The Life of Christ
(Two Volumes, 1874)
Head master of Marlborough College, Canon of Westminster, Archdeacon of Westminster, Chaplain to the House of Commons, Dean of Canterbury.
The Fields of the Shepherds.—An Eastern Khan.—The Cave of Bethlehem.—The Enrolment.—Joseph and Mary.—"No room for them in the inn."—The Manger and the Palace.—The Nativity.—Adoration of the Shepherds.—Fancy and Reality.—Contrast of the Gospels and the Apocrypha.
THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE.
Four Circumstances of the Infancy.—Order of Events.—The Circumcision.—The name Jesus.—The Presentation in the Temple.—Simeon.—Anna.
THE VISIT OF THE MAGI.
Importance of the Epiphany—Herod the Great.—"Magi."—Traditions.—Causes of their Journey—General Expectation of the World—The Star in the East——Astronomical Conjectures of Kepler, &c.—Evanescent Stars—Gifts of the Magi.
THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT, AND MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS.
Departure of the Magi.—Legends of the Flight into Egypt.—Massacre of the Innocents.—Its Historical Credibility.—Character of Herod the Great.—Silence of Josephus.—Death and Burial of Herod the Great.—The Spell of the Herodian Dominion broken.—Accession of Archelaus.—Settlement of Joseph and Mary in Galilee.
THE BOYHOOD OF JESUS.
Geography of Palestine.—Galilee.—Nazareth.—Reticence of the Evangelists.—Truthfulness of the Gospels contrasted with Apocryphal Legends. —Life of Galilæan Peasants.—Imagination and Fact.—"He shall be called a Nazarene."
JESUS IN THE TEMPLE.
Jesus Twelve Years old.—Journey from Nazareth to Jerusalem.—Scenes by the Way.—Numbers of Passover Pilgrims.—Jesus missing from the Caravan.—The Search.—Rabbis in the Temple.—"Hearing them and asking them questions."—"Why did ye seek Me."—"They understood not."—Submissiveness.
THE HOME AT NAZARETH.
"The Carpenter."—Dignity of Poverty.—Dignity of Toil.—The Common Lot.—Wisdom better than Knowledge.—Originality.—The Language spoken by Jesus.—The Books of God.—Jesus in His home.—Work and Example of those Years.—Peacefulness.—"The brethren of the Lord."—Solitude.—The Hill-top at Nazareth.—Plain of Esdraelon.—Centrality of Palestine.
THE BAPTISM OF JOHN.
Characteristics of the Age.—Darkness deepest before Dawn.—Asceticism.—John the Baptist.—His Character.—His Teaching.—His Audience.—Scene of his Teaching.—His Message.—Bearing of John in the Presence of Jesus.—Why Jesus was baptised.—Recognition as the Messiah.
Quarantania.—"With the wild beasts."—"Forty days."—The Moment of Exhaustion.—Reality of the Temptation.—"Tempted like as we are."—Fasting.—Lapides Judaici.—The First Temptation.—Subtlety of it.—"Not by bread alone."—The Suggested Doubt.—The Order of the Temptations.—The Temple Pinnacle.—The Tempter's Quotation.—The Splendid Offer.—The Roman Emperor.—The Victory.
THE FIRST APOSTLES.
St. John's Gospel.—"The Lamb of God."—Andrew and John.—Simon.—Appearance and Personal Ascendancy of Jesus.—Philip.—Nathanael.—"Come and see."—"Under the fig-tree."—"Angels ascending and descending."
THE FIRST MIRACLE.
"On the third day."—An Eastern Bridal.—"They have no wine."—The Answer to the Virgin.—The Miracle.—Characteristics of this and other Miracles.
THE SCENE OF THE MINISTRY.
Contrast between the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan Valley.—Beauty of Gennesareth.—Character of the Scenery.—Its Present Desolation and Past Populousness.—Prophecy of Isaiah.—Centrality.—Christ's Teaching there.—Site of Capernaum.
JESUS AT THE PASSOVER.
