ." 3

" The end of all things is at hand " 4

" Who shall give account to him that is ready (rw eroi//,a>9
€)(OVTL) to judge the quick and the dead" 5

" The time is come that judgment must begin at the house
of God ; and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of
them that obey not," &c.6

" The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night" 7

" The Lord is not slack (ou J3pa8vv€i)9 delays not — con-
cerning his promise." 8

" The Lord is at hand (6 Kvpt,o$ eyyv 9)." 9

" If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be
Anathema Maranatha" let him be accursed at the coming of
the Lord.10

" Jfre which arc alive and remain (ot ^oWes ot
unto the coming of the Lord." u

" Then we ichich are alive and remain shall be caught up
.... to meet the Lord in the air.12
" We shall not all sleep." 13
" Little children, it is the last time ; and as ye have heard
that Antichrist shall come ; even now arc there many anti-
christs, whereby we know that it is the last time"1*'
Nothing can be more evident than that our Lord's disciples
1 James, v. 9. 2 Matt. xxiv. 14.
3 1 Peter, i. 1,3. 4 1 Peter, iv. 7.
5 1 Peter, iv. 5. 6 1 Peter, iv. 17.
7 2 Peter, iii. 10. K 2 Peter, iii. 9.
9 Phil. iv. 5. 10 1 Cor. xvi. 22.
11 1 Thess. iv. l.r>. 12 1 Thess. iv. 17.
13 1 Cor. xv. />!. MI J0inij n 18>

LBCT.XVJ.] THE COMING OF CHRIST. 429
implicitly believed the declarations which he had made to them
respecting his advent during the lifetime of the then existing
generation. Nothing can be more evident than that they held
and taught the doctrine of Christ's coming close at hand. They
never dreamed of thousands of years intervening between his
first and his second coming. They never dreamed that this com-
ing, like the sword of Damocles, was to be continually suspended
over the church. They never mixed up two homogeneous sets
of predictions flowing together in artless parallel. They never
spoke of it in connection with the return of the Jews to their
own land, or with any of the wild phantasies of the present
age. They never associated it with the idea of a millennium, or
a personal reign of Christ on earth. On the contrary, they
believed and taught that this coming would take place ere the
term of their natural life had expired; they connected it with
the destruction of the Jewish people, as their Lord had said.
They anticipated with joyful expectation the time of their being
gathered together into the barns of eternal rest, and from day
to day were "looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious
appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ" l
And as the night became "FAR SPENT," and their salvation ap-
peared " NEARER" than when they first believed, and as by the
unmistakable tokens preceding that mighty advent they "SAW"
" the day approaching; " then still more distinctly and de-
cidedly did they speak of the immediate character of this second
coming. The veil seemed rent away—the mists withdrawn.
" That day and that hour of which no man knew, no, not the
angels in heaven, nor the Son," is now proclaimed to be near at
hand. God gives to his Son the knowledge of his speedy Apo-
calypse, and " the Revelation, ^7ro/caXui//t9, of Jesus Christ,
which God gave unto him, to show unto his servants things
which must shortly be done" is " sent and signified by his angel
unto his servant John."
Then poured forth the full blaze of light conveying to the
churches the announcement that " THE TIME is AT HAND."2
Then the prophecy was to be left UNSEALED because of its
immediate accomplishment. Then he was pronounced BLESSED
who kept the sayings of these impending judgments. Then
1 Titus, ii. 13. 3 Rev. i. 3.

THE COMING OF CHEIST. [LBCT. XVI.
he that was unjust and filthy and he that was righteous and
holy, was to be taken or lift, WITHOUT PLACE OR TIME FOR
FURTHER CHANGE ; and the first blast of the trump of God
sent forth its note of deep and solemn warning, " THE LORD
IS AT HAND."
" Behold, he comet h with clouds, and every eye1 shall see
him, and they also which pierced him." 2
<c Behold, I come quickly, and my reward is with me." 8
"Behold, I come quickly. Blessed is he that keepeth the
sayings of the prophecy of this Book." 4
" Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth." 6
" Behold, I stand at the door and knock."6
" He which testifieth these things saith, Surely, I come
quickly" 7
" Amen, even so come, Lord Jesus." 8
Then was unequivocally manifested the nature and the object
of his coming, when the beloved Apostle to whom alone the
promise was made, " If I u'ill that he tarry till I come " be-
holds " A white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto
the SON OF MAN .... in his hand a sharp sickle 9; . . . .
and he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth
(Judaea), and the earth was reaped."
Then was revealed unanswerably the connection between his
coming and the wrath upon disobedient Israel. When " The
angel gathered the vine of the earth [Judaea], and cast it into
1 This is explained by the subsequent parallel clause, "All the kin-
dreds of the earth/' iraaai at QoXai r>/c yjjfc? the tribes of Palestine, "shall
wail because of him." " Then shall all the tribes of the earth — Judcea —
mourn"—Matt. xxiv. 30. Compare " Ata yap TO Traa-^a 0vvt\7i\vt)aff\
iraffai at <f)v\ai ptra Kal rwv E0v<Zi>,"—Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 23.,
where the tribes, <pu\at, are put into apposition with the Gentiles, iiOvfj.
* Rev. i. 7- 3 Rev. xxii. 12.
4 Rev. xxii. 7» 5 Rev. xvi. 15.
6 Rev. iii. 20. 7 Rev. xxii. 20.
8 Rev. xxii. 20.
9 Compare " Tre/i^/ov TO ^oiiravov arov /cat ^ipicror," — Rev. xiv. 15., with
ft Kai iv rw KaipaJ rov 3ipiarp.ov ipu rote $ept0ra7c."—Matt. xiii. 80.

LECT. XVI.] THE COMING OF CHBIST. 431
the great winepress of the wrath of God, and the winepress
was trodden WITHOUT THE CITY, ahd blood came out of the
winepress even unto the horse-bridles." 1
Then, in accordance with the previous declaration, " Here-
after ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending
and descending upon the Son of Man," did the disciple to
whom the Apocalypse was most appropriately sent behold, as
Stephen had done before him, " Heaven opened," and lo, " a
white horse, and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and
True, . . . and his name is called THE WORD OF GOD."
Then was revealed to him, in characters of living light
whose radiance should be reflected in the Church for ever,
the specific aim and purpose of that advent of retribution,
and an angel is heard crying " with a loud voice, saying to
all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and ga-
ther yourselves together unto the supper of the great God,
that ye may cat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains,
and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of
them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men both free and
bond, both small and great .... and all the fowls were filled
with their flesh.2
Here is no strained interpretation. Here are no shifts re-
sorted to, to defend a system. Here is no patching of the
word of God, no miserable defence of a position which is
plainly untenable. The glorious truth is written as with a sun-
beam, and the whole body of the Scriptures coincides with it.
The analogy of faith flows in one uniform direction, and never
for a moment deviates from the right channel. The prophecies
which went before, the definite statements of our Lord in the
Gospels, the confirmation of the Epistles, and the symbols of
the Apocalypse, proclaim with one voice the same grand and
continuous truth which it has been the object of this chapter to
demonstrate ; that the second coming of our Lord is an event
which has already taken place ; that he came then, as he said,
to destroy the nation and city, and to close the age; that no
other coming is in any way alluded to in the Scriptures, except
that advent of judgment and mercy which is here portrayed in
the Revelation of St. John.
1 Rev. xiv. 14—20. * Rev. xix. 11—21.

432

LECTURE XVII.

THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, AND THE KINGDOM.
THE SONG OF VICTORY.

SEVENTH TRUMPET.

" And I looked,, and lo, a Lamb
stood on the Mount Zion."

"And with him an hundred and
forty and four thousand."

" Having his Father's name writ-
ten in their foreheads."

"And I heard a voice from heaven
as the voice of many waters, and as
the voice of a great thunder ; and I
heard the voice of harpers harping
with their harps."

"And they sung as it were a new
song before the throne, and before
the beasts and the elders."

" And no man could learn that
song but the hundred and forty and
four thousand which were redeemed

from the earth.....These were

redeemed from among men, being
the first-fruits unto God and to the
Larnb."

" And in their mouth was found
no guile ; for they are without fault
before the throne of God,"

" If any man worship the beast
and his image, and receive his mark

SEVENTH VIAL.
" He . . . shewed me that great
city, the holy Jerusalem .... de-
scending out of heaven from God."
— Rev. xxi. 9, H).
" The Bride, the Lamb's wife."
" His name shall be in their fore-
heads."— Rev. xxii. 4.
" And I heard as it were the voice
of a great multitude, and as the voice
of many waters, and as the voice of
mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia,
for the Lord God Omnipotent reign-
eth." — Rev. xix. 6.
"And again they said, Alleluia
......and the four and twenty
elders and the four beasts fell down
and worshipped God that sat on the
throne." — Rev. xix. 3, 4.
" But the rest of the dead lived
not again until the thousand years
were finished. This is the first re-
surrection. Blessed and holy is he
that hath part in the first resurrection;
on such the second death hath no
power."—Rev. xx. />, ().
" And to her was granted that she
should be arrayed in fine linen, clean
and white; for the fine linen is the
righteousness of saints." — Rev. xix.
8.
" The beast was taken, and with
him the false prophet that wrought

LECT. XVII.] MILLENNIUM, JUDGMENT, AND KINGDOM. 433

in his forehead or in his hand, the
same .... shall be tormented with
fire and brimstone."

" Arid the smoke of their torment
ascendeth up for ever and ever ; and
they have no rest day nor night."

" And I heard a voice from heaven
saying unto me, Write, Blessed are
the dead which die in the Lord from
henceforth : Yea, saith the Spirit."

(' And I saw as it were a sea of
glass mingled with fire; and them
that had gotten the victory over the
beast, and over his image, and over
his mark, and over the number of
his name."

" And they sing the song of Moses

and the song of the Lamb,
saying, Great and marvellous are thy
works Lord God Almighty."

"Just and true are thy ways thou
King of saints/'

" For thy judgments are made
manifest." — Rev. xiv.. Rev. xv. 4.

miracles before him, with which he
deceived them that had received the
mark of the beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These were
both cast alive into a lake of fire
burning with brimstone."—Rev. xix.
20.

ff Shall be tormented day and night
for ever and ever." — Rev. xx.
10.

fc And he saith unto me, Write,
Blessed are they which are called
unto the marriage supper of the
Lamb. And he saith unto me, These
are the true sayings of God." — Rev.
xix. 9-

"And I saw thrones^ and they that
sat on them ; and I saw the souls of
them that were beheaded for the wit-
ness of Jesus .... which had not
worshipped the beast, neither his
image, neither had received his mark
upon their foreheads or in their
hands." — Rev. xx. 4.

