Rev. Heneage Elsley
Vicar of Burneston
Annotations on the Four
Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles
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From Fifth Edition (1824)
Vol. 2 |
"Josephus seems to have been raised by Providence to verify, in
his relation of the miseries accompanying the siege of Jerusalem, the
prophecies of our blessed Lord relating to that dreadful catastrophe."
(On Matthew 12:32)
"Acts iii. 19, 20, and 2 Tim. i. 18, are quoted here by Whitby against
purgatory, as relating to the day of judgment; but the text in Acts, at
least, seems to refer to the relief gained by the Christians after the Jews
were destroyed. So Grotius and Hammond on that text. But see Whitby on the
place." (Annot. in Matt. xii. 32)
(On Matthew 12:43)
"'As each man is in a worse state on relapsing to evil, so this generation,
numbers of whom have had strong convictions of my doctrine and miracles,
shall, on resisting these good resolutions, and relapsing to unbelief,
become more obdurate and abandoned than before; which was the case before
the destruction of Jerusalem. See Josephus. The connection of the Gentiles
and the " dry and barren places" seems overstrained. Macknight." (Annot. in
(On John 8:21)
"Ye shall die in your sins: from Ezek. iii. 19. Grotius. En te amartia
(sing.) : in this your sin of incredulity and unbelief. Beza. The impending
judgment of the destruction of Jerusalem shall cut you off in it. Macknight.'
(Annot. in loc. )
THE Commentaries on the New Testament are too
frequently esteemed perplexed and intricate. And doubtless the variety of
the subjects on which they treat, with the length and minuteness of some of
their disquisitions, added to the antiquated style and needless display of
learning that occasionally prevail in them, render the observation not
wholly unfounded. Much, however, of this appearance of difficulty may be
removed, if some reasonable preparation be made, and previous diligence
exerted: so far, at least, as to consider what are the principal objects
which they investigate, with the authors to whom they refer; and in general,
to bring to the perusal of them a moderate portion of useful knowledge on
the less recondite parts of the subject. •*
The objects, to which the Annotators usually direct
their attention, may be comprised under these three general heads:
I. The geography and history of the Holy Land, with
whatever relates to the law of Moses and
the rites, customs, and traditions, of the Jewish
II. The state and critical
exposition of the text of
the New Testament.
III. The dispensation of
Christ; and the rites which
he hath established.
Next to a pious and well-disposed mind, and a heart
devoted to God, it may be reasonably expected that there be brought to
these inquiries a competent skill in the Greek language. This is evidently
essential. Where it is deficient, the first necessary step will be to
acquire a reasonable facility in the construction and idioms of the
Gospels, by very earnest application. Those of higher attainments in
classical literature will find, that a proper attention paid to the style
of the Evangelists, comparing it with that of the Septuagint, and noting
the hebraisms and other peculiarities, will form a valuable preparation to
their future labours.
Another easy and useful preparation may be, to review
in a connected order the historical books of the Old Testament. The
references from the Gospel to the whole course of the Jewish dispensation
are so frequent, that it is of moment to have the material parts of this
history fixed distinctly in the mind; observing the chronology, and noting
a few of the most important events, to serve as land-marks in the long
course of 4000years.
Of this whole period
indeed, as more than 1500 years elapsed before the Flood, the latter half
contains all that is important. This space of time may be divided, with
sufficient propriety, into four equal which
succeeded, with the origin of the Jewish people. At 1500 B. C. the
departure from Egypt, followed by the delivery of the Law on mount Sinai,
and the possession of the land of Canaan. At 1000 B. C. the building of
the temple at Jerusalem, connected with the reigns of David and Solomon,
and the subsequent division of the kingdom. And, lastly, the return from
the captivity of Babylon under Zorobabel, 500 years before the advent of
our Lord. In the space of about a century after this era of the return
from the captivity, the history of the Jewish nation in the Old Testament
The events of the remaining 400 years, except for the
short space of time contained in the books of the Maccabees, would have
been left to the uncertain notices collected from the heathen writers, had
not a Jewish author of distinguished excellence supplied the defect. This
author is Josephus. He wrote, in twenty books, the Jewish Antiquities, or
the history of the Jewish nation; and, in a separate work, the History
also of the Jewish war, and the destruction of Jerusalem.