Visit to Jerusalem.—Purification of the Temple.—State of the Court of the Gentiles.—Crowd of Traders.—Indignation of Jesus.—Why they did not dare to resist.—Question of the Rulers.—"Destroy this temple."—Impression made by the Words.—Their deep Significance.—Extent to which they were understood.
Talmudic Allusions to Nicodemus.—His Character.—Indirectness of his Questions.—Discourse of Jesus.—His Disciples baptise.—Continued Baptism of John.—Ænon, near Salim.—Complaint of John's Disciples.—Noble and sad Reply.
THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA.
Retirement of Jesus to Galilee.—Sychar.—Noontide at the Well.—The Scene.—Conversation with the Woman.—Jerusalem and Gerizim.—Revelation of Messiahship.—Return of Disciples.—The Fields White unto Harvest.—Believing Samaritans.
REJECTED BY THE NAZARENES.
Sequence of Events.—A perfect "Harmony" impossible.—A Prophet in his own Country.—A Jewish Synagogue.—Nature of the Service.—Sermon of Jesus.—Change of Feeling in the Audience.—Their Fury.—Escape of Jesus.—Finally leaves Nazareth.
THE BEGINNING OF THE GALILÆAN MINISTRY.
The Courtier's Entreaty.—His Faith.—Sequence of Events.—St. John and the Synoptists.—Jesus stays at Capernaum.—His First Sabbath there.—Preaches in the Synagogue.—The Demoniac.—Peter's Mother-in-law.—The Evening.—Eagerness of the Multitude.—His Privacy invaded.—Preaches from the Boat.—Call of Peter, James, and John.—"Depart from Me."—Publicans.—The Publican Apostle.
THE TWELVE, AND THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT.
A Night of Prayer.—Selection of the Twelve.—Conjectures respecting them.—James and John.—Peter.—Kûrn Hattîn.—Contrast with Moses on Sinai.—Beatitudes.—Sketch of the Sermon on the Mount.—"Not as the Scribes."—Authority.—Christ and other Masters.—Perfection.—Beauty and Simplicity.
A Man full of Leprosy.—Violation of the Letter.—Why was Publicity forbidden?—Deputation of Batlanîm.—Message of the Centurion.—Pressure of the Ministry.—The Interfering Kinsmen.
JESUS AT NAIN.
Nain.—A Funeral.—The Widow's Son raised.—Message from John the Baptist.—Overclouding of his Faith.—How accounted for.—Machærus.—God's Trial of His Servants.—Answer of Jesus.—Splendid Eulogy of John.—"The least in the kingdom of heaven."
THE SINNER AND THE PHARISEE.
Simon the Pharisee.—Jewish Customs at Meals.—The Weeping Woman.—Simon's Disgust.—Answer of Jesus.—Parable of the Debtors.—Cold Courtesy of Simon.—Pardoning of Sins.—Was it Mary of Magdala?
JESUS AS HE LIVED IN GALILEE.
A Scene in Galilee.—Jesus and His Followers.—His Aspect.—A Life of Poverty.—of Toil.—of Health.—of Sorrow.—and yet of Holy Joy.
A GREAT DAY IN THE LIFE OF JESUS.
Order of Events.—Teaching from the Boat.—Parables.—Parable of the Sower.—Other Parables.—Effect produced.—Urgent Desire for Rest.—The Eastern Shore—The Three Aspirants.—The Storm.—"What manner of Man is this?"—Miracles.—Gergesa.—The Naked Demoniac from the Tombs.—"Thy name."—Loss of the Swine.—Alarm of the Gadarenes.—Their Request.—Request of the Demoniac.
THE DAY OF MATTHEW'S FEAST.
Return to Capernaum.—The Paralytic let through the Roof.—"Thy sins be forgiven thee."—Feast in Matthew's House.—Scorn of the Pharisees.—Question about Fasting.—The New Wine and the Old.
THE DAY OF MATTHEW'S FEAST (continued).
Jairus.—The Woman with the Issue.—The Touch of Faith.—Message to Jairus.—The Hired Mourners.—Raising of Jairus's Daughter.—The Blind Men.—They disobey Christ's Injunction.
A VISIT TO JERUSALEM.
