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End Times Chart

Introduction and Key


Josephus: Henry Leeming: Josephus' Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version: A Synoptic Comparison (2003) "This volume presents in English translation the Slavonic version of Josephus Flavius' "Jewish War, long inaccessible to Anglophone readers, according to N.A. Materskej's scholarly edition, together with his erudite and wide-ranging study of literary, historical and philological aspects of the work, a textological apparatus and commentary. The synoptic layout of the Slavonic and Greek versions in parallel columns enables the reader to compare their content in detail. It will be seen that the divergences are far more extensive than those indicated hitherto."

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Jewish Apocalyptic Writings:
The "Dead Sea Scrolls"

Pesher Habakkuk
Dead Sea Scroll 1QpHab
C14 Age: 1) 104-43 BC 2) 120-5 BC (Subrange) ; Paleo. Age: 30-1 BC

James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher

"Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem.  The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples and for the "Last Days" they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of The Roman army."
(Moellerhaus Translation)

Roman-Judean End Time in Dead Sea Scrolls (First Century BC/AD)

3 "For you have plundered many nations,
and you shall be plundered by all
4 the remnant of the peoples" (Hab 2:8).
Unraveled, this is about the last priests of Jerusalem
5 who shall get wealth and booty from plundering the peoples.
6 But in the last days, their wealth and their plunder their wealth and their plunder shall be given into the hand(s)
7 of the army of the Kittim.* For they shall be "the remnant of the peoples."
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Habakkuk Midrash (1QpHab) 9.3-7
* Kittim: In this and other writings of the Roman period, like the War Scroll, it is a code name for the Romans.


"The city is Jerusalem in which the wicked priest did works of abomination and defiled the Temple of God." - lQpHab 12.7-9

Column 2:1-16 -  "New Covenant"; "End of Days" ; "Final Generation" ; "Kittim" (Romans)

["Behold the nations and see, marvel and be astonished; for I accomplish a deed in your days, but you will not believe it when] told" [Hab 1.5].

[Interpreted, this concerns] those who were unfaithful together with the Liar, in that they [did] not [listen to the word received by] the teacher of Righteousness from the mouth of God.  And it concerns the unfaithful of the New [Covenant] in that they have not believed in the Covenant of God [and have profaned] his holy name.  And likewise,

this saying is to be interpreted [as concerning those who] will be unfaithful at the end of days. They, the men of violence and the breakers of the Covenant, will not believe when they hear all that [is to happen to] the final generation from the Priest [in whose heart] God set [understanding] that he might interpret all the words of his servants the prophets, through whom
he foretold  all that would happen to his people and [his land].

"For behold, I rouse the Chaldeans, that [bitter and hasty] nation" [[Hab 1.6a]].

Interpreted, this concerns the Kittim [who are] quick and valiant in war, causing many to perish. [All the world shall fall] under the dominion of the 14/ Kittim, and the [wicked . . .] they shall not
believe in the laws of [God . . .]

Column 3 -  More on the "Kittim" (Romans) ; as "Eagle"

["who march through the breadth of the earth to take possession of dwellings which are not their own"] [[Hab 1.6b]].

and they shall march across the plain, smiting and plundering the cities of the earth.

For it is as He said, "to take possession of dwellings which are not their own. They are fearsome and terrible; their justice and grandeur proceed from themselves" [Hab 1.7].

Interpreted, this concerns the Kittim who inspire all the nations with fear [and dread].  All their evil plotting is done with intention and they deal with all the nations in cunning and guile.

"Their horses are swifter than leopards and fleeter than evening wolves" [Hab 1.8].

Their horses step forward proudly and spread their wings; They fly from afar like an eagle avid to devour.

"All of them come for violence; the look on their faces is like the east wind" [Hab 1.8-9a].

[Interpreted, this] concerns the Kittim who trample the earth with their horses and beasts.  They come from afar, from the islands of the sea, to devour all the peoples like an eagle which cannot be satisfied, and they address [all the peoples] with anger and [wrath and fury] and indignation.