" I heard a great voice of much
people in heaven, saying, Alleluia;
Salvation, and glory, and honour, and
power, unto the Lord our God."—
Rev. xix. 1.

" True and righteous are his judg-
ments." — Rev. xix. 2.

" For he hath judged the great
whore which did corrupt the earth/'
— Rev. xix. 2.

THE subject which we pursued in our last Lecture, was The
Coming of the Son of Man.
We proved that this coming' could not delineate the future
judgment of all mankind, because it is connected with the de-
struction of a particular city^—that it must have been local,
not universal, because it is connected with the punishment of a
particular people, — that the Scriptures do not recognise the
notion of a personal coming to this earth, but uniformly speak
of it in terms which represent it as a manifestation — an appa-
rition — a momentary and lightning-like Apocalypse, similar to
the vision of Stephen or the Transfiguration. We proved by
scriptural argument, which it is as hopeless to overthrow as to
F F

434 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.
evade, that our Lord came, as he said, to destroy Jerusalem,
and to close the Jewish dispensation. We pointed out a part
of the magnificent and complete proof which can be adduced to
determine the time of his coming, and which invariably conjoins
his advent with the punishment of the disobedient Jews. We
established incontrovertibly that, whether in ignorance of the
real state of the case or otherwise, the doctrine of an immediate
advent within the lifetime of the then existing generation was
the universal belief of the Church at that period; and that so far
from supposing thousands of years would intervene, they held
and taught the doctrine of a coming close at hand, and lived
and acted out this truth as men some of whom might " tarry
till he came," might be " alive and remain unto the coming of
the Lord." No other coming but this is spoken of or alluded
to in the Scripture. Our Lord said, " I will come again" (jraXiv
ep^o/xcu), Jam coming again. St. Paul said, "he shall appear
the second time" (eV Sevrepov) ; but no mention is made of any
third coming to judgment as distinct from his coming in his
kingdom.
It is no sufficient answer to these views to say that the com-
ing of the Lord may he postponed to any indefinite period,
because St. Peter asserts that " one day is with the Lord as
a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day"
If you take into consideration the scope of the whole passage,
you will find that scoffers of those days marvelled that (Christ
had not already come aceordiinj to his promise— showing they
not only expected an immediate advent, but that they considered
the time which our Lord had pointed out for that advent to
have already expired. " Where is the promise [said they] of
his coming; for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue
as they were from the beginning of the creation." l St. Peter
answers their objection by saying that to the Eternal Mind one
day was as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one
day, and that therefore their impatience was ill-timed.
But nothing was farther from St. Peter's intention than to
lead them to suppose that any lengthened period would inter-
vene before his second coming; nay, he declared it to be close at
hand almost in the identical language employed by our Lord.
1 2 Peter, iii. 4.

LECT. XVIL] AND THE KINGDOM. 435

" The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night,
in which the heavens shall pass away (Va/oeXevo-ozrcu) * with
a great noise."

" The Lord is not slack (ov fipaSvvei, delays not) con-
cerning his promise."

" Seeing then that all these things shall be dissolved, what
manner of persons ought ye \jklien living to witness it~] to be."

" Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of
God."2

Surely it does not follow, because St. Peter, in answer to
those who condemned our Lord as a false prophet because he
had not already fulfilled the promise of his corning, quotes
a verse from the 90th psalm showing that in the Eternal
Mind there can be no divisions of time (a short space being the
same to the Lord as a longer period), that therefore thousands
of years must necessarily intervene between his first and his
second coming. Surely the reply of the Apostle to the scoffers
of those last days, that, although the time had not arrived,
yet that nevertheless " the day of the Lord would come as a
thief in the night," cannot be perverted to signify that the period
between the advents may be extended to any indefinite limit.
And to put this as a conclusive answer to the plain declarations
which determine with unwavering accuracy the time and the
object of his coming, and to rest upon this single verse, the
meaning of which is plainly declared by the context to be at
utter variance with the sense usually attached to it, an argu-

1 Our Lord not only repeatedly described that coining, which he said
should take place within the lifetime of that generation, under the figure of
the sudden approach of a thief (Matt. xxiv. 43.; Luke, xii. 3.9.), but he said
that heaven and earth — i, c. the Jewish economy — should also pass away,
irapeXevfforrai, before his coming. (Matt. xxiv. 35. ; Mark, xiii, 31.) So
St. Paul: " Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but a/so heaven/9 And
this shaking of earth and heaven, plainly identical with the passing away of
earth and heaven, is declared by the Apostle himself to mean the removal of
the Jewish dispensation. " And this word, Yet once more, signified) the
removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that
those things which cannot be shaken may remain "— Heb. xii. 26, '27-
* 2 Peter, iii. 9, 10, 11, 12.
F F 2

436 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.

ment, if argument it can be called, which is to bear up against
the whole analogy of faith flowing in a contrary direction,
appears to me special pleading of the feeblest kind,—a miserable
escape out of a seeming difficulty, — a safety-valve, it may be,
for a system, but no firm footing for a sincere inquirer after
truth. If the faith of the whole Church rested upon such an
argument, and was supported by no better conclusions, I should
say it cannot be exposed too soon.

Neither is the objection conclusive against these views,
which supposes, because the coming of Christ is described in
terms replete with majesty and terror, that events which then
took place were not of sufficient importance to correspond
with the grandeur of the prediction.1

It is not for us to say, ignorant as we are of the spiritual
mysteries which accompanied that advent, that the language of
Scripture is overstrained ; neither is it for us to contravene
positive statements respecting the time, &c., which we do
know, because of the grandeur of Eastern hyperbole under
which is depicted a coming the precise nature of which we do
not know. We ought rather to remember that Scripture must
ever be interpreted according to the analogy of Scripture, and
that ample allowance must be made for Oriental phraseology
and biblical metaphor. Thus, when St. Peter2 says (in the

1 There appea s at first sight to be a difficulty with regard to such decla-
rations as, " Behold he cometh with clouds, and every eye shall see him."
(Rev. i. 7-) But this is only the repetition of our Lord's words given by St.
Matthew and St. Mark, who both say that the men of that generation should
see the Son of Man coining in the clouds. St. Luke has a little variation :
he uses the singular number.—"Then shall they see the Son of Man coming
in a cloud." (Luke, xxi. 27.) So also in his Acts of the Apostles : — "A
cloud received him out of their sight; " and his coining was to correspond
with his ascent.—" This same Jesus .... shall xo come .... as ye have
seen him go into heaven/' (Acts, i. 9 — H-) Accordingly St. John sees
"a white cloud" (Rev. xiv. 14.), called in the parallel passage ua white
horse." (Rev. xix. II.) The idea meant to be conveyed, is that of the
glorious appearing of the Lord Jesus (the cloud being the symbol of the
presence of the Deity), which appearing was to be local,—-for they which
pierced him (the*Jews) were to look upon him,—and confined within the
limits of a particular generation.
2 We are met here by the objection that St. Peter compares the destruction
of the old world under the flood, with the destruction of " the heavens and
earth which are now." It is impossible to carry out this comparison in all its

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 437
only passage1 in which the coming of the Lord is associated
with the destruction of the material world), " The heavens
shall pass away (jrap€\€.vo"ovraC) with a great noise, and the
elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the
works that are therein shall be burned up,"2 he only repeats
his Master's words, thrice stated by the three Evangelists :
" Heaven and earth shall pass away (TrapeXeucro^Tcu), but my
words shall not pass away," and that our Lord connected
this passing away of heaven and earth, which he said should
take place within the lifetime of that generation, with the
time of the abrogation of the Mosaic law, is evident from the
words —" Till heaven and earth pass (7rapeX#7?), one jot or
one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be ful-
filled."3 Indeed, it is well known that the passing away of
heaven and earth is a figure often used in the Old Testament4
to denote some great change ; and that in the passage of St.
Peter to which we have referred, the destruction of the
material world is not the idea intended to be conveyed, is
evident from the context. " Nevertheless we, according to his
promise, look for a new heaven and a new earth, wherein
dvvelleth righteousness."4
Neither have 1 much respect for the opinions of those who
particulars, for the " heavens of old " cannot have been destroyed at the flood,
whatever may have been done to the earth. It is a powerful confirmation of
our position that our Lord should have described the destruction of Jerusalem
as similar to that in the days of Noah. St. Peter is only repeating his
Master's words: — " As it was in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the
days of the Son of Man."— Luke, xvii. 26'. ; Matt. xxiv. 27-
1 fc Among the disputed books, although they are well known and approved
by many, is reputed, that called f The Epistle of James and Jude,' also { The
Second Kpiatle of Peter,' and those called, ' The Second and Third of John,'
whether they are of the Evangelist or of some other of the same name/' —
Eus. Eccles. Hist. lib. Hi. cap. 25.
2 2 Peter, iii. 10. *» Matt. v. 18.
4 Speaking of the introduction of the Christian dispensation, Isaiah says
(Ixv. 17-)j "Behold I create new heavens and a new earth, and the former
shall not be remembered nor come into mind; " and that this whole chapter
and subject relate to the period of the Gospel dispensation is clear upon
apostolic authority, for St. Paul quotes the first verse of it as referring to the
call of the Gentiles : — " Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them
that sought me not, I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me,"
— Rom. x. 20.
F F 3