Phases of the Ministry.—Mission of the Twelve.—Their Instructions.—A Feast of the Jews.—Arrangement of St. John.—Days of Jewish Feasts.—Nature of the Purim Feast.—Reason for Christ's Presence.
THE MIRACLE AT BETHESDA.
Pool of Bethesda.—Healing of the Impotent Man.—Jealous Questioning.—Sabbath-breaking.—The Man's Meanness.—Anger of the Rulers.—Answer of Jesus.—Dangerous Results.
THE MURDER OF JOHN THE BAPTIST.
Return to Galilee.—Herod Antipas.—Herodias.—Consequences of the Adulterous Marriage.—Credulity and Unbelief.—The Banquet.—Salome.—Her Request.—Murder of the Baptist.—Herod's Remorse.—He inquires about Jesus.—Ultimate Fate of Herod.
THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND, AND WALKING ON
Bethsaida Julias.—Hungry Multitude.—-Miracle of the Loaves.—Excitement of the Multitude.—Dismissal of the Disciples.—Jesus alone on the Mountain.—The Disciples alone in the Storm.—"It is I."—Peter's Boldness and Failure.—Nature of the Miracle.
THE DISCOURSE AT CAPERNAUM.
Astonished Query of the Multitude.—Reproof of Jesus.—They ask for a Sign.—His Answer.—The Bread of Life.—Their Dull Materialism.—Their Displeasure.—Abandonment of Jesus.—Sad Question to the Disciples.—Answer of Peter.—Warning to Judas.
Gathering Clouds.—l. "Thy sins be forgiven thee." 2. "A gluttonous man and a winebibber." 3. "Thy disciples fast not." 4. "With publicans and sinners."—"Mercy, not sacrifice."—The Prodigal Son.—Religionism and Religion.—5. Charges of violating the Sabbath.—Jewish Traditions.—Abhôth and Toldôth.—i. In the Corn-fields.—Analogy of David's Conduct.—"No Sabbatism in the Temple."—Incident in the Codex Bezae.—ii. The Stonemason with the Withered Hand.—Good or Evil on the Sabbath?—The Objectors foiled.—Unwashen Hands.—Jewish Ablutions.—"Your tradition."—The Oral Law.—Hagadôth and Halachôth.—"That which cometh from within."—Evil Thoughts.
Agitations of the Life of Jesus.—Prayer at Dawn.—The Lord's Prayer.—Parable of the Importunate Friend.—Lights and Shadows of the Life of Jesus.—The Blind and Dumb Demoniac.—Exorcism.—Slander of the Scribes.—Beelzebub.—Answer of Jesus.—Warning against Light Words.—Who are truly blessed?—"Master, we would see a sign."—Sign of the Prophet Jonah.—Interference of His Kinsmen.
THE DAY OF CONFLICT.
Alone with Pharisees at the Midday Meal.—Unwashen Hands.—Reproof of Jesus.—The Lawyers included in the Reproof.—Spurious Civility.—Open Rupture.—Danger of Jesus.—He goes out to the Multitude.—Denunciation of Hypocrisy.—Foolish Appeal.—The Parable of the Rich Fool.—Peter's Question.—Jesus troubled in Spirit.
AMONG THE HEATHEN.
The Regions of Tyre and Sidon.—The Syro-phœnician Woman.—Her Petition apparently rejected.—Her Exalted Faith.—Her Faith rewarded.—Heathen Lands.—Return to Decapolis.—Deaf and Dumb Man.—"Ephphatha!"—Reception by the Multitudes.—Feeding of the Four Thousand.
THE GREAT CONFESSION.
Reception of Jesus on His return to Galilee.—An ill-omened Conjunction.—Demand of a Sign.—Reproof and Refusal.—Sadness of Jesus.—He sails away.—The Prophetic Woe.—Leaven of the Pharisees and of Herod.—Literal Misinterpretation of the Apostles.—Healing of a Blind Man at Bethsaida Julias.—On the road to Cæsarea Philippi.—The momentous Questions.—"Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living God."—The Rock.—Foundation of the Church.—Misinterpretations.—Warnings about His Death.—Rash Presumption of Peter.—"Get thee behind me, Satan."—The Worth of the Human Soul.—"The Son of Man coming in His Kingdom."