He was eminently qualified
for both these performances. Of a studious and philosophic turn of mind, a
priest himself, and attached to the sect of the Pharisees; he was
intimately conversant with the rites of the Temple, and all the traditions
and customs of his nation. Descended also by the maternal line from the
Maccabean princes, and born in the first year of Caligula, or three or
four years after the ascension of Christ, at a period when the events
marked in our Saviour's prophecies of the destruction of the nation were
approaching, his rank and abilities gave him a distinguished part in them.
He had the chief command of the Jewish forces in Galilee, and was taken
prisoner, after an obstinate defence, in the fortress of Jotapata, by
Vespasian. Received into the favour of Titus, he
was present with him at the siege of Jerusalem, and an eye-witness of all
the miseries that befel that unhappy people. After the destruction of the
city he retired to Rome, under the protection of the Emperor and of Titus.
There he first wrote the history of the war, which he presented to these
princes ; and Titus himself subscribed his name to the work, to give it
the fullest authenticity; and ordered it (o^aj&ua-s'a-Sai), i. e. either
to be read in public,. or to be deposited in a public library, to which
all had access.
The Jewish Antiquities, or the history of the nation,
was a later production. In it he details, in a grave and majestic style,
the events recorded in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; and deduces
the history from the period in which they conclude, to within four years
of the dissolution of the state by the Romans.
The obligations which the Christian world owe to the
writings of Josephus are very great. They are provided in them with an
ample store of authentic information relative to the sacred rites, the
manners and customs, the various sects and parties, the whole government
and ceconomy, of the Jewish nation.
In Josephus they have also,
with the geography of Palestine, a clear view and full recital of the
historical events; the reception of, and submission to, the Macedonian
conqueror; the tyranny of the Syrian princes who succeeded; and the
successful efforts and emancipation of Judea by the Maccabean, or, as
often styled, the Asmonean, family.
More particularly in the Gospel era, they have the
reigns of Herod the Great, and of the numerous
been lost in obscurity, receive in great measure a complete elucidation. .
The obligations which the
Christian world owe to the writings of Josephus are very great. They are
provided in them with an ample store of authentic information relative to
the sacred rites, the manners and customs, the various sects and parties,
the whole government and ceconomy, of the Jewish nation. Lastly, and above
all, Josephus seems to have been raised by Providence to verify, in his
relation of the miseries accompanying the siege of Jerusalem, the
prophecies of our blessed Lord relating to that dreadful catastrophe.
On all these accounts,
Josephus may be esteemed the most valuable commentator on the Gospels.
There is no author from whom they are so frequently and copiously
As knowledge derived from
the original authors is so much superior to the detached fragments
necessarily given in occasional quotations, the perusal of that part of
his history, which forms the connection between the events of the Old and
New Testament, may be particularly recommended. It is comprised in the
latter part, from the eleventh to the twentieth book, of the Jewish
Antiquities. This portion of Josephus was thought so estimable by
Castellio, that he has inserted it in his classical Latin version of the
Bible. It may be read, to save time, in Castellio's, or any other good
translation; but its use is perpetually recurring in the Gospels. It gives
a general insight into and command of all the historical events that are
inserted in them; and no preparatory study will be found more instructive
A modern work of great
value and utility, on the same subject, will occur to every one's
recollection— Dean Prideaux's Connection between the Old and New
Testament, or rather between the sacred and profane history of that
period. It includes a very wide range, and treats of almost every
particular, relative not only to the history and chronology, but also to
the Jewish literature, as the Chaldee paraphrases and Talmudic writings,
and many other incidental topics. This ample variety of matter may
VI THE INTRODUCTION.
render the entire perusal of it not so expedient at
the first entrance on these studies, though almost essential in the
prosecution of them. The three last books, i. e. part ii. b. vii. viii.
ix. or a little more, as from the year Bef. Chr. 63. comprehending
almost the whole of what is contained in the seven concluding books of the
Jewish Antiquities, may be read at present with great advantage.