For it is as he said, "the look on their faces is like the east wind. [they heap up] captives [like sand]" [Hab 1.9b].


Column 4 -  More on the "Kittim" (Romans)

"They scoff [at kings], and princes are their laughing-stock [Hab 1.10a].

Interpreted, this means that they mock the great and despise the venerable; they ridicule kings and princes and scoff at the mighty host.

"They laugh at every fortress; they pile up earth and take it [Hab 1.10b].

Interpreted, this concerns the commanders of the Kittim who despise the fortresses of the peoples and laugh at them in derision.   To capture them, they encircle them with a mighty host, and out of fear and terror they deliver themselves into their hands.  They destroy them because of the sins of their inhabitants.

"The wind then sweeps on and passes; and they make of their strength their god [Hab 1.11].

Interpreted, [this concerns] the commanders of the Kittim who, on the counsel of [the] House of Guilt, pass one in front of the other; one after another [their] commanders come to lay waste the earth.

["And they make] of their strength their God" [[Hab 1.llb]:

Interpreted, this concerns [ . . . all] the peoples . . .


Column 6 -  More on the "Kittim" (Romans) ; "Sacrifice to their standards"

"Thou dealest with men like the fish of the sea, Like creeping things, to rule over them. They draw [them all up with a fish-hook], and drag them out with their net, and gather them in [their seine.  Therefore they sacrifice] to their net. Therefore they rejoice [and exult and burn incense to their seine; for by them] their portion is fat [and their sustenance rich"] [Hab 1.14-16].

the Kittim. And they shall gather in their riches, together with all their booty, "like the fish of the sea."

And as for that which he said, "therefore they sacrifice to their net and Burn incense to their seine":  Interpreted, this means that they sacrifice to their standards and worship their weapons of war.

"For through them Their portion is fat and their sustenance rich":

Interpreted, this means that they divide their yoke and their tribute -- their sustenance -- over all the peoples year by year, ravaging many lands.

"Therefore their sword is ever drawn to massacre nations mercilessly [Hab 1.17].

Interpreted, this concerns the Kittim who cause many to perish by the sword -- youths, grown men, the aged, women and children -- and who even take no pity on the fruit of the womb.

Column 7 -  "Final Generation" ; "Final Age" ; "Teacher of Righteousness"

"I will take my stand to watch and will station myself upon my fortress. I will watch to see what he will say to me and how [he will answer] my complaint. And YHWH answered [and said to me, 'write down the vision and make it plain] upon the tablets, that [he who reads] may read it speedily'" [Hab 2.1-2].

and God told Habakkuk to write down that which would happen to the final generation, but He did not make known to him when time would come to an end.

And as for that which He said, "that he who reads may read it speedily"

Interpreted this concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God made known all the mysteries of the words of His servants the prophets.

"For there shall be yet another vision concerning the appointed time. It shall tell of the end and shall not lie [Hab 2.3a].

Interpreted, this means that the final age shall be prolonged, and shall exceed all that the prophets have said; for the mysteries of God are astounding.

"If it tarries, wait for it, for it shall surely come and shall not be late" [Hab 2.3b].

Interpreted, this concerns the men of truth who keep the Law, whose hands shall not slacken in the service of truth when the final age is prolonged. For all the ages of God reach their appointed end as he determines for them in the mysteries of His wisdom.

["But the righteous shall live by his faith"] [[Hab 2.4b]].

Interpreted, this concerns all those who observe the Law in the House of Judah, whom God will deliver from the House of Judgement because of their suffering and because of their faith in the Teacher of Righteousness.

Column 8 -  "Wicked Priest" - Vs. Temple Establishment

Moreover, the arrogant man seizes wealth without halting. He widens his gullet like hell and like death he has never enough.  All the nations are gathered to him and all the peoples are assembled to him. Will they not all of them taunt him and jeer at him saying, 'Woe to him who amasses that which is not his! How long will he load himself up with pledges?'" [[Hab 2.5-6]].