The Mountain.—Not Tabor, but Hermon.—The Vision.—Moses and Elias.— Bewildered Words of Peter.—The Voice from Heaven.—Fading of the Vision.—The New Elias.
THE DEMONIAC BOY.
The Contrast.—The Disciples and the Scribes.—Arrival of Jesus.—The Demoniac Boy.—Emotion of Jesus.—Anguish of the Father.—"If thou canst."—The Deliverance.—Power of Faith to remove Mountains.—Secluded Return of Jesus.—Sad Warnings.—Dispute which should be the Greatest.—The Little Child.—John's Question.—Offending Christ's Little Ones.—The Unforgiving Debtor.
A BRIEF REST IN CAPERNAUM.
The Temple Tax.—The Collectors come to Peter.—His rash Answer.—Jesus puts the Question in its true light.—The Stater in the Fish's Mouth.—Peculiar Characteristics of this Miracle.
JESUS AT THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.
Observances of the Feast of Tabernacles.—Presumption of the Brethren of Jesus.—"I go not up yet unto this feast."—Eager Questions of the Multitude.—Their differing Opinions.—Jesus appears in the temple.—His reproachful Question.—"Thou hast a devil."—Appeal to His Works.—Indignation of the Sanhedrin.—Observances of the Last Day of the Feast.—"The joy of the drawing of water."—"Rivers of Living Water."—Divided Opinions.—"Never man spake like this Man."—Timid Interpellation of Nicodemus.—Answering Taunt of the Pharisees.
THE WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY.
Indirect References to the Narrative in the following Discourses.—Jesus at the Mount of Olives.—Returns at Dawn to the Temple.—Hilarity of the Feast of Tabernacles.—Immorality of the Age.—The Water of Jealousy.—Base Cruelty of the Pharisees.—The Woman dragged into the Temple.—"What sayest Thou?"—Subtlety of the Assault.—Writing on the Floor.—"Him that is without sin among you."—Conscience-stricken.—Misery left alone with Mercy.—"Go, and sin no more."—Absolute Calmness of Jesus under all Attacks.—Eighth Day of the Feast.—The great Candelabra.—The Light of the World.— Agitating Discussions with the Jews.—A Burst of Fury.—Jesus leaves the Temple.
THE MAN BORN BLIND.
Jewish Notion of Nemesis.—"Which did sin?"—"Go wash in the Pool of Siloam."—On the Sabbath Day.—The Man examined by the Sanhedrin.—A Sturdy Nature.—Perplexity of the Sanhedrists.—"We know that this man is a sinner."—Blandishments and Threats.—The Man excommunicated.—Jesus and the Outcast.—True and False Shepherds.
FAREWELL TO GALILEE.
The Interval between the Feasts of Tabernacles and Dedication.—Great Episode in St. Luke.—Character of the Episode.—Mission of the Seventy.—News of the Galilæans massacred by Pilate.—Teachings founded on the Event.—Stern Warnings.—The Barren Fig-tree.—The Pharisees' Plot to hasten His Departure.—"Go and tell this fox."—Herod Antipas.—Jesus sets forth.—Farewell to the Scene of His Ministry.—Fate that fell on the Galilæans.—Jesus exults in Spirit.—"Come unto me all ye that labour."—Noble Joy.
INCIDENTS OF THE JOURNEY.
Possible Routes.—The Village of En-gannim.—Churlishness of the Samaritans.—Passion of the Sons of Thunder.—Gentle Rebuke of Jesus.—Counting the Cost.—Peræa.—The Ten Lepers.—Thanklessness.—Where are the nine?"
TEACHINGS OF THE JOURNEY.