Yet some more regular detail of these several
subjects will greatly facilitate the reading of the Commentators. Amongst
other elementary treatises; therefore, these three may be mentioned;
containing, each of them, a clear and succinct account of most of the
introductory subjects connected with the sacred writings, viz. Lamy's
"Apparatus Biblicus, or Introduction to the Holy Scriptures; " Collyer's "
Sacred Interpreter;" and " The New Version of St. Matthew by Beausobre and
L'Enfant," with the Introduction that precedes it.
Of these, perhaps, for they
are all good, that of Lamy, who was a French critic of great eminence, may
have the preference.
After some one, however, of the above-mentioned works
has been attentively perused, and not, it should seem, before, (the
attainment of distinct and welldefined ideas being of singular consequence
in the outset of any science), the Commentators themselves may be opened
with reasonable expectation of improvement.
I. The first general head,
under which the objects, to which.the Annotators direct the attention, may
be ranked, has been stated to be
The geography and history of the Holy Land, 'with
whatever relates to the customs and traditions of the Jewish nation.
THE geography of Palestine lies in a narrow compass.
It comprises a tract of country of nearly two hundred miles in length, in
its full extent, from the river of Egypt south of Gaza to the furthest
bounds towards Damascus; and perhaps of more than a hundred in breadth,
including Perea, from the Mediterranean sea eastward to the desert Arabia.
The first glance on the map will show Judea, once the
tribe of Judah, with its metropolis Jerusalem, to the south. In the
centre, Samaria,- the former inheritance of a half-tribe of Manasseh, and
of the tribe of Ephraim, which last had the lead in Israel from Joshua to
David: the country was afterwards repeopled by the Cutheans, 2 Kings xvii.
In the north, the country of Galilee, where had resided the tribes of
Issachar, Asser, Zabulon, and Naphthali, Matt. iv» 15. and whose
inhabitants necessarily passed through Samaria in
their way to Jerusalem. See note on John iv. 4 and 9. infra.
Beyond Jordan eastward is Perea. And north of Perea,
and east of the lake of Tiberias, and of the sources of Jordan extending
towards Damascus, lay four or five smaller districts, whose bounds are
indistinct: Iturea, Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Abilene. See note
on Luke iii. i. infra. These countries were formerly possessed by the
tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the remaining half-tribe of Manasseh.
The face of the whole country of Palestine is
represented as rocky and mountainous; yet uncommonly fruitful, and
cultivated by the Jews with extreme assiduity and success. Some plains
however of considerable extent intervene. As, i. That of Jordan; named the
Aulon, or the Great Plain, by Josephus. 2. That of Samaria, or of
Esdraelon, extending'from Scythopolis on the east, by Jezreel or Esdraelon,
to the plain of Ptolemais or Acra on the west: this plain, including much
of the lower Galilee and part of Samaria, is also, from its size, named
the Great Plain by Josephus. 3. The plain of Acra, which is bounded by
niount Carmel on the south, and a range of hills on the north; and is
joined by a narrow valley to the plain of Samaria. 4. and lastly, The
plain of Ramah, or of Joppa: a level country of great length from mount
Carmel southward along the coast of the Mediterranean sea.