438 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LBCT. XVII.
say, that in a certain sense our Lord came to destroy Jeru-
salem.
What! were the Scriptures given to be interpreted in a
certain sense, and that certain sense to be regulated according
to our own discretion ? There is no absurdity of which the
Scriptures may not be made capable upon such a system of
interpretation. There is no doctrine which may not be levelled
to the particular views of a particular party. Upon such
grounds the great doctrine of the Atonement may be curtailed
to include only the Jewish nation ; and the death upon the
cross, according to an ancient heresy, be interpreted to signify
only a semblance and appearance of death. If men are to
interpret the Scriptures in a certain sense, there is no truth,
however deeply affecting their eternal interests, which may not
be curtailed and levelled to the standard of human apprehen-
sion ; there is no doctrine safe in the whole Bible. The
Father may be, in a certain sense, the Creator, and the Son
may be, in a certain sense, the Redeemer of the world. I do
not say that Scripture is to be interpreted upon particular views
founded upon particular texts, and that one or two texts, ex-
plained perhaps without due reference to their legitimate
context, are to settle great and important truths ; Scripture
must ever be interpreted according to the analogy of Scripture ;
but this I do say, that when the analogy of Scripture flows in
one particular direction, it is not for us to interpret that
Scripture according to a certain sense, which has no deeper
foundation than our o\vn opinion.
Neither again is it a complete condemnation of these vieics,
that they contradict opinions held by the majority of Chris-
tians.
The opinions of the majority of Christians have not always
been right. In the days of Athanasius the whole Church was
infected with the Arian heresy. In the time of Martin Luther
the whole body of the Church believed in the infallibility and
the supremacy of the Pope. In our day the endless sects and
divisions amongst men of unquestionable piety, and the con-
tradictory views held by parties whose religious honesty is not
to be doubted, show that the truth is not as yet incontrovertibly
ascertained. It is a wonderful fact, that the Scriptures written
for our learning are not yet understood, and that in the

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 439
nineteenth century there should exist such a diversity of
opinion respecting them ;—not that the Romanist has much to
hoast of, when he pretends to a uniform exposition of the Word
of God ; that very uniformity is, in a certain degree, a proof
of want of investigation and examination. Better to hold
Protestantism, with all its divisions and searchings after truth,
than a religion hood-winked with a monk's cowl. Better be
tossed about upon a sea of wandering opinions, than do gross
violence to the noblest gifts bestowed on man, and which dis-
tinguish him as the masterpiece of God's creation.
But I believe the day of light and truth is coming fast, and
that men will throw aside opinions which cannot be based upon
the Word of God, as their forefathers threw aside the bows
and arrows and the chain-armour which had become useless.
I believe the day is at hand when no mystification of the truth
will be any longer tolerated ; when an enlightened population
will demand, as they have a right to demand, not infallibility
in their spiritual guides, but argument and proof instead of
assertion and conjecture. I believe that even the sanctity of
antiquity will not screen religious opinions from that searching
examination to which they will be subjected, and that the in-
violability of the dogma, " quod semper, quod unique, et ab
omnibus" will not stave off the rude yet necessary hand of
penetrating inquiry. All is progressing—physically, mentally,
morally. " It has pleased the Giver of our thoughts, and the
Disposer of our lot, to enlarge on all sides the boundaries of
human knowledge. There is no science of the heavens above,
or of the earth beneath, or of the waters under the earth,
which has not revealed mysteries of its own."1 Is spiritual
knowledge the only knowledge that is not to share in the
general development ? Is the science of religion the only
science that shall not profit in the general advance ? I believe
that floods of light will yet burst upon the Church, not from
any new revelation, but from a more careful examination of
that which we already possess, and that religion will be shown
to be not only a theme worthy the attention of the highest
range of human intellect, but the noblest and the grandest
subject which can occupy the thoughts of man. Only let us
1 '* Rational Godliness.''—Rev. Rowland Williams,
r r 4

440 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, HBCT. XVII.
assume nothing rashly ; let us look at the Scriptures as a great
and continuous whole ; let us interpret according to the analogy
of faith ; and let us rely, not on our own wisdom, but on the
guidance of that Holy Spirit who is able and willing to lead
us into all truth.
An identity, complete in all its parts, has been established
between that part of the Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh
Vial which we have as yet considered. This identity is pre-
served and continued in the Song of Victory which now pro-
ceeds from the conquering Church of God.
Trumpet. " A Lamb stood on the mount Zion"
Vial. <; He shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem."
T. " And with him [the Lamb] one hundred and forty-four
thousand/7
V. " The Bride, the Lamb's wife:9
T. "His Father's name written in their foreheads:9
V. "His name shall be in their foreheads:9
T. " I heard the voice of many u'aters"
V. " I heard . . . the voice of many waters.99
T. " And as the voice of a great thunder:9
V. " And as the voice of mighty thunder ings?9
T. " The voice of harpers harping with their harps:9
V. " Saying Alleluia, for the Lord God omnipotent
reigneth."
T. " And they sung as it were a new song"
V. " And again they said Alleluia:9
T. " Before the throne and before the beasts and the
elders:9
V. " The four and twenty elders, and the four beasts,
worship him that sat on the throne.99
T. " And no man could learn that song but the one hundred
and forty-four thousand which were redeemed from the earth:9
J^. " This is the j\rst resurrection : Blessed and holy is he
that hath part in the first resurrection."
T. " In their mouth was found no guile."
f^. The Bride " arrayed injine linen clean and white"

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 441
T. " For they are without fault before the throne of God/'
V. " The fine linen is the righteousness of the saints"
T. "If any man worship the beast and his image, and re-
ceive his mark"
T7". " The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet
that had received his mark, which deceived them that had re-
ceived and ivors/upped his image. "
T. " He shall be tormented withftre and brimstone"
V. " Cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brim-
stone"
T. "For ever and ever"
V. "For ever and ever"
T. " And they have no rest day nor nig lit"
T7". " Day and nig/it"
T. "Arid I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me,
Write."
V. " And he saith unto me, Write"
T. "Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord"
T^. " Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage
supper of the Lamb"
T. " Yea [Vat, compare Rev. i. J., val d/JLTJv, yea, truth],
saith the Spirit.'"
lr. " These are the true sayings of God"
T. "I saw a sea of glass [the crystal sea before the throne,
Rev. vi. 4.] mingled with fire."
V. " 1 saw thrones [" therefore are they before the throne
of God," Rev. vii. 15.], and they sat on them.'7
T. " And them which had gotten the victory over the
beast"
T7". " Which had not worshipped the beast"
T. Neither "his image," neither had received "his mark"
I7. " Neither his image, neither had received his mark"

442 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.

T. " In his forehead or in his hand."

V. " Upon their foreheads or in their hands."

T. " And they sing the Sony of Moses and of the Lamb."
P7^. " A great voice of much people saying j4lletuia."

T. " Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Al-
iniqhty"

V. " Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto
the Lord our God."

T. "Just and true (Si/ccucu KOL dX^^at) are thy ways,
thou King of saints."
V. " True and righteous (a\r)0wal KOL St/caiat) are his
judgments."
T. " For fay judgments are made manifest.7'
Jr. " For he \\^fa judged the great whore which did corrupt
the earth."
If you add this to the points of identity already established
between the Trumpets and Vials, it will be found to be the
finishing link in that chain of argument upon which J have
conducted this interpretation. Had the resemblance only ex-
isted between a few of the Trumpets and Vials, and had it
been of a doubtful and ambiguous character, it might have left
room for question; but the identity, as far as it is possible in
an allegorical book of this kind, has been perfect and complete
throughout. The Vial has been an echo of the Trumpet, and,
like an echo, has not failed to repeat the same notes ; some-
times indeed the sounds, as is not unusual in the natural echo,
have been doubled and repeated, — yet still the original quality
of the sound has been in every case preserved. Nor does the
resemblance cease until the judgments denounced under the
Seventh Trumpet and the Seventh Vial receive their full and
complete accomplishment — till Babylon has fallen, the Son of
Man has come, and the elect are saved.
Our present Lecture comprises some of the most agitated
questions in the Apocalypse — THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDG-
1 It will be seen that the view now taken of the Millennium is different
from that previously adopted. The present notion inclines to that of the late

LKCT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 443

iviENT, AND THE KINGDOM. For the sake of greater ex-
plicitness it will be best to take these points separately.

THE MILLENNIUM.
The Scripture account of it is as follows : —
" And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the
key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And
he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil,
and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him
into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon
him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thou-
sand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be
loosed a little season. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon
them, and judgment was given unto them : and I saw the
souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and
for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast,
neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their
foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with
Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not
again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first
resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first
resurrection : on such the second death hath no power, but
they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign
with him a thousand years."1
A space, called in this Book a thousand years, precedes
the judgment at Christ's corning, during which period Satan
Professor Lee, whose work has been since consulted. Indeed, the light on
this most difficult subject breaks in but slowly, struggling as it does through
the bars of prejudice and previously formed opinions; but yet the principle
of the book, that Christ has already come, is more firmly established in my
mind than ever; and that principle, when applied to the interpretation of
Scripture, must naturally lead to new and great results. If that principle
be true, the consequences are of immense importance; if it be false, it ought
to be refuted. " If this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to
nought; but if it be of God ye CANNOT overthrow it, lest haply ye be found
even to fight against God." — Acts, v. 38, 3<).
1 Rev. xx. 1—6.

444 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XV1T.
is bound, and the risen martyrs live and reign with Christ
previously to the-resurrection of the rest of the dead1, for
1 Here a point arises of considerable difficulty. It will be observed that a
distinction is made in the Apocalypse between the first resurrection, over which
" the second death hath no power," and the resurrection accompanied by the
second death ; and that an interval, allegorically defined as a thousand years, in-
tervenes between the two. During this interval the martyrs live and reign with
Christ before his coming to judgment on guilty Jerusalem, and the resur-
rection of the rest of the dead. This idea of a first resurrection of the mar-
tyrs is frequently put forth in the Apocalypse. Hence, in the epistles to
each of the seven churches, the promise of extraordinary bliss is made to
" him that overcometh," f. e. to the martyrs. Hence the souls of the martyrs
are seen enjoying rest previously to the resurrection of the rest of the dead.—
" I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of
God and for the testimony which they held; and they cried with a loud voice,
saying, How long O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our
blood on them that dwell on the earth [Judaea]. And white robes were
given unto every one of them, and it was said unto them that they should rest
yet for a little season," &c. (Rev. vi. 9» 10, 11.) In chap. vii. 14., they
are represented as having come out of " great tribulation/' and arrayed with
white robes. And the same idea is repeated in Rev. xx. 4.—" 1 saw thrones,
and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them : and I saw
the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the
word of God [?'. e. the martyrs of those days] ; and they lived and reigned
with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until
the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection."
This idea of a first resurrection of the martyrs preceding that of the rest of
the dead, is distinctly perceptible in the Epistles of St. Paul. He says :
" The dead in Christ [i. e. the martyrs] shall rise first." " Then"
(tTretra, after that again, — the same word used of the interval between
the resurrection of Christ and the resurrection of those " that are Christ's
at his coming,") " we which are alive and remain shall be caught up
together with them in the clouds [ir vetyiXatc, in clouds], to meet the Lord
in the air. This we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which
are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which
are asleep," i. e. our resurrection shall not precede theirs. And it is worthy
of observation, that they " which are asleep " are distinguished as the martyrs
of Jesus, — rove KotprjOirrac ()ia TOV 'Ij](rov, i. e. those put to death for
Jesus sake; — and that these rise previously to the coming of the Lord is
made certain by the statement, (< Them also which .sleep in Jesus will God
bring with him."*— 1 Thess. iv. 14 —17-
This was the " better resurrection " he prayed he might himself attain
* Compare the statement of Clement on p. 264.— " They who occupy the
place of the righteous shall be made manifest (f>ai'6pov vrai) £" Then shall ye
also appear (^arf^wO//^^) with him in glory (Col. iii. 4.)] in the visitation
of the kingdom of Christ." This is elsewhere called " The manifestation
(avoKa\v\lsuf) of the sons of God" (Rom. viii. 19.) ; " The Lord my God shall
come, and all the saints with thee" (Zech. xiv. 5.) ; "The coming of our Lord
Jesus Christ with nil his saints."—1 Thess. iii. 13.