Sabbatical Disputes.—Foolish Ruler of the Synagogue.—Healing of the Bowed Woman.—Argumentum ad hominem.—Ignorant Sabbatarianism.—Religious Espionage.—The Man with the Dropsy.—Question of Jesus.—Silence of Obstinacy.—The Man Healed.—Self-sufficiency of the Pharisees.—Struggles for Precedence.—A Vague Platitude.—Parable of the King's Marriage-feast.—The Unjust Steward.—Avarice of the Pharisees.—Their Sycophancy to Herod.—The Rich Man and Lazarus.—"Are there few that be saved?"—"What must I do to obtain Eternal Life?"—The Good Samaritan.—Return of the Seventy.—The Love of Publicans and Sinners.—The Parable of the Prodigal Son.—Solemn Warnings.—"Where, Lord?"—The Eagles and the Carcass.
THE FEAST OF DEDICATION.
The House at Bethany.—Martha and Mary.—"The one thing needful."—The Feast of the Dedication.—Solomon's Porch.—Reminiscence of the Feast.—Jesus suddenly surrounded.—"How long dost thou hold us in suspense?"—No Political Messiah.—"I and My Father are one."—They seek to stone Him.—Appeal of Jesus to His Life and Works.—He retires to Bethany beyond Jordan.
THE LAST STAY IN PERÆA.
Question about Divorce.—Importance of the Question.—Hillel and Shammai.—Dispute as to the meaning of Ervath Dabhar.—Lax Interpretations.—Both Schools wrong.—Simple Solution of the Question.—Permission of Divorce by Moses only temporary.—Corruption of the Age.—Teachings of Jesus about Moral Purity.—Celibacy and Marriage.—Jesus blesses Little Children.—The eager Young Ruler.—"Good Master."—"What must I do?"—An Heroic Mandate.—"The Great Refusal."—Discouragement of the Disciples.—Hundredfold Rewards.—The Labourers in the Vineyard.
THE RAISING OF LAZARUS.
Message to Jesus.—Two Days' Delay.—"Let us also go that we may die with Him."—He approaches Bethany.—Martha meets Him.—"The Resurrection and the Life."—Mary's Agony.—Deep Emotion of Jesus.—Scene at the Grave.—"Lazarus, come forth."—Silence of the Synoptists.—Meeting at the house of Caiaphas.—His Wicked Policy.—The Fiat of Death.—Retirement to Ephraim.
JERICHO AND BETHANY.
Pilgrim-caravans.—Jesus on His way.—Revelation of the Crowning Horror.—The Sons of Zebedee.—The Cup and the Baptism.—Humility before Honour.—Jericho.—Bartimæus.—Zacchæus.—His Repentance.—Parable of the Pounds.—Events which suggested it.—Arrival at Bethany.—"Simon the Leper."—Intentional Reticence of the Synoptists.—Mary's Offering.—Inward Rage of Judas.—Blessing of Mary by Jesus.—"For my burying."—Interview of the Traitor with the Priests.
Excitement of Expectation.—Three Roads to Bethany.—Bethphage.—The Ass's Colt.—A Humble Triumph.—Hosanna!—Turn of the Road.—The Jerusalem of that Day.—Jesus weeps over the City.—Terrible Fulfilment of the Woe.—The Two Processions.—Indignation of the Pharisees.—"Who is this?"—Jesus once more cleanses the Temple.— Hosannas of the Children.—"Have ye never read?"—The Greeks who desired an Interview.—Abgarus V.—Discourse of Jesus.—Voice from Heaven.—The Day closes in Sadness.—Bivouac on the Mount of Olives.
MONDAY IN PASSION WEEK.—A DAY OF PARABLES.
Jesus Hungers.—The Deceptive Fig.—Hopelessly Barren.—Criticisms on the Miracle.—Right View of it.—Deputation of the Priests.—"Who gave thee this authority?"—Counter-question of Jesus.—The Priests reduced to Silence.—Parable of the Two Sons.—Parable of the Rebellious Husbandmen.—The Rejected Corner-stone.—Parable of the Marriage of the King's Son.—Machinations of the Pharisees.
THE DAY OF TEMPTATIONS.—THE LAST AND GREATEST DAY OF THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF JESUS.
The Withered Fig-tree.—Power of Faith.—Plot of the Herodians.—Its Dangerous Character.—The Tribute Money.—Divine and Ready Wisdom of the Reply of Jesus.—Attempt of the Sadducees.—A poor Question of Casuistry.—The Sevenfold Widow.—"As the Angels of God."—"The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."—Implicit Teaching of Immortality.