The principal cities in the Holy Land were: in Judea,
Jerusalem, and Jericho famous for its palms. In Samaria, Neapolis the
ancient Sichem, and Cassarea, or Strato's tower, a seaport rebuilt with
great magnificence by Herod. In Galilee, Tiberias on the lake of that
name, and Cassarea Philippi or Paneadis at the springs or source of the
But the names of few places
occur in the Gospels. Our blessed Lord was chiefly
conversant on the borders of the sea or lake of Tiberias; whence he
journeyed thrice in the year, on the great feasts, to Jerusalem. Capernaum
therefore, supposed after his dereliction of Nazareth to have become his
own city, or place of abode, Matt. iv. 13. Bethsaida, and the other towns
near the lake, with Jerusalem and its adjoining villages, were the
principal scenes of his miracles and ministry. And though he published the
Gospel throughout all Galilee, even to the borders of Tyre and Sidon,
Matt. xv. 21. and through Judea, John iii. 22. in Perea also, and
Decapolis on the eastern side of Jordan, and in general throughout the
Holy Land; yet, exclusive of those above alluded to, there may not be more
than six or eight places distinguished in the Evangelists by his presence.
Of these are Bethabara
beyond Jordan, the situation uncertain, probably in Perea; Jericho, and
Bethlehem, when an infant, in Judea; Sichar or. Sichem, and the city of
Ephraim, John xi. 54. and of Nain in Samaria; in Galilee, Cana, and
Nazareth, and Cassarea Philippi.
The first planting of Christianity by St. Paul
amongst the Gentiles, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, will
furnish, however, a larger field for geographical inquiries.
Two authors are chiefly applied to in establishing
the topography of the Holy Land. The first is Josephus. The other,
Eusebius, in a tract De Locis Hebraicis, as translated and augmented by
St. Jerom. Eusebius, A. D. 315. the ecclesiastical historian, was a native
of Palestine, and long bishop of Cassarea in that country, and of
distinguished learning and talents. St. Jerom, A. D. 378. whose active
mind and uncommon erudition are sufficiently known, retired, for the last
twenty or thirty years of hie life, to a
monastery at Bethlehem, near Jerusalem. No authority, therefore, seems
likely to be so satisfactory as that of an account furnished by these
writers. The humble obscurity, however, of many of the places in question,
and the distance of three or four hundred years from the events, have
rendered some of their descriptions uncertain and inaccurate. 'To
ascertain the boundaries of the adjoining countries, the ancient classical
geographers, Strabo, Mela, and Solinus,1
and especially Pliny in his Natural History, are consulted..
The treatise of Strabo, in 17 books, a Greek writer,
and native of Cappadocia, who flourished in the reigns of Augustus and
Tiberius, is the standard work on ancient geography.
Pomponius Mela, born in Spain, a Latin geographer of
merit and elegance, wrote " Cosmographia," or, "De Situ Orbis," in three
books, in the time of the emperor Claudius.
The Natural History of the elder Pliny, who
flourished A. D. 70. and lost his life in exploring an eruption of
Vesuvius, is an inexhaustible fund of ancient literature in all the
branches connected with the subject. Not only in geography, but in the
various particulars of natural history respecting the animals, plants, and
other productions of Palestine, the Commentators frequently borrow their
illustrations from his writings.
To Pliny is joined
Theophrastus, who preceded him; a Grecian philosopher, and successor of
Aristotle, Bef. Chr. 280. whose book of plants is occa* sionally cited.
Some gleanings are also gained in these points from
the Jewish Rabbins.
'Of Solinus, see the
article Grammarians, »t the
end of this Introduction.
The descriptions of modern travellers, as of Sandys,
Maundrel, Shaw, and some of later date, are another very amusing and
instructive source of information on these subjects. Extracts from the
principal of these narratives have been formed into a very judicious
collection by Mr. Harmer. Much that is useful from Maundrel and Shaw will
also be found in the dissertations prefixed to Macknight's Harmony of the
All that relates to the
climate, the buildings, customs, and modes of life, very similar to the
ancient, the soil, the productions, and general state of the country, is
given by these writers with sufficient exactness. But the modern
topography, if it may be so called, of the Gospels, including many of the
smaller towns mentioned there; the mountains also of Christ's temptation
and transfiguration; and the holy places, or those at present shown as the
scenes of his birth and sufferings; is founded on a very weak and obscure
tradition, and intitled to no credence.