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 445

" the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were
finished."1 Now there is no more necessity for supposing

unto: "That I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and the
fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death, if by any
means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead," (Phil. iii. 10, 11.) —
ELQ rrjv eZavacrrafftv ruv veKpaJr, the resurrection out of the dead — the first
resurrection ; for we cannot suppose that St. Paul meant the resurrection of
the rest of the dead. This made him say : " If we suffer, we shall also reign
with him." (2 Tim. ii. 12.) " If so be that we suffer with him, that we
may be also glorified together." (Rom. viii. 17.) He indignantly refutes the
objection : " Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ [_i. c. those put
to death for Christ's sake] are perished." (1 Cor. xv. 18.) And hence the
thirst for martyrdom, which so long after prevailed in the Church. Is it too
hard for us to believe that if our Lord could say to the dying thief, " To-day
shalt thou be with me in Paradise/' and if Stephen at the moment of his
departure could commend his spirit at once into the hands of his Redeemer.
that the immediate resurrection of the martyrs was a thing impossible ? Is
it too great an exercise of faith or reason, to " merge the notion of the
resurrection into the idea of immortality ? " True it is said, that " all that
are in the graves shall hear his voice ; " but in the parallel passage these
are said to be u the dead," i/evjoot, (John, v. 25 — 28.) ; and St. Peter tells us
that 'f the Gospel was preached also to them that are dead," (1 Peter, iv. 6.)
— rek-polf;, which, of course, can only mean departed spirits — that they
" might live unto God in the spirit." — 1 Peter iv. 6'.
Added to this, " eternal life " is represented in the Scriptures as a present
and not as a future blessing. Believers are said in this life to have eternal
life. Our Lord said : " I am the resurrection and the life ; he that believeth
in me, though he were dead yet shall he live, and whosoever liveth and believeth
in me shall never die." (John, xi. 25, 26.) "This is the will of him that
sent me, that every one which seeth the Son and believeth on him may have
everlasting life" (John, vi. 40.) Hence it is said : ff These things have I
written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God, that ye may
know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son
of God/' (1 John, v. 13.) Hence it is said, that "no murderer hath
eternal life abiding in him." (1 John, iii. 15.) Surely, then, if the germ of
eternal life springs up in a believer's heart in this world, the fruit will not
have to wait thousands of years ere it can be brought to perfection in the
world which is to come. Surely, if eternal life abides in men — if " this
i* eternal life, to know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou
hast sent " — if " God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his
Son " — it cannot be thought that the gift of that life is to be deferred until
thousands of ages shall have passed away. Such a theory would chill us to
the heart. It would make the future less blessed than the present. No — if
" to live is Christ," then it cannot be gain " to die," unless the absence from
the body is at once the presence with the Lord ; unless the earthly house of
this tabernacle be at once changed for " a building of God, a house not made
with hands, eternal in the heavens." No — if eternal life is now abiding in
1 Rev. xx. 5.

446 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.
this to be literally a thousand years, than for supposing the
number of the Euphrateau horsemen to be literally two hundred
millions; and from the practice adopted in these symbols of
putting a much greater number for a less, as in the case of the
locust armies and the horsemen before alluded to, the presump-
tion arises that only a short space is intended.1 Neither is there
any necessity to believe that a literal chain is put round Satan,
or that a literal key confines the entrance to the bottomless pit/2
The idea is, simply, that during a period allegorically called a
thousand years, but put for a much shorter time, the power of
Satan was so much restrained that he may be said to have
been bound.3
us, then that purgatory of which the Scriptures do not say one word, which
represents the good as waiting still for their perfection, and looking forward
to a day of judgment yet to come, scarcely realises our ideas of a corning to
fc Mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem,
and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church
of the first-born, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all,
and to the spirits of just men made perfect."—Heb. xii. 22, 28.
There is no necessity to create this difficulty. Like all mysteries which
beset the Scriptures, it is of man's own making. The resurrection must be
a resurrection of man's immortal soul, clothed with a new and glorious body,
not of flesh and blood. Such a resurrection must be spiritual and incorrup-
tible, and therefore it may be immediate and invisible.
1 The number 1000 is continually used in Scripture to denote a much
smaller number : for instance—<c Saul has slain his thousands, and David his
ten thousands." " How should one of you chase a thousand." u Though
he live a thousand years twice told," &c., &c. St. Peter employs this inde-
finite period to denote the interval between the death of the martyrs and
the coming of Christ. In answer to the objection that " since the fathers fell
asleep all things continued as they were from the beginning of the creation," —
he replies : '* One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thou-
sand years as one day." — 2 Peter, iii. 8.
This use of the number 1000 is also common in Josephus: thus he speaks
of the Sicarii as " used to ten thousand murders." (Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap.
1.) It supports this view to remember that the Apocalypse is the Revelation
of u things which must shortly come to pass." The Millennium conse-
quently must have taken place before the compassing of " the camp of the
saints round about" by the heathen armies of Rome, and the destruction of
the <e beloved city."
2 The binding of Satan is a common expression for restraining his power.
Thus Raphael is sent to bind Asmodeus. " He fled into the utmost parts of
Egypt, and the angel bound him." — Tobit, viii. 3.
Compare " How can one enter into a strong man's house, &c. . . . except
he first bind the strong man ? " — Matt. xii. 2Q.
3 'This time is unmistakably to he defined the period which elapsed be-

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 447

r

This is strictly in accordance with the analogy of Scripture.
In the apostolic age, when the blood of the martyrs was the
seed of the Church, the strong man armed no longer kept his
palace, nor were his goods in peace. " A stronger than he had
taken from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divided
his spoils." The Apostles everywhere cast out devils, and
the devils were subject unto them. During their ministry
Christianity penetrated as far as it did in the three centuries
which followed. Not, then, to insist upon a well-known fact,
suffice it to say, that a marvellous reaction then took place in
the human mind, and that the Gospel was felt, especially by
the Gentiles, to be the power of God unto salvation.

At the expiration of this period Satan was to be loosed out
of his prison once more to deceive the nations (e#z>?7), to bring
on times of terrible trouble and apostacy, and then to be de-
stroyed.

" And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be
loosed out of his prison, and shall go out to deceive the na-
tions which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and
Magog, to gather them together to battle : the number of
whom is as the sand of the sea. And they went up on the
breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints
about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out
of heaven, and devoured them. And the devil that deceived
them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the

tween the first resurrection of the martyrs, which would go as far back as the
death of the proto-martyr Stephen, and the resurrection of the rest of the
dead at Christ's coming ; it is also guarded against misconception by the cir-
cumstance that it precedes the destruction of the "beloved city;'' for
' when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his
prison, arid shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of
the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle : the number of
whom is as the sand of the sea. And they went up on the breadth of the
earth \_riJQ yr/o, Judaea], and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the
beloved city" (Jerusalem). This can only refer to the period of the invasion
of Judtea by the Romans. No other land but the land of Judira is called
in this book 'f the earth," without some distinguishing qualification which
makes it certain that no particular land is intended. No other city has any
claim to be called u the beloved city" except that city of which it is said,
" He loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob." THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [Lacr. XVII.

beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and
night for ever and ever."

The proof of this appears to me to be beyond question.

There never was so dark a period in the history of the world
as " the little season" which preceded the downfal of the
Jewish people. Satan had then " great wrath, because he
knew that he had but a short time."

Times of unheard-of and unprecedented wickedness came on :
the earth was veritably a pandemonium. Our Lord foretold
that such would be the case. " Take heed that no man deceive
you. For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ;
and shall deceive many . . . and because iniquity shall abound,
the love of many shall wax cold." l St. Paul declared, " That
day shall not come, except there come a falling away first
[the falling away first) the well-hnoivn and expected apostasy]*
and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition. . . . And
then shall that Wicked (a^o/xd?) [_ Satan is called by this name
in the Epistle of St. Barnabas, xv.J be revealed, whom the
Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and destroy
with the brightness of his coming." 2 It is confirmatory of
the Apocalyptic statement which represents Satan "bound" and
afterwards "loosed," or, as it is expressed3, "cast into the
earth, having great wrath/because he knoweth that he hath but
a short time," that St. Paul speaks first of the withholding
and then of the revealing of Satan, and appeals to their know-
ledge of the fact : " Ye know what withholdeth, that he might
be revealed in his time." 4 Indeed the period referred to was
perhaps the darkest in the history of the world. The throne

1 Matt. xxiv. 12. 2 2 Thess. ii. 8. 3 Rev. xii. 12.
4 This withholding and revealing, or, according to the Apocalypse, this
binding and loosing of Satan, was not only foretold by our Lord, but was dis-
tinctly applied by him to the last evil days of that adulterous and sinful gene-
ration, which were to be worse than the first. " When the unclean spirit is
gone out of a man [the Jewish nation], he walketh through dry places,
seeking rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house
from whence I came out; and when he is corne, he findeth it empty, swept,
and garnished [[by the apostolic ministry]. Then goeth he, and taketh with
himself seven other spirits [seven being a number of completion] more wicked
than himself, and they enter in and dwell there : and the last state of that
man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be ako unto this wicked gene-
ration"— Matt, xii 43—45.