THE GREAT DENUNCIATION.
"Master, thou hast well said."—"Which is the great commandment?"—Answer of the Rabbis—Answer of Jesus.—"Not far from the kingdom of heaven."—Question of Jeans to the Scribes.—David's Son and David's Lord.—Their Failure to answer.—The Final Rupture.—"Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!"—The Voice which broke in Tears.—"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem!"—The Denunciation deserved.—The Denunciation fulfilled.
FAREWELL TO THE TEMPLE.
A Happier Incident.—The poor Widow.—True Almsgiving.—Splendour of the Temple.—"Not one stone upon another."—Jesus on the Mount of Olives.—"When shall these things be?"—The great Eschatological Discourse.—The Two Horizons.—Difficulties of the Discourse, and mode of meeting them.—What must come before the Final End.—The Immediate Future.—Warning Signs.—Parable of the Fig-tree.—of the Ten Virgins.—of the Talents.—After Two Days.—Last Evening Walk to Bethany.
THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
Meeting of Conspirators in the Palace of Caiaphas.—Their Discussions.—Judas demands an Interview.—Thirty Pieces of Silver.—Motives of Judas.—"Satan entered into Judas."—The Wednesday passed in Retirement.—Last Sleep of Jesus on Earth.
THE LAST SUPPER.
"Green Thursday."—Preparations for the Meal.—The Upper Room.—Dispute about Precedence.—Jesus washes the Disciples' Feet.—Peter's Surprise and Submission.—"Ye are clean, but not all."—Teaching about Humility.—Troubled in Spirit.—"One of you shall betray me." "Lord, is it I?"—Peter makes a sign to John.—Giving of the Sop.—"Rabbi, is it I?"—"He went out and it was night."—Revived Joy of the Feast.—Institution of the Lord's Supper.
THE LAST DISCOURSE.
"Now is the Son of Man glorified."—"Little Children."—The New Commandment.—"Lord, whither goest Thou?"—Warning to Peter.—"Lord, here are two swords."—Consolations.—"How can we know the way?"—"Lord, show us the Father."—Difficulty of Judas Lebbæus.—Last Words before Starting.—The True Vine.—Plain Teachings.—Gratitude of the Disciples.—Fresh Warnings to them.—The High-Priestly Prayer.
GETHSEMANE.—THE AGONY AND THE ARREST.
Walk through the Moonlight to Gethsemane.—Last Warning to Peter.— Gethsemane.—Scene of Agony.—Desire for Solitude and yet for Sympathy.—The First Struggle with Agony of Soul.—Its Intensity.—The Bloody Sweat.—Not due to Dread of Death.—"Simon, sleepest thou?"—The Second Agony.—The Disciples Sleeping.—The Third Agony and Final Victory.—"Sleep on now, and take your rest."—Torches in the Moonlight.—Steps taken by Judas.—"Comrade."—The Traitor's Kiss.—Jesus advances.—"Whom seek ye?"—"I am He."—Tenor of the Band.—Historical Parallels.—Jesus arrested.—Peter's Blow.—"Suffer ye thus far."—The Young Man in the Linen Sheet.—Jesus bound and led away.
JESUS BEFORE THE PRIESTS AND THE SANHEDRIN.
Asserted Discrepancies.—Sixfold Trial.—"To Annas first."—Hanan, the High Priest de jure.—His Character.—His Responsibility for the Result.—Degradation of the then Sanhedrin.—Pharisees and Sadducees.—Greater Cruelty of the Latter.—The Sadducees, the Priestly Party.—Cause of their Rage and Hatred.—"The Viper Brood."—Jesus repudiates the Examination of Hanan.—"Answerest Thou the High Priest so?"—Noble Patience.—The Second Phase of the Trial.—In the Palace of Caiaphas.—Committees of the Sanhedrin.—"Sought false witness."—Total Failure of the Witnesses.—"Destroy this Temple."—Silence of Jesus.—Despair of Caiaphas.—His violent Adjuration.—Reply of Jesus.—"Blasphemy."—"Ish maveth."