The geographical treatise, esteemed the guide on that
subject, is Reland's Palestine (he flourished in Holland at the beginning
of this century); and in natural history, animals, &c. the Hierozoicon of
Bochart; a work of distinguished learning and high authority. Lightfoot
also, who differs in opinion from Reland, has bestowed great pains in
discussing the geography of the Holy Land.
Of the historical events, the following is a short
and imperfect analysis.
On the return from the
captivity, A. M. 3468. Bef. Chr. 535. the nation continued under the
protection of the kings of Persia, for the space of two hundred years,
till the dissolution of that empire.
In the former part of this
period, governors, of the Jewish nation, were appointed by the Persian
court; in the latter part of it, the high-priests were themselves deputed
to that office.
Zorobabelj the first of these governors, who
conducted the people from Babylon, rebuilt the Temple under an- express
decree from Cyrus the Persian monarch. It was finished, after some delays,
A. M. 3489. an account of which is given in the book of Ezra, ch. i.—vi.
At this period flourished Haggai and Zechariah, two of the three latest
prophets who wrote after the return from the captivity. See their
prophecies in the Scripture, and Ezra v. r.
The book of Ezra is then silent on the events of more
than fifty years; when it relates the coming of Ezra himself as governor
from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, A. M. 3547. He
reformed many abuses, especially in intermarriages with the neighbouring
gentiles, and probably held the government ten or twelve years.
He was succeeded by
Nehemiah, also sent from Babylon by Artaxerxes, A. M. 3559. who rebuilt
the walls of the city, and exerted himself in a conti- . nuance of a
similar reform, as related in the book of
his name, to A. M. S595. At which time, about
400 years before Christ, flourished also Malachi, the last of the
prophets, being contemporary with Nehemiah, and adverting to the same
events ; and the canon of the Old Testament was finally closed. As this
was 127 years after the return from Babylon, it is obvious that the
Nehemiah mentioned in Ezra to have accompanied Zorobabel was a different
person. On all these points, Gray's key to the Old Testament may be
consulted; a work of singular accuracy and utility, and indispensably
necessary to the biblical student.
During this whole era, the Jews experienced much
opposition from the Samaritans, who, sprung from the idolatrous nation of
the Cutheans, yet in part conforming to the worship of the true God, 2
Kings xvii. 6. 24. 27. 41. had been desirous of sharing in the benefits of
the decree of Cyrus, and of admission to the Temple at Jerusalem. The
enmity caused by the refusal of the Jews was increased by the marriage of
Manasseh, the brother of the high-priest, to the daughter of Sanballat,
the governor of Samaria. For, on the reform introduced by Nehemiah,
Manasseh retreated with his wife to Samaria: and Sanballat erected a
temple for him on mount Gerizim, which became an asylum for the irregular
and discontented part of the Jewish nation.
It is to be observed, that
the error of Josephus here is great, when he apprehends that Sanballat
survived to the Macedonian conquest. The truth is, that in many events at
this earlier period this historian appears to have followed the
traditionary accounts of the Jews, with which he nearly coincides, and. to
have been led by them into many mistakes of chronology. See Prideaux, p. i.
b. v. an. 458. prope fin. or his Index ad voc. Sanballat.
A. M. 3672. B. C. 331.
Alexander received the Jews into his favour, and
offered sacrifice at Jerusalem. On his death, and the subsequent partition
of the empire amongst his generals, Seleucus, and his successors the
Seleucidas, established themselves in Svria, and the Ptolemies in Egypt.
The provinces of Ccelesyria and Palestine fluctuated between these two
powers; but after the battle of Ipsus, Polyb. b. v. leg. 72. p. 893. they
remained in the possession of the latter kingdom.