LECT. XVII.J AND THE KINGDOM". 440
of Imperial Rome was filled by one of whom Eusebius says,
" To describe the greatness of this man's wickedness is not
compatible with our present object. * . He did not proceed to
destroy so many thousands with any calculation, but with such
indiscriminate murder as not even to refrain from his nearest
and dearest friends. His own mother and wife, with many
others that were his near relatives, he killed, like strangers and
enemies, with various kinds of death. In addition to all his
other crimes, he was the first of the emperors that displayed
himself an enemy of piety towards the Deity/'1
In the Jewish world a chaos of anarchy and indescribable
iniquity darkened the last days of that fated dispensation. As I
have elsewhere said (Lect. XIII.), no species of wickedness
was too horrible to be practised; the generation of that day
f' filled up the measure of their fathers/' The historian of the
times blushes as he records the unheard-of enormities of the
age, till, like another Sodom, it is ripe for destruction, and the
avenging thunderbolt falls.
After this loosing of Satan, the period of which is so accu-
rately defined, he is " cast into the lake of fire." 2 This is
only what St. Paul had already said. " And then (the time of
this apostasy) shall that Wicked (dz/o/^os) be revealed, whom
the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall
destroy with the brightness of his coming/*3 And the scenes
of that judgment-day which immediately followed reveal "fire
prepared for the devil and his angels."
And here a startling fact remains to be answered. The
miraculous power of the evil spirit, partially restrained during
the Apostolic age, but breaking out in one last tremendous
effort ere it finally ceased, prevailed in the world up to that
period, and has not since been heard of. From the fall to the
period of our Lord's second coming, devils exercised visible
agency over mankind; but from that epoch to the present time
no authenticated record can be given of demoniacal influences
being personally and miraculously exerted over the human race.
This is in strict analogy with the word of God, which declared
that the kingdom of Satan would be put down at that time.
The devils in our Lord's day cried out from the bodies of men,
1 Eccles. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 25. * Rev. xx. 10. * 2 Thesg. ii 8.
G G 450 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.

" What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God ? art
thou come hither to torment us before the time f " l In the
parallel account in St. Luke, they beseech him " that he \vould
not command them to go out into the deep." 2 Speaking of
the fall of Satan's kingdom, our Lord said, " I beheld Satan
as lightning fall from heaven ; " — " N&w is the judgment of
this world : now shall the prince of this world be cast out."
St. Paul describes it as an event shortly about to happen : —
" The God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly"
(ev ra^ei). And the Apocalypse tells us that this event, which
the evil spirits knew would shortly take place, and which our
Lord and his apostles spoke of as soon about to happen, did so
happen at this time. Satan is bound " that he should deceive
the nations no more till the thousand years should be fulfilled ."
and after that he must be loosed a little season. At the expira-
tion of that "little season," during which the heathen nations
were gathered against Judaea and Jerusalem, and the darkest
tragedy of this world's history was enacted, " the devil that
deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone
where the beast and the false prophet are [his destruction was
to be contemporaneous with that of the Roman and Jewish
Antichrist]], and shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever." 3

This is in perfect keeping, not only with the Scriptures of
truth, but with the evidence of our senses and with the facts of
history. It is matter of certain knowledge that demoniacal
agency was visibly and, if I may so express myself, personally
exerted in this world up to a certain period. It is possible
that in some mysterious manner Satan had the power of death
over mankind. Hence the Son of man was manifested "that

1 Matt. viii. 29.

2 Luke \iii. 31. The word translated " the deep" " r>/r #6v(7<roi>/' is the
same as that translated f< the bottomless pit" in Rev. xx. 3.

3 t; Touro At'ygi orav £\0(W o utoc uvrov Kal Karapyi'ifrei TQV Ktupoy nr<)*
uov, KOL Kptvti rove aseptic, Kal u\\u££t rov f/\ior, K.al n}v at\iivr)V) fcni
rove aorepuc, ron- KO.\WQ jcaraTravfftrat tv rjj iipt^i TTJ e/38oyurj." — Barnabtt
Epist. xv.

(t 'Eyyvc yap jffifpa tv p *riM'a7roAfc7rcu Trcu'ra rip wovripf. 'Eyyvc o

Kai 6 /btia0oc ai/rou." — Barnabse Epist. xxi.
*f At Rome, indeed, they who deal with the image of that unquenchable
fire, tending the tokens of their own punishment ft/tared with the dragon him-
self, are of the class of virgins." — Tertull. ad Uxor. lib. i

LKCT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 451
through death he might destroy him that had the power of
death, that is the devil"1 It is possible that this power was
also extended over hell (Hades—the separate state) 2 Be this
as it may, it is matter of positive fact, that up to a certain
time a power was manifestly exerted over mankind, which has
not since been exercised in like manner.
Then Satan was literally " the god of this world/' Then
" the strong man armed kept his palace, and his goods were in
peace." Then he could say of the kingdoms of the world,
" All this power will I give thee and the glory of them; for
that is delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will I give it;
if thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine." Then he
ruled triumphantly over the bodies as well as over the souls of
men.—Their bodies were literally the dwelling-places of demons.
Devils spake from within them, and besought our Lord not
to cast them into the abyss.—Devils drove them into the tombs,
to lie there like wild beasts, "exceeding fierce, so that no man
might pass that way."— Devils residing within earthly taber-
nacles of this body knew that Christ was corning to cast them
into the bottomless pit, and besought him not to do so "before
the time" What more appalling situation can be conceived
than that of the wretched demoniacs from whose writhing and
tortured bodies the evil spirits spake, " What have we to do
with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God ? art thou come hither to
1 Heb. ii. 14.
2 A marked distinction is always kept up in Scripture between death and
hell. Hence it was prophesied of our Lord, — " Thou wilt not leave my
soul in hell, clg ycov, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corrup-
tion." (Acts, ii. 27.) Hence St. Paul,— "O death, where is thy sting? O
grave ($c)j?)> where is thy victory?" (1 Cor. xv. 55.) Our Lord says, (i 1
have the keys of hell and of death" (rov ycov /v'ca TOV dararov, Rev. i. 18.).
Hence <J death and hell delivered up the dead that were in them .... and
death and hell were cast into the lake of fire." (Rev. xx. 13.) With the de-
struction of Satan, his power over death and hell was to be destroyed. So
St. Paul said, Christ " hath abolished death'9 (2 Tim. i. 10.); and that, at his
coming, "death, the last enemy, shall be destroyed" (1 Cor. xv. 20'.),—
agreeing perfectly with the declaration of the Apocalypse, " death and hell
were cast into the lake of fire." This, of course, would not mean that
men should not die, but perhaps that there would be no intei val between
death and happiness or misery, for he would be destroyed who had the power
of death and of the separate state. Compare 1 Sam. xxviii., where the soul
of the prophet is raised from the separate state by the agency of familiar
spirits. 3 Luke, iv. (i. 7.
r, c; 2 452 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII

torment us before the time ? " l or that of the man who had his
dwelling among the tombs, whom no man could bind, no, not
with chains, who worshipped Jesus with a loud voice, " I ad-
jure thee by God that thou torment me not5'2; or that of the
"certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination," who,
like the Pythoness of old, " brought her masters much gain by
soothsaying" ? or that of the man over whom the seven sons
of Sceva took upon them to invoke the name of the Lord
Jesus, when he " in whom the evil spirit was, leaped on them
and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they
fled out of that house naked and wounded" ? What more con-
vincing proof can be given of the undisturbed reign of Satan
over the world at that period, than that Satan should have so
far " blinded the eyes of them that believe not," that the Son
of God should have wrought among them mighty works such
as no man ever did, and they should have failed to recognise
and to receive the Lord of Life ? It must, indeed, have been
the hour of " the power of darkness" when they nailed him to
to the cross. Nay, does not the miraculous agency of the
Holy Spirit appear to have been given to the apostles at the
Pentecost, with the view of counteracting the miraculous agency
of Satan ?3 Does not our Lord allude to it when he says,
" When he is come he will convince the world of sin, of righte-
ousness, and of judgment"? And why of judgment, but
" because the prince of this world is judged" ? Wickedness,
it is true, there is still in the world : but there is not the
wickedness that there was ; and it may be that the evil which
we witness is more the result of past than of present influences.
Then " the whole world lay in wickedness, " eV ra> irovTjpq), in
the wicked one ; 4 then the only people who knew God, with few
exceptions, were " of their father the devil." Satan was literally
the " god of this world ; " and even the Holy Saviour was " led
up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil."
Evil spirits gave answers from heathen shrines. Evil spirits were
worshipped with unholy and revolting obscenities. " The things
which the Gentiles sacrificed they sacrificed to devils and not

1 Matt via. 29. 2 Mark, v. ?

** '> yap fJLaKfjodvpog tffrj, TO

pr) ffKorovfjLtvov inro irovrjpov Trrfiymroc." — Hermae Pastor, Man-
dat. v.

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 453
to God." Evil spirits, even in the midst of God's own people,
enabled wicked impostors to " shew great signs and wonders, so
as to deceive, if it were possible, even the very elect;" and evil
spirits to the last day of Jerusalem's existence, and while the
temple was burning hardened the stubborn Jews against repent-
ance. This has all passed away. " At his appearing and his king-
dom," the kingdom of Satan fell. Demoniacal influence, such
as men were unable to resist, is unknown ; and the astounding
fact remains to be answered, that the visible kingdom of Satan
prevailed up to the time of our Lord's coming, that then it
perished and has not been since restored, and that the extra-
ordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were simultaneously with-
drawn.
Contemporaneous with the destruction of Satan at the coming
of Christ is the period of
THE JUDGMENT.
" And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it,
from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there
was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and
great, stand before God ; and the books were opened: and
another book was opened, which is the book of life : and the
dead were judged out of those things winch were written in
the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up
the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the
dead which were in them : and they were judged every man
according to their works. And death and hell were cast into
the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever
was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake
of fire/'1
Now in the preceding verses this judgment is said to besyn-
chronical with certain events which define and particularise the
time when it was to take place. It is to follow the gathering
together of the heathen nations described as Gog and Magog,
who are said to dwell in the four quarters of the earth (nations
remote from Palestine), against Judaea; for they " go up " on
the breadth of the earth (TTJS yrjg—Judaea); they compass the
1 Rev. xx. 11 15.
r, f» 3

454 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.

camp of the saints round about, and the beloved city, which can
be only Jerusalem.1

It will be satisfactory to find that the period which we have
assigned for the judgment is clearly marked out in many other
passages of Scripture*

1. The judgment is represented by our Lord as about to
happen in the lifetime of the generation to whom he spake.

" The men of Nineveh shall rise up in the judgment with
this generation" " The Queen of the south shall rise up in
the judgment with the men of this generation" And that the
words " this generation " are to be understood in their obvious
and literal sense, is evident from the preceding clause:— "As
Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of
Man be to this generation." 2