Interpreted, this concerns the Wicked Priest who 9/ was called by the name of truth when he first arose. But when he ruled over Israel his heart became proud, and he forsook God and betrayed the precepts for the sake of riches. He robbed and amassed the riches of the
men of violence who rebelled against God, and he took the wealth of the peoples, heaping sinful iniquity upon himself. And he lived in the ways of abominations amidst every unclean defilement.

"Shall not your oppressors suddenly arise and your torturers awaken; and shall you not become their prey?  Because you have plundered many nations, all the remnant of the peoples shall plunder you" [Hab 2.7-8a].

[Interpreted, this concerns] the Priest who rebelled [and violated] precepts [of God . . . to command] ...

Column 9 -  "Last Priests of Jerusalem" ; "Last Days" ; Conquered by "Kittim"

And as for that which He said, "because you have plundered many nations, all the remnant of the peoples shall plunder you":

Interpreted this concerns the last Priests of Jerusalem, who shall amass money and wealth by plundering the peoples. But in the last days, their riches and booty shall be delivered into the hands of the army of the Kittim,  For it is they who shall be "the remnant of the peoples."

"Because of the blood of men and the violence done to the land, to the city, and to all its inhabitants" [Hab 2.8b].

Interpreted, this concerns the Wicked Priest whom God delivered into the hands of his enemies because of the iniquity committed against the Teacher of Righteousness and the men of his Council, that he might be humbled by means of a destroying scourge, in bitterness
of soul, because he had done wickedly to His elect.

"Woe to him who gets evil profit for his house; who perches his nest high to be safe from the hand of evil! You have devised shame to your house: by cutting off many peoples you have forfeited your own soul. For the [stone] cries out [from] the wall [and]the beam from the woodwork replies [Hab 2.9-11].

[Interpreted, this] concerns the {Priest] who . ...

Column 10 -  "condemned House"

that its stones might be laid in oppression and the beam of its woodwork in robbery. And as for that which he said, "by cutting off many peoples you have forfeited your own soul":

Interpreted this concerns the condemned House whose judgement God will pronounce in the midst of many peoples. He will bring him thence for judgement and will declare him guilty in the midst of them, and will chastise him with fire of brimstone.

Column 10 -  "the city is Jerusalem"

And as for that which he said, "because of the blood of the city and the violence done to the land":

Interpreted, the city is Jerusalem where the Wicked Priest committed abominable deeds and defiled the Temple of God. The violence done to the land: these are the cities of Judah where he robbed the poor of their possessions.



1. ... shall I cry and not (part of verse 1:2)
2. ... this generation
3. ... oth (fem pl.) upon them
4. ... his about me
5. ... m ... iyt ... (a portion of 2 words in verse 1:3)
6. ... to (or God) by exploitation and from
7. ... (fragmented word) and many
8. ... (2 fragmented words) he
9. ... therefore the Torah fades away (portion of verse 1:4
10 ... which is his burden in the Torah of God
11 ... (direct object) the righteous
12 ... He is the Moreh ha-tsedek
13 ... therefore the judgement goes out (part of 1:4)
14 ... and not the
15 .................................

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1. it be told him ... the treacherous with a man (1:5)
2. all the liars ... the Moreh Tsedek from the mouth
3. of God and concerning the trai(tors) ... the new (fragmented word)
4. our belief in the covenant of God ... those possessing ... and
5. truth. Pesher of the word ... ..gadiym to the last (aleph)
6. days. They are aro... ... ..oth which they will not believe
7 when they hear all the b... ... of the final generation from the mouth (1:5)
8. of the priest which God gives in ... to explain to all
9. the words of His servants coming ... hands God tells
10. all coming to his people and. ... (be)cause behold I am raising up (1:6)
11. the Chaldeans, the nation the bit(ter) ... ... (the has)ty (1:6)
12. Pesher about how the Romans a... ..h speedy ones and mighty men
13. in war to destroy r.. .... from the government of
14. the Romans to do evil ... ... and we do not say
15. according to their laws ...
16. ..............