THE INTERVAL BETWEEN THE TRIALS.
The First Derision.—The Outer Court.—John procures Admission for Peter.—The First Denial.—The Second Denial.—The Galilæan Accent.—The Third Denial.—The Look of Jesus.—The Repentance of Peter.—Brutal Insults of the Menials.—The Dawn.—The Meeting of the Sanhedrin.—Their Divisions.—Third Phase of the Trial.—A Contrast of Two Scenes before the Sanhedrin.—Jesus breaks His Silence.—The Condemnation.—The Second Derision.—The Fate of Jesus.
JESUS BEFORE PILATE.
"Suffered under Pontius Pilate."—What is known of Pilate.—First Outbreak of the Jews against him on his arrival.—The Aqueduct and the Corban.—The gilt Votive Shields.—The Massacre of Galilæans.—The Massacre of Samaritans.—The Palace of Herod.—Jesus in the Palace.—Led before Pilate.—Pilate comes out to the Jews.—1. His Roman Contemptuousness.—Determines to try the Case.—Vagueness of the Accusations.—"Art Thou the King of the Jews?"—"What is truth?"—First Acquittal.—2. Fierceness of the Jews.—Jesus sent to Herod Antipas.—Cruel Frivolity of Herod.—Second Acquittal.—3. Last Phase of the Trial.—Temporising of Pilate.—Dream of his Wife.—Cowardly Concession.—Jesus or Bar-Abbas?—"Crucify Him."—The Scourging.—Third Derision.—The Crown of Thorns.—"Behold the Man!"—Last efforts of Pilate to save Him.—Last Warning to Pilate.—"The Son of God."—"Behold your King."—Pilate terrified at the Name of Cæsar.—He gives way.—He washes his Hands.—"His blood be on us, and on our children!"—Fulfilment of the Imprecation.
"I, miles, expedi crucem."—Two Malefactors.—The Cross.—Procession to Golgotha.—Simon of Cyrene.—The Daughters of Jerusalem.—The Green and the Dry Tree.—Site of Golgotha.—The Medicated Draught.—The Method of Crucifixion.—"Father, forgive them."—Agony of Crucifixion.—The Title on the Cross.—Rage of the Jews.—The Soldiers.—Parting the Garments.—Insults of the Bystanders.—The Robber.—Silence of the Sufferer.—The Penitent Robber.—"To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise."—The Women from Galilee.—"Woman, behold thy son."—The Noonday Darkness.—"Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?"—"I thirst."—Vinegar to Drink.—"Into Thy hands.—"It is finished."—The Centurion.—The Multitude.—What the Cross of Christ has Done.—The Crurifragium.—Water and Blood.
Utter apparent Weakness of Christianity at the Death of Christ.—Source of its subsequent Strength.—Joseph of Arimathæa.—Nicodemus.—The Garden and the Sepulchre.—The Women mark the Spot.—Request of the Sanhedrin that the Tomb might be guarded.—The Dawn of Easter Day.—The Women at the Sepulchre.—The Empty Tomb.—Peter and John.—l. First Appearance to Mary of Magdala.—2. Appearance to the Women.—Story Invented by the Jews.—3. Appearance to Peter.—4. The Disciples at Emmaus.—5. The assembled Apostles.—6. The Apostles and Thomas.—7. At the Sea of Galilee.—Jesus and Peter.—"Feed my lambs."—"What shall this man do?"—8. The Five Hundred on the Mountain.—9. Appearance to James.—10. The Ascension.—"At the right hand of God, the Father Almighty."
In the summer of 1981 I visited Cambridge, England. As I walked along the streets of this famous university town and passed the different colleges, I tried to recall some of the great men who had studied in its institutions. As I came abreast of the old stately buildings comprising Trinity College, I reflected on a few of its eminent "sons" who had once walked its courts, studied or taught in its halls, and who, each in his own way, had served his generation. The names of Henry Alford, Francis Bacon, Arthur James Balfour, Isaac Barrow, William John Conybeare, John Cotton, Frederic William Farrar, Fenton John Anthony Hort, John Saul Howson, Frederick John Foakes Jackson, John Barber Lightfoot, Handley Moule, Sir Isaac Newton, J. J. Stewart Perowne, John R. W. Stott, and many more came readily to mind.