2. This judgment was to be contemporaneous with our
Lord's coming.

" When the Son of man shall come in his glory, then
shall he sit upon the throne of his glory : and before him

1 This decides the question of the time of the judgment; for " the beloved
city," elsewhere called " the holy city/' has long ceased to exist, and no hosts
answering to the description of Gog and Magog have been since gathered to-
gether to battle against Jerusalem. Added to this, these nations come up on
the "breadth of the earth " (Judaea)—where the contrast between the <f nations'*
(tQvrj) and the " breadth of the earth'' (Yj/c y?;r, Juda?a) makes it morally
certain that nothing else can be intended but the invasion of Judaea by the
Romans. So also in Rev. ii. 18. The precise period of the judgment is
pointed out with equal distinctness as the time of great commotions amongst
the nations (tOrTi), and the destruction of the Jewish people : — " And the
nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead that they
should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants
the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great,
and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth"
2 Luke. xi. 30. The phrase "this generation" is nowhere used in the
New Testament except of the generation of men then existing. In the pa-
rallel passage of Matt. xii. 45. it is called " this wicked generation" making
it certain that no other generation could be intended. It gives weight to the
idea of a judgment immediately consequent upon Christ's second coming, that
they who are summoned before that bar, represent themselves as having
done many wonderful work* (?. c. miracles — cWu/iac TroAXar), and «A- hav-
iny cast out devils in his name, which cjuld only have been done during the
Apostolic age.

LBCT. XVIL] AND THE KINGDOM. 455
shall be gathered all nations." x This is the same as " the
great white throne," and the " sea (or the heathen world)
giving up the dead that are in it." 2
" The Son of man shall come (/xeAAet . . €p)(€cr0<u, shall
soon come) in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then
shall he reward every man according to his works." 3
" The Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute
judgment upon all"4" (described as then living, in vers. 16. 19).
" Who shall judge (rov /xeXXo^ro? Kpivziv, who shall soon
judge) the quick and the dead, at his appearing, and his king-
dom." 5
" Which the Lord, the righteous judyv, shall give me at that
day: arid riot to me only, but unto all them also that love his
appearing" G
" Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be ac-
counted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to
pass (ra fieXXovra yLve&Oai) that shall soon come to pass),
and to stand7 (as in judgment) before the Son of man"
3. This judgment is elsewhere represented as about to take
place immediate/]/.
" The hour is eoinuiy, and now /,v, when the dead shall hear
the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live. For
as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given unto the
Son to have life in himself: and hath given him authority to
execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man. Marvel
1 Matt. xxv. 31. 2 Rev. xx. 11.
3 Matt. xvi. 27. This coming to judgment was to take place during the
lifetime of that generation ; for it is added — " Verily I say unto you, there
be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of
Man corning in his kingdom." (Matt. xvi. 28.) So, in Luke xix. 11., the
time of the return of the nobleman, who went " to receive for himself a
kingdom and to return," is not only declared to he the time of the destruction
of those citizens which would not that he should reign over them, but also
the time of judgment, when he commanded his servants to be called to
"know how much every man had gained by trading."
4 Jude, 14. * 2 Tim. iv. 1. « 2 Tim. iv. 8.
7 Luke, xxi. 36. To stand ax in judgment. Compare f< Who shall stand
when he appeared) ?" (Mai. iii. 2.) " The ungodly shall not stand in the judg-
ment/' (Psalm i. 5.) " We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ."
(Rom. xiv. 10.) " Thou shalt stand in thy lot at the end of the days." (Dan.
xii. 13.)
c; v 4

456 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LBCT. XVII.
not at this: for the hour is coming in the which all that are in
the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth: they that
have done good unto the resurrection of life; and they that have
done evil unto the resurrection of damnation." l In this pas-
sage the judgment, the coming, and the resurrection are syn-*
chronical; and the time is pronounced to be close at hand.
"Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince
of this world be cast out."2 Here the judgment is represented
as contemporaneous with the casting out of Satan, which is the
very same idea with that of Rev. xx. 10.
St. Peter reiterates the statement of our Lord respecting an
immediate judgment:—
" Who shall give account to him who is ready (ro> erot/xo>$
ej(o^n) to judge the quick and the dead."3 Speaking of the
judgment soon about to fall on the false prophets of those
days, he says, " TFTiose judgment noiv of a long time lingereth
not9 and their damnation slumber eth not." 4
St. Paul is equally clear and decided upon the same point:—
"The times of this ignorance God winked at, but now corn-
mandeth all men everywhere to repent, because he hath ap-
pointed a day in the which he will judge (/xe'AAei Kpivtiv, he is
soon about to judge} the world in righteousness by that man
whom he hath ordained/*5 So he "reasoned before Felix
of righteousness, and temperance, and judgment to come "
(TOU /leAAoiros, soon to come}.
St. James confirms the preceding testimony, and speaks of the
Judge "standing before the door9' and of the judgment as im-
pending:—" So do, as they that shall be judged (/uteAAozres
KpivtorBai, who shall soon be judged} by the law of liberty." 6
4. This also is the judgment shared by the saints with their
heavenly Master. " Verily I say unto you, that ye which have
followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit
on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel" 7 "1 appoint unto you a
kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto rne; that ye may
eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel" 8 " Do ye not know, that
1 John, v. 25—29. 2 John, xii. 31.
« 1 Peter, iv. 5. < 2 Peter, ii. 3.
& Acts, xrii. 30, 31. 6 James, v. 9. ii. 12.
T Matt. xix. 28. « Luke, xxii. 29. 30.

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 457
the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be
judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?
Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things
that pertain to this life?"1 " The time is come that judgment
must begin at the house of God (ort 6 /ccupos TOV ap£acr0cu
TO Kpip,a awb TOV oLKov TOV 0€ov, it is the time for judgment
to begin from the house of 6rorf) ; " i. e. the time is come that the
saints should begin to judge.2 And the time of this assessor-
ship of the saints with Christ in judgment is declared to be the
time of his coming:—"Judge nothing before the time, until the
Lord come" 3 It is in perfect analogy with the rest of Scrip-
ture that the Apocalypse should unfold the vision of the martyrs
already exercising this office:—" And I saw thrones, and they
sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them .... and
they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years."4
Unless, then, we take the old and somewhat unscriptural
view, that the judgment day5 is one particular day of twenty-four
hours, and that in that day all the generations of mankind who
have ever lived will stand in one enormous multitude to be
judged at one time (a theory encompassed with difficulties),
we may as well give credit to the uniform statement of
Holy Scripture, that the day of Christ's coming was a day
of judgment. If the judgment throne is the throne of his
heavenly glory, if the parties judged are they who are judged
for the things done in their bodies, the events of that great day
of assize must necessarily have been unknown to dwellers upon
earth. Nay, if every soul who had ever lived from Abel to the
period of his coming had risen in their spiritual bodies to meet
their judge, such a spiritual resurrection could not have been
visible to mortal eyes except by divine permission. To me it
1 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3. 2 1 Peter, iv. 17.
3 1 Cor. iv. 5. 4 Rev. xx. 4.
ft The word " day " is continually used in this prolonged sense. The time
of Christ's preaching to the inhabitants of Jerusalem is called a day :__
"If thou hadst known at least in this thy day" (Luke, xix. 42.) ; "Now
is the day of salvation" (2 Cor. vi. 2.)., i. e. the time when the grace of the
Gospel was offered to mankind; "Her plagues shall come in one day"
(Rev. xviii. 8.), equivalent to " in one hour is thy judgment come" (Rev.
xviii. 10.), meaning the sudden destruction of Jerusalem. Neither must we
be led away by the expression " the last day," so often mentioned in Scrip-
ture, " the last day," according to the analogy of Scripture, being the
closing period of the Jewish dispensation.

458 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII*
has always appeared au extraordinary thing that Christ should
have come into the world, after the world had been in existence
four thousand years, for the express purpose of bringing "life
and immortality to light,*' and of establishing the doctrine of a
resurrection and of a judgment day, and that this resurrection
and this judgment day should have been again postponed to an
indefinite period. It is more natural, and completely in unison
with Scripture to believe, that as men die so are they judged —
that Christ is judging now, for u the Father judgeth no man,
but hath committed all judgment unto the San"—that no
purgatory, Papal or Protestant, intervenes between the hour of
death and the day of judgment. It is perfectly in unison with
Scripture to believe that the judgment of the dead was contem-
poraneous with the judgment of those who were found quick
upon earth at " his appearing and his kingdom1,'*—that it com-
1 No one will deny that the day of Christ's coming was a day of terrible
judgment to those who were quick upon earth. No such judgment ever
fell upon mankind. He "recompensed tribulation " to them that troubled his
church. Upon them " came all the righteous blood shed upon the earth."
He charged his disciples, in the most solemn terms, to be ready fur this judg-
ment : — a Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted
worthy to escape all these things which shall come to pass, and to stand
before the Son of man." (Luke, xxi. 36.) Now if the judgment of
the dead is contemporaneous with the judgment of the quick upon earth,
that judgment, according to St. Paul, must have had its commencement
during the lifetime of that generation; for he declared that some of those
then living would be quick upon earth " at his appearing, and his king-
dom :"—<( Then we which are alive (oi £uJ»T£c» the quick) and remain
unto the coming of the Lord." (1 Thess. iv. 15.) "We shall not all
sleep." (1 Cor. xv. 51.) So Rev. xi. 18. "The time of the dead that they
should be judged" is not the period of the so-called dissolution of all things,
but the time when " the nations (tQvri, the heathen nations) were angry "
against Jerusalem, and the period of the destruction of the disobedient Jews.
This is an answer to those who draw an imaginary distinction between our
Lo.d's coming in his kingdom, and his coming to judgment. The corning
in his kingdom was his coming to judgment. Hence we read, " Who shall
judge the quick and the dead at hint appearing and his kingdom" (2 Tim. iv. 1.)
" The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels ; and
then shall he reward every man according to his works." Hence, " in the end
of the world" (a^e), he gathers "out of his kingdom all things which offend,
and them which do iniquity." (Matt. xiii. 41.) Hence his coming is called
the coming of " the. kingdom of God.*' (Luke, xxi. 31.) Besides which,
two advents are nowhere spoken of in Scripture after the first advent in the fit sh.
Jt is said, indeed, "he shall appear the .second time without sin unto salvation"
(Heb. ix. £8.) ; but it i* nowhere said he shall appear the- third time. LKCT. XVII,] AND THE KINGDOM. 459

inenced in the lifetime of that generation,—and that his saints
share this judgment with him. This is confirmed by the testi-
mony of our Lord and his apostles, and reduced to demonstra*
tion by the declarations of the Apocalypse.1

Such are the Scriptural arguments upon which we build the
theory of the millennial resurrection of the martyrs who lived
and reigned during a period called a thousand years previ-
ously to the resuscitation of the rest of the dead, and of the
judgment which accompanied our Lord's coming.