1. and in contending and going to strike and to loot the cities of the land
2. because as he says: to possess inhabited areas that are not theirs. (1:7) Dreadful
3. and terrible they are and their judgement and pride proceeds from themselves. (1:7)
4. Pesher about the Romans by which their fear (...) upon all
5. nations and in fact all their thoughts to do evil and (...) to defraud
6. and to come with all the peoples. Their horses are lighter than leopards and more alert (1:8)
7. than the evening wolves. Their horsemen spread themselves from afar 1:8,9)
8. and they fly as an eagle hastening to eat. (1:8) All of them coming for violence multiplying(1:9)
9. by their faces the east (wind). Pesher about the Romans who
10. possess the earth with horses and with their beasts and extend themselves
11. and they come from the isles of the sea to destroy ... and (..)iyl the peoples as an eagle
12. and they are not sated and in them and their beasts ... and even their raging
13. faces and they speak with ... ... as he
14. says: ma(gemet) ...... .... as sand the captivity (1:9)
15. ....................................

1. they shall mock (kings) and laugh at the princes (part of 1:10) Pesher that
2. they mock about many and despise the glorified kings
3. and rulers and they deceive and scorn many peoples. And he
4. (scorns) every fort and laughing at them he heaps up dust and captures them (part of 1:10)
5. Peshru about the rulers of the Romans who despised
6. the forts of the peoples mocking and laughing at them
7. and at many other peoples, imitating and making them foolish to hold them in fear
8. and take them in their hand to destroy them because of the sins of those dwelling
9. there. Then shall he change his spirit and he shall pass over attributing this, his power (most of 1:11)
10. to his god (end of 1:11) Peshru about the rulers of the Romans
11. who by the counsel of the house of Ishm(ael) and the servants of men
12. who rule in the presence of their neighbor ...afterward and they go
13. to slay the ..... ... ... his strength to his god. (part of 1:11)
14. Peshru about .................... .... (...)l the peoples
15. .....................

1. you have set them for judgement O Rock, you have established them for correction. (You have) purer eyes( parts of 1:12 and 13)
2. than to view evil and you are not able to consider wickedness (part of 1:13)
3. Pesher about the saying that God is not able to (to save) his people from the hand of the Gentiles
4. and God gives judgement in the hand of his "Chosen one" (to) all the Gentiles and in their reproaches
5. and their guilt to all those doing evil to my people which keep my commandments.
6. in and enemy to whom because that which says you are of purer eyes to behold
7. evil (part of 1:13) Peshru that their eyes do not hunger after the evil end (time).
8. Why do the traitors look and plough evil swallowing (part of 1:13)
9. righteousness away from us. (part of 1:13) Pesher about the House of Absalom
10. and the men of their council which fall silent in reproaching of the Moreh Tsedek.
11. But they do not help him against the lying man who does violence to
12. The Torah among all the nations and makes men as the fish of the sea (part of 1:14)
13. as creeping things to watch over it. (part of 1:14) All of them take up into their net (part of 1:15)
14. and they gather them ..... in their seine. Therefore they are happy (part of 1:15)
15 .............. their portion.

1. The Romans, the ones gathering wealth from all the spoil
2. as fish of the sea, wherefore he says: (Begin 1:16) Therefore they sacrifice to their net
3. and offer incense to their seine (end part of 1:16) Peshru about them
4. sacrificing to their symbols and all the wars they
5. are showing because in them they fatten their portion. They eat from my table
6. Pesher about their dividing of the world and
7. their violence in devouring the peoples year after year
8. destroying with the sword many lands. (begin 1:17) Therefore they draw out their sword and continue
9. to murder the nations without compassion (end 1:17)
10. Peshru about the Romans who destroy many by the sword
11. youths, mature men, old men, women, infants, and on the fruit
12. of the womb they have no mercy. (begin 2:1 Let me stand fast on my watch tower
13. and present myself on the fortress and I will keep watch to see what He will say
14. to me and w(hat ... I will answe)r when he corrects me (end part of 2:1) (begin 2:2) And YHWH answered me
15. (and said write the vision and make it clea)r on tablets so that the one runn(ing) (end part of 2:2)
16. ........ .................
17. .......................................