The Macedonian conquest spread the Grecian language
throughout these regions. In the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about the
year Bef. Chr. 254. A. M. 3749. the Septuagint version of the Hebrew
Scriptures into Greek was made by the Alexandrine Jews for their own use.
Or, if the seventytwo interpreters were employed by Ptolemy to translate
the Pentateuch, doubtless the legend of their performing the work in
separate cells, as related by Aristeas, and copied by Josephus, is an idle
Ccelesyria and Palestine
continued dependent on the Ptolemies, till they were wrested from jhem by
Antiochus the Great, king of Syria. This and other causes produced a war,
in which his son Antiochus Epiphanes conquered Egypt. He then turned his
fury on the Jews, who had made rejoicings on a false report of his death,
A. M. 3833. B. C. 170.; sacked . and plundered Jerusalem, polluted the
Temple, and destroyed forty thousand of the inhabitants, 1 Macc. i. 20.
21. 2 Macc. v. 11. On a second invasion of Egypt, he was commanded to
desist by the Romans; and on this occasion also he wreaked his vengeance
on the Jews, abolished as far as in his power the worship of the true God,
and consecrated the Temple to the Olympian Jupiter. 1 Macc. i. 44—64. 2
Macc. vi. 2.
The establishment of
idolatrous worship throughout Judea excited the
religious zeal of Mattathias, a priest in Modin, of the line or course of
Joarib, 1 Chron. xxiv. 7. Joseph. Ant. xii. 8. who overthrew the
idolatrous altar at Modin, and with his five sons, John, Simon, Judas,
Eleazar, and Jonathan, took refuge in the strong holds or fastnesses in
the wilderness. Here they were joined by all the Jews who were attached to
their religion; and by degrees, after severe contests, succeeded in
finally expelling the Syrians from their country.
This was the rise of the Asmonean family, so styled
from an ancestor of the name of Asmoneus; or, of the Maccabees, as they,
were also named from the first letters, it is said, of the Hebrew words
that composed the motto of their standard.
Judas Maccabeus, who in the following year succeeded
Mattathias, and who, on the death of the highpriest Alcimus, or Jacim,
united the high-priesthood with the command of the state, with great
judgment and prudence formed an alliance with the Romans, and, by the
placing of the rising commonwealth under their protection, gave stability
to his new government.
B. C. 161. To Judas
succeeded his brother Jonathan. In his time, Onias, the son of a former
highpriest, who had fled into Egypt from the Syrians, built a temple in
Egypt, Bef. Chr. 149. similar to that at Jerusalem, under the auspices of
B. C. 144. Jonathan was
succeeded by Simon.
B. C. 135. On the death of
Simon, the last of the brethren, the high-priesthood devolved on his son,
John Hyrcanus, an able ruler; who subdued the Idumeans, and, inducing them
to conform to the .Jewish religion, united them with the state. He took
possession of Sichem, and destroyed the temple on mount Gerizim, and also
the city of Samaria. But it is held by Prideaux,
that the sect of Samaritans, being expelled from the city of Samaria by
Alexander, on their murder of his governor Andronicus, had retired to
Sichem; and that a Macedonian colony was then in Samaria. P. i. b. v. ann.
458. Comp. P. ii. b. v. ann. 130.
B. C. 107. Aristobulns, the
son and successor of Hyrcanus, assumed the title of king.
B. C. 106. After him
reigned his brother Alexander Janneus.
B. C. 79. Alexandra, the
widow of Janneus, governed till her death, B. C. 70.; when in the year 63.
Aristobulus the younger son having gained possession of the crown, .Pompey
besieged and took the city of Jerusalem, restored Hyrcanus the elder
brother, but forbade the use of the diadem, and made the nation tributary
to the Romans.
This Hyrcanus, who reigned twenty-six years, was the
last of the Asmonean family. For his prime minister, an Idumean of the
name of Antipater, and a man of uncommon talents, rendered himself so
necessary and acceptable to the Romans, especially to Julius Cassar, that
he prevailed with them to bestow the government of Galilee on his son
Herod; and Herod, marrying Mariamne the grand-daughter of Hyrcanus, at
length by much violence, and by the favour of Mark Antony the triumvir,
took possession of the kingdom of Judea.