It surely need not be thought a detraction from that holy
reverence for divine things which ought to penetrate the mind
of every reflecting man, to believe that judgment is as near to
him as the hour of death — that the soul passes at once to
happiness or misery—that every death-knell tells of an imme-
diate sentence corresponding to previous habits of life. It
surely need not lessen our regard for Scripture to be fully
aware that, although all things are possible with God, yet that
he never works an unnecessary miracle, or suffers the settled
laws of his general providence to be changed without sufficient
cause,—and that since the resurrection is that of a spiritual and
not of a natural, of a celestial and not of a terrestrial, of an
incorruptible and not of a corruptible, of a heavenly and not of
an earthly body, there is not the slightest ground, either from
reason or Scripture, to suppose that the Almighty will recon-
struct the identical dust of our earthly bodies, so thoroughly
transformed, from various causes, from its original nature that
it is by no means improbable that generations of men for ages
innumerable have been feeding upon each other.2 Nay, if

1 " Ille autem ut vacuam faceret mortem, et de mortuis resurrectionem
ostenderet, quia in came oportebat eurn adparere, sustinuit ut promissum
parentibus redderet, et ipse sibi populum novum parans dum in terris degit
ostenderet quod, factd resurrcctione, ipse esset et judicaturus."—S. Barnabte,
Epist v.
2 Take as an instance, the case of St. Ignatius devoured by wild beasts at
Rome, of whom it is said that they ate him up so ravenously, that only the
large bones were left. How impossible, except by the working of a far more
stupendous miracle than that which called earth out of chaos, to re-collect the
identical particles of that holy dust, which, passing into the bodies of these
beasts, were converted into their bones, and muscles, and blood—became manure
for the growth of plants — sprang up in a thousand new forms of existence,
and may now possibly be the substance of some huge tree in America, or part

460 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.

" flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," the only
resurrection of which the mind can conceive is that of a spiri-
tual resurrection ; and there is no argument to show why that
may not take place as the soul leaves this world to be judged
for the things " done in the body."

THE KINGDOM.

<

When the awful scenes which accompanied this day of
judgment had passed away, a new and glorious kingdom was
to be established. The righteous are invited to enter it:—
" Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared
for you from the foundation of the world." " Then shall the
righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their
Father. Hence the disciples were taught to pray, " Thy
kingdom come." Christ is said to deliver up the kingdom to
God even the Father, that " God may be all in all."

Is there any proof to show that " the kingdoms of this
world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ,7'
—that the "government is laid upon his shoulder"—that he is
ruling now,—that laws proceed from him which, day after day,
control all things to the furtherance of his name and glory,—
that a kingdom has been set up which has steadily progressed
in one uniform direction for the last two thousand years—which,
in spite of change, and convulsion, and war, and flood, and fire,
has advanced in its grandeur and in its strength, prevailing
over all opposition, " casting down every high thought that
exalteth itself against the knowledge of God," stretching away

of the living matter of which the bodies of those who read this statement are
composed.
In the Chemistry of Common Life, a most interesting tale is told of the in-
sufficiency of human efforts to prevent the decomposition of matter. The body
of an Etruscan king is discovered in a vault, clothed with all the parapher-
nalia of royalty—sitting on a throne, sceptre in hand—so life-like that it
wants nothing but the living spirit to complete the reality. An aperture is
made in the vault to gain possession of this relic of past ages; but the opening
admits an enemy (the air) fatal to the incorruptibility of matter, and
the phantom melts away into a handful of dust, the gaucly trappings alon«
remaining to show that such a vision had ever been.

LECT.XVU.] AND THE KINGDOM. 461
from land to land, and from shore to shore, overleaping mighty
oceans, and penetrating into the sands of the desert and into
the ice of the pole ? Is there evidence clear and sufficient,
that a religion begun in shame and ignominy—promulgated
by means most unlikely to obtain success—waging eternal war
with the lusts and passions of mankind — supported by no
earthly power, has found its way into the cabinets of princes,
and into the huts of peasants, directs the councils of monarchs
and the daily life of slaves, and is the grand principle of action
which more or less stringently animates the intelligent and
civilised portion of the human race ? Is there proof that such
a religion exists at all ? Then there is proof that the kingdom
of Christ is set up ; then there is proof that the " Lord God
omnipotent reigneth; " and the past is the pledge of the
future, that he shall " reign for ever and ever."
You may see the traces of that kingdom in every event which
has happened in the world for the last two thousand years.
The chronological history of the world and of the church will
unfold to you the glories of that kingdom. You may see its
unwavering and steady progress in every fresh development of
art and science, in every new acquisition of knowledge and
civilisation. Railroads, electric telegraphs, the power of steam,
and even the refinement of modern warfare, speak of its con-
tinual advance. It began like the snow-flake detached from
the summit of some lofty Alp, and has become the avalanche.
It commenced like the stream trickling down the mountain
side ; it has become the mighty river rushing to the sea. But
why leave the analogies of Scripture ? It is the grain of
mustard seed becoming the great tree ; it is the leaven hid in
three measures of meal leavening the whole lump ; it is the
stone cut out without hands becoming the huge mountain ; it
is the universal kingdom, which was to succeed the four only
universal kingdoms, and which was never to be destroyed.
Contrast the myriads of believers of our day and age, and of
the days which have preceded them, with the time when one
"upper room" held the whole body of the faithful. Compare
the Christianity of our times with the period when " the
number of the names together was [only] one hundred and
twenty/' Contrast the England of our day with the Britain
of ancient times; contrast the 15,000 churches of this land—

THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVIL

her missions to the heathen, her benevolence at home, her
institutions, her hospitals, her schools, her people—with the
painted savages who exposed their fearless bodies to the
Javelins of Caesar's soldiers, and then say that Christ does not
reign, that his kingdom is not set up, that it does not pro-
gress with gigantic strides along the length and breadth of a
regenerated world,

That kingdom had a particular time appointed for its com-
mencement. It cannot be so properly said to have commenced
with the teaching of Christ on earth, or with his death upon the
cross, as at the period for which we contend.

John the Baptist announced its approach:—"Repent ye, for
the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Our Saviour did the same:
—"Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" He com-
manded his disciples to do likewise:—"As ye go preach, say-
ing, The kingdom of heaven is at hand." He taught them to
pray, " Thy kingdom come." That kingdom had not arrived
after Christ's resurrection ; for the disciples ask him, " Lord,
wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom unto /v-
rael" The Apostles, equally with our Lord, were the pioneers
of this kingdom ; they were the preachers of " the gospel of
the kingdom" and witnesses that it was near.1

" When he was demanded of the Pharisees when the king-
dom of God should come," he told them that it should not
come " with observation,5' that it should not be an earthly
kingdom, not a visible reign on earth ; and this he immediately
explains to his disciples by saying, that the Son of man in his
day should come "as the lightning," and that his kingdom
should be revealed at that time.2

To check false impressions respecting the immediate advent
of that kingdom, " he added and spake a parabh* .... be-
cause they thought that the kingdom of (*od should imme-
diately appear"* In that parable he declared that the time of
the kingdom would b« the time of the coming of the Kin£ him-
self, and gave the solemn charge, " Occupy till I come" He

1 Clement says, l( the apostles went forth to preach the good tidings that,
the kingdom of God was speedily about to come." T»/»> fiaai\ttav rov
ni\\tiv ep\ttrQai"—St, Clement, Epist ad Cor. i. 42.
2 Luke, xvii. 20. a Luke, xix. II. LBOT. XVIL] AND THE KINGDOM. 463

elsewhere declared that the passover would be "fulfilled in the
kingdom of God," and that he would not drink of the fruit of
the vine till that day when he drank it new with his disciples
"in the kingdom of God;99 and this period is declared by
St. Paul to be the time of his coming:—" As often as ye eat
this bread and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till
he come." 1

He told his disciples that that kingdom should not arrive
until his second coming. " A certain nobleman went into a far

country to receive for himself a kingdom and to return.....

^4nd when he was returned, having received the kingdom"**
Consequently, he had not received the kingdom until his return.

Hence the Scriptures connect

€t His appearing and his kinydom."3

" The Son of Man coming in his kingdom" 4

" Lord, remember me when thou comest IN thy kingdom (oraz/
Iv rf) BacriXeia crou)."5

" When ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the
kingdom of God is nigh at hand" 6

St. Paul speaks of this kingdom as immediately succeeding
to the breaking up of the Jewish economy :—" Whose voice
then (at Sinai) shook the earth : but now he hath promised,
saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also
heaven. And this word, Yet once more, signified! the removing
of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that
those things which cannot be shaken may remain. Wherefore
we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved" (§*c.~

So our Lord declared that it should be taken from the Jew
and given to the Gentile, thereby directly connecting its esta-
blishment with the close of the Mosaic dispensation. " The
kingdom of God shall be taken from i/ou, and given to a
nation bringing forth the fruits thereof/'8

Accordingly we find that the period of the full establishment
of this kingdom is distinctly laid down in the Apocalypse :__

" And the seventh angel sounded ; and there were great

1 1 Cor. xi. 26. 2 Luke, xix. 12. 15.
3 2 Tim. iv. 1. 4 Matt. xvi. 28.
5 Luke, xxiii. 42. 6 Luke, xx. .31.
7 Heb. xii. 26'. * Matt. xxi. 43.