Of the great men from Cambridge's Trinity College who have made a significant contribution to the cause of Christ, F. W. Farrar (1831-1903), at one time a minister in London's famous Westminster Abbey and later Dean of Canterbury, deserves to be remembered. A graduate of Cambridge (B.A., 1854; M.A., 1857; D.D., 1874), Dr. Farrar spent the early years of his ministry as a highschool teacher. His first appointment to Marlborough College enabled him to serve under the headmaster, Dr. G. E. L. Cotton. Farrar at once endeared himself to the students and provided a powerful stimulus for them through his own literary and intellectual activities.
In 1855 Frederic Farrar transferred to Harrow where he became a house-master, serving initially under Dr. C. J. Vaughn and later under Dr. H. M. Butler. At Harrow he devoted his leisure time to writing. His literary works included fiction, philology, and theology.
Dr. Farrar's work in the area of philology brought him to the attention of the Royal Society and, in 1866, the society conferred a fellowship upon him. Other honors bestowed upon Dr. Farrar included an appointment as chaplain to Queen Victoria, delivering the Hulsean Lectures at Cambridge in 1870 on "The Witness of History to Christ," and giving the Bampton Lectures at Oxford on "The History of Interpretation," in 1886.
In 1871 Dr. Farrar was recalled to Marlborough College as headmaster. It was during this time that he began working on a book on the life of Christ. A year earlier he had visited the Holy Land and his personal knowledge of the places made famous by the Master during His earthly ministry had been vividly impressed upon his mind. It was only after three years of continuous hard work that Dr. Farrar's manuscript was ready to be sent to the publisher. Its success was surprising, for it went through twelve editions in a single year. In time it was also published in large type (2 vols.), small type, and in a very small five volume format.
The value of Dr. Farrar's writings lay in his ability to combine "an honest and robust faith with wide and accurate scholarship." So much so that Charles Haddon Spurgeon, the out-spoken Baptist preacher, said that his study of the life of Christ was "THE work on the subject. Fresh and full. The price [of the 1874 edition] is very high, and yet the sale has been enormous."
Frederic Farrar capitalized upon his success with The Life of Christ by producing an equally as acceptable Life of St. Paul (1879). He also excelled as an historian, writing The Early Days of Christianity (1882), Lives of the Fathers (1889), and several other highly acclaimed works. He also authored commentaries on the First and Second Books of Kings, and a character study entitled Solomon: His Life and Times.
In the course of time Dr. Farrar was called to minister in London's famous Westminster Abbey. Here he preached with such success that crowds flocked to listen to him. His ability to blend historical details with biblical facts made his messages most challenging and provided a sound basis for the application of truth to life.
In 1895 Dr. Farrar was invited to become Dean of Canterbury Cathedral. Here again he endeared himself to a wide following and ministered with great acceptance.
Much more could be said of this Cambridge scholar and evangelical churchman. One biographer wrote of him that he "exerted a vast popular influence upon the religious feeling and culture of the middle classes for fully forty years by virtue of his boundless industry." In considering the value of Dean Farrar's writings, the words of John W. Foster need constantly to be borne in mind. He wrote:
A man of ability, for the chief of his reading, should select such works as he feels are beyond his power to have produced. What can other books do for him but waste his time or augment his vanity.
These truths, of course, may be applied to any writer. In the case of the published works of Dr. Farrar, and particularly in connection with his Life of Christ, we have such excellence of coverage, such a beautiful blending of piety and scholarship, such vividness of description, and such a dramatic portrayal of the events as they unfold in the Gospels, that few readers could ever hope to produce a work of such literary and theological excellence. Within the pages of this book we are treated to the best scholarship of the period. This discussion of Christ's life and teaching, person and work, will amply repay the reader for the time he spends reading this book. We are therefore delighted that it has been made available again.
Cyril J. Barber
Author, The Minister's Library