B. C. 37. Herod the Great,
thus established in Judea, reigned no less than thirty-four years. He died
within the space of two years after the real time of the birth of Jesus
Christ; and soon after the appearance of the eastern Magi, and his
consequent slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem. It may be observed, that
the common era of the birth of Christ, commencing probably about four
years later than the real date of his birth, occasions some appearance of
inaccuracy at this period. .
Herod had many wives, and a numerous race of
descendants. He made a distribution of his dominions by his will; and
Augustus Cassar confirmed the partition. To Archelaus, and Herod Antipas,
his sons by Malthace, a Samaritan, he bequeathed—to the first, the kingdom
of Judea, and to Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee; whilst Philip, his son
by Cleopatra, had the tetrarchy of Iturea and Trachonitis. He had given a
place, in the succession to the kingdom,'to Herod Philip, his son by
Mariamne, the daughter of Simon the high-priest; but the conspiracy of his
son Antipater (whom he put to death) having been entered into by that
Mariamne, he left Judea to Archelaus, and Herod Philip appears to have
remained in a private station.
The names of these four princes appear in the
1, That of Archelaus occurs
at an early period; when Joseph and Mary returned from Egypt, Matt. ii.
22. He held the kingdom about ten years; when he was deposed by Augustus
for his tyranny and rapaciousness, and banished to Vienne in Gaul. Judea
was from that time for the most part governed by a procurator from Rome,
who was dependent on the governor of Syria, to which province Judea was
2. Herod Antipas continued
the tetrarch of Galilee till the time of the ministry and passion of Jesus
Christ. He is the Herod mentioned so frequently in the Gospels, sometimes
with the honorary title of the king, to whom Christ was sent by the Roman
governor Pilate. See Matt. xiv. 1, 3, 6. Mark vi. 14. Luke iii. 1, 19. ix.
7, 9. xxiii. 7—15. Acts iv. 27. He was at length banished, with his wife
Herodias, to Lyons in Gaul. Jos. Ant. xviii. 9.
3. Philip, the tetrarch of
Trachonitis, is only recorded by St. Luke iii. 1. as fixing with others
the asra of the commencement of the Baptist's and Christ's mission.
4. Herod Philip had by his
wife Herodias, Jos. Ant. xviii. 7. a daughter named Salome; and Herodias,
being taken to wife, even in his lifetime, by Herod Antipas the tetrarch
of Galilee, was the occasion of the death of John the Baptist, as related
Matt. xiv. 3—10. Mark vi. 16—29. Luke iii. 19. Salome is supposed to have
been the daughter who danced before the tetrarch.
In the Acts of the
Apostles, appears also Herod Agrippa, a grandson of Herod the Great, and
brother to the Herodias mentioned above. He was the son of Aristobulus,
and the grandson of Herod and Mariamne the Asmonean princess, the
grand-daughter of Hyrcanus. The emperor Caius Caligula made him tetrarch
of Trachonitis and Abilene; and Claudius, to whom he had been attached
when at Rome, on his elevation to the empire, added the kingdom of Judea.
He slew James the apostle, Acts xii. 1,2. and was himself smitten of God
at Cassarea, as related Acts xii. 20—23.
On his death, a Roman
governor was again appointed in Judea •, but his son, Agrippa the second,
succeeded to the tetrarchies of Trachonitis and Abilene. St. Paul pleaded
his cause before this Agrippa and his sister Berenice, with Festus the
Roman governor at Cassarea, Acts xxv. xxvi. whilst prior to that time,
Acts xxiv. 24. he had reasoned of " the judgment to "come," before Felix
the preceding governor, and his wife Drusilla, who was also a sister of
this king Agrippa.