464 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LKCT. XVIT.
voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are be-
come the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ; and he
shall reign for ever and ever."1
" Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of
our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our
brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day
and night.'5 2
This kingdom is nowhere3 described as a visible and tem-
poral reign on earth. This is the old error of the Jews re-
vived. Our Saviour said distinctly, " My kingdom is not of
this world; if my kingdom were of this world, then would
my servants fight that I should not be delivered to the Jews, but
now is my kingdom not from hence." 4 It is of such a spiritual
character that St. Paul said, " Flesh and blood cannot inherit
the kingdom of God ; neither doth corruption inherit incorrup-
tion." 5 The " inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that
fadeth not away," is " reserved in heaven." 6 The sign of the
Son of man appears " in heaven" The saints which are alive
and remain until the coming of the Lord are caught up " to meet
the Lord in the air." The thrones which St. John sees are in
heaven ; and that they are tenanted by heavenly beings is most
evident, for he sees in them " the souls of them that were be-
headed for the witness of Jesus " The place which Christ pre-
pared for his people — " I go to prepare a place for you "—
was one which he left this world to get ready for them. They
were to be with him " where he is " — they were to live and
reign "with Christ"—they were to sit down with Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob in " the kingdom of heaven" Like the saints
of old they desired " a better country, even a heavenly : where-
1 Rev.xi. 15. 2 Rev. xii. 10.
3 There is one passage (Rev. v. 10 ) where it is said, " we shall reign on
the earth" The preposition "on," " tin," is badly translated : it should be
"over the earth;" the verb fiacriXtvu with the preposition ITTI has the
signification of reigning over: —
*A*:ou<7ae 3t on 'Ap^tXaoc /3ao-i\£V€i CTTI rijfc *Iov£atac (Matt. ii. 22.) : »/
woXic rj yu€ya\jj jj t^ovffa fiatriXtiat' ew'i TWV BcKriXewy rjyc y»fc" (Rev. xvii.
18.): " fiafftXtvcroptv CTTI rijfc yVC " (Rev. v. 10.).
4 John, xviii. 36. * 1 Cor. xv. 50.
6 1 Peter, i. 4.

LBCT. XVIL] AND THE KINGDOM. 465

fore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he hath
prepared for them a city."l

Besides all this, Christ is reigning now. 2 I cannot find any
one who will deny this; then wherever he reigns, his saints
reign with him: there is no possibility of separating the two
things. Christ is not to reign first, arid his saints to succeed
him at some immeasurable distance of time; but they that
"suffered with him were to reign with him" — they that
" suffered with him were to be also glorified together" 3 It is
plain they do not reign now upon the earth, and it is equally
plain that his kingdom ruleth over all. The notion of this
visible and temporal reign of Christ on earth is, I fear, a dream
and a delusion. Its advocates can find no arguments for its
support from the New Testament, and it is only by twisting
the imagery of the ancient prophets into a literal construction
such as it never was intended to bear, and by confounding the
glories of the new and heavenly Jerusalem with an earthly city

1 Heb. xi. 16.
2 Clement, who wrote before that kingdom had arrived, speaks of it as
about to come immediately. " Let us be looking hourly for the kingdom
of God, in love and righteousness, since we do not know the day of the
manifestation of God." " E^ce^wyncOa ovv njafl* ypav TTIV ftacnXeiav TOV
Oeov kv dyaTrrj KOI SiKaiocrvvr), CTTft^j) OVK ot^a^tev rrjv jjp,epav rf/c €7ri0a-
VEICLQ TOV 0cov."—2. Clement, ad Cor. 12. The Church after that period
had arrived represents Christ as having received the kingdom and seated on
his everlasting throne. " The blessed Polycarp suffered martyrdom......
in the month Xanthicus,"........Stratius Quadratus being proconsul,
and Jesus Christ reigning for ever and ever."
"MapTvpel fie 6 paKapiOQ IIoXvfcapTror, fJtrji'OQ BavQiKov,.....ardv-
TrctTevovTOQ Spartov Kasparov, /3a<TtXeuorroc ^e £t£ rovg a/uh'tt£ 'Introv
XptffTov." — Epist. de S. Poly carpi martyrio.
3 Rom. viii. 17. Compare, " Being confident that they all have not run in vain
.... and that they are gone to the place due to them from the Lord, with
whom they also suffered" — " & Kal rrvt'eiraOov" — Polycarp. ad Philad. 9»
" Post aliquantum temporis venit dominus ejus, et ingressus est vineam,
quam quum depalatam vidisset decenter et circumfossam .... ex facto hoc
servi sui gaudium ccepit .... ait deinde illis .... Pro hoc igitur opere
quod fecit, volo ilium filio meo facere cohceredem .... post dies deinde non
multos .... paterfamilias misit de ccena sua servo illi cibos complures, quos
quum accepisset ille . . . conservis suis distribuit. Hsec omnia quum audisset
dominus ejus percepit iterum maximum gaudium, et convocatis rursum amicis
et filio exponit, factum servi sui .... Illi itaque tanto magis assenserunt
patrifamilias, ipsum servum coh&redcvn filio debere fieri"—Hermse Pastor,
Similitude 5.
H H

466 THE MILLENNIUM, THE JUDGMENT, [LECT. XVII.
yet to ai^ke in Zion, that they have arrived at such marvellous
conclusions.
It is not a little remarkable that these errors1 have been pre-
1 Lactantius says of the millennial period: ff Then they who shall be
alive in the body shall not die; but during those 1000 years shall beget an
infinite multitude: and their offspring will be holy, and beloved of God. But
they wbo shall be raised from the abode of departed souls will precede the
living like judges. And the Gentiles will not be altogether extinct, but some
few will be left to display the victory of God, and that the just may triumph
over them, and that they may be subject to perpetual slavery.
ff At the same time the prince of the devils, who is the author of all evil,
shall be bound in chains, and be imprisoned during the 1000 years of the
celestial empire, wherein justice shall reign throughout the world, that he may
contrive no mischief against the people of God.
" After the coming of which, the just shall be gathered together from all parts
of the earth, and the judgment being finished, a holy city shall be established
in the middle of the world, in which the Founder, God himself, will dwell
with the just reigning under Him.........
" Then will that darkness be removed from the earth, whereby the heaven
is now obscured and concealed, and the moon shall have the brightness of the
sun, and shall no more suffer change; and the sun shall be sevenfold brighter
than it is now; and the earth shall reveal her fruitfulness, and produce
untilled the richest fruits ; the rocks of the mountains shall distil honey—
wine shall flow in streams, and milk in rivers—the world itself shall rejoice,
and all nature shall exult, being freed and delivered from the bondage of evil
and impiety, sin a?id error.
" At this period brutes shall not live by blood, nor birds by prey, but all
things shall be peaceful and tranquil; lions and calves will stand together in
the stall—the wolf will not seize the sheep—the dog will not hunt—hawks
and eagles will do no hurt—the infant shall play with serpents.....
Men will lead a life of perfect tranquillity and abundance, and will reign
together with God; and the kings of the Gentiles will come from the ends of
the earth, with gifts and presents, to adore arid honour the Great King, whose
name will be famous and honourable among all nations under heaven, and all
kings who rule upon earth. This is what the prophets declare shall come to
pass."—Lactantius, lib. 7. Sacred Institutes.
Irenaeus asserts that Christ said to his disciples, when speaking of the days
of his earthly and visible reign, " The days will come in which vines will
grow each having 10,000 branches, and on each branch there will be 10,000
twigs, and on each twig 10,000 clusters of grapes, and each grape, when
pressed, will yield twenty-five measures of wine (i. a. about 209 gallons);
and when any one of the saints shall take hold of a cluster of grapes, another
cluster will cry out, * I am a better cluster ; take me, and on my account
give thanks unto the Lord/ "— Jren. Cont. Ilaer. lib. v. cap. 33.
Papias, quoted by Irenaeus, is guilty of similar absurdities : " In like
manner a grain of wheat will produce 10,000 heads, and each head will
have 10,000 grains, and each grain will yield ten pounds of clear fine flour ;
and other fruits will yield seeds and herbage in the same proportion ; and

LECT. XVII.] AND THE KINGDOM. 467
valent in the church from the earliest ages, and that the most
fanciful speculations have been broached on this subject from the
times of Papias to our own. Our age does not seem in this
respect much behind the ages which have preceded. Dr. Curn-
ming says, " The earth shall be made new, its soil restored,
Paradise regained ; there will be no decay in its verdure, no
serpent's trail amid its flowers, but happiness and love, and joy
and peace, for 1000 years, in the presence of Christ and of
his saints." He supposes that Christ will come to open this
splendid millennium at the latest before 1885. What, have
Peter and Paul, and James and John, and all those saints of the
Old Testament, who could not be made perfect until the gather-
ing in of the first-fruits of the kingdom, have they waited for
that promise nearly 2000 years ? Why has their blessedness
been so long delayed ? What is there in the present aspectl of
the world to make us think it is more ready now to be con-
sumed by literal fire than it was thousands of years ago ?
JIrherv are they waiting all this while ; and why should they be
glorified now instead of then ? Our Saviour said, that during the
generation of the men who had heard his words, he would "send
his angels, and gather together his elect from the four winds."
all the animals which subsist on the productions of the earth will be peaceful
and harmonious, and obedient to man with the most entire subjection."
e< Primam resurrectionem suspicati sunt corporalern, inter caetera maxime
numero annorum mille permoti sunt, tanquam oporteret in sanctis eo modo
tanti ternporis fieri Sabbatismum vacatione scilicet sancta post labores annorum
sex millium ex quo creatus est homo, et magni illius peccati rnerito in hujus
mortalitatis trrumnis de paradisi felicitate dimissus est; ut quoniam scriptum
est, ' Unus dies apud Doiniuum sunt mille anni, et mille anni sicut unus
dies/ sex annorum millibus tanquam sex diebus impletis^ sequatur velut sab-
bati septirnus in annis mille postremis, ad hoc scilicet sabbatum celebrandum
resurgentibus sanctis." — Augustine, Civit. Dei, lib. xx. cap. 7.
" flap* tjplt' (ivfif) r*c $ orofjict IOKUTT/C, etc; TWV 'ATrooroAwy rov Xpiorov
iv 'ATTO/caAvv^ei ytvop-ivi] avro), \i\.tct trrj Troit'icreLV iv lepovffaXrjp ra> ///ze-
rc/9^1 Xpiorw Trtorevcrcurac, 7T|00£0jyr6v<T£, KCLI jutra ravTCt, TT)V KaQo\iKrji',
KOI (en/veAovrt 0di^at) atwviav ofj-oOvfjia^uv apa Travrwv dvaaraaiv yf-
j'/fflreo-flcu, Koi icpiffii'." — Justin. Quoest. 72.
1 It is not a little remarkable how men have always thought that their
own day was the day of the millennium. Eusebius found a heavenly Jeru-
salem in the church which Constantine restored. The