Page 7

1. And God said to Habakkuk to write the things to come
2. upon the last generation but he did not reveal to him the close of the end time.
3. And when he says: so that the one running may read it. (verse 2:2)
4. Peshru about the Moreh Tsedek who makes known to
5. all the secrets in the words of his servants the prophets. Because he will yet have vision(part of 2:3)
6. for a season and shorten the end (time) and he will not lie.(2:3)
7. Pesher about his lengthening the "end time" and that which remains concerning all
8. that which the prophets spoke because God secretly acts to remove the infection.
9. If he delays, wait for it, it will surely come and not be (part of 2:3)
10. late. (part of 2:3) Pesher about the "men of truth"
11. who are practicing the Torah who do not slack their hand from serving
12. the truth but continue to raise up to them the end time because
13. all our hope is that he will bring the establishment according to the Statutes
14. to them as in their secret stock pile. Behold his exalted (soul) is not straight (part of 2:3)
15. (soul in lacuna) ..... Peshru that which also they multiply to them
16. .... ... their land in judgement ....

1. Pesher about all the ones doing the Torah in the house of Judah by which
2. God delivered them from the House of Judgement in serving their evil doings and their Faith
3. in The Moreh Tsedek. (begin 2:5)And so, because he is treacherous through wine, he is a proud warrior and has no
4. place of abode, while enlarging his inner desires as Sheol and is as death and never satisfied
5. while he gathers all the nations and accumulates populations to himself. (end 2:5)
6. (begin 2:6) Shall not these lift up a proverb against him and a mocking riddle for him
7. and they shall say, Woe to him that gains increase from that which is not his, How long will he forcefully
8. make debtors to himself? (end of 2:6) Peshru about the wicked priest who
9. is called by the name of "The Truth" He stands in prayer while watching
10. over Israel. His heart is lifted up yet he abandons God and uses treachery by their laws for the sake of
11. wealth. He rejoices and he gathers the wealth of the men of violence who rebel against God.
12. And he receives the wealth of nations to add evil to himself by the guilt of his own way
13. ... working in all the corrupt wanderings. (begin 2:7) Shall not those who will exact usury on you arise
14. suddenly and those terrorizing you shall awaken and you shall be for plundering to them. (end of 2:7)
15. Because you have looted many nations the remainder of the peoples shall loot you;(part of 2:8)
16. (Pesher about) the priest who rebels.....
17. ....... ..........

1. a plague My judgement on evil and lessons from dreams
2. evil (dreams) which they make against me and they are established among the nations by their looting wherefore
3. he says: (begin 2:8) Because you have looted many nations they shall loot you, all
4. that will remain of the peoples (end part of 2:8) Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem
5. The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples
6. and for the "Last Days" they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of
7. The Roman army. (spatium) Because they (the spoils) are that which remains of the peoples
8. (begin the rest of 2:8) from the blood of mankind and violence of land, city and al(l) those dwelling in it. (end 2:8)
9. Peshru about the "Wicked Priest" who (is given) into the hand of the Moreh
10. Tsedek and the men of his council. God gives into His hand his enemies to answer him.
11. (He visits them) with a plague in the bitterness of his soul because they had done wickedly
12. against his "Chosen." (begin 2:9) Woe to the one who is gaining an evil advantage for his household to set
13. his nest on high so he can be delivered from the hand of evil. (end 2:9) (begin 2:10) You have devised shame
14. on your own house, and by cutting off many nations you are sinning against your own (so)ul. (end of 2:10) (begin 2:11) Because
15. a st(one from th)e wall (of your house) will cry out and a beam from the timber will a(nswer it.) .....
16. ..............upon the .....which.....................

1. to be exploiting a stripe on the spine (idiom for weakness?) with plunder wherefore
2. he says: (begin part of 2:10) cutting off many nations and sinning against your own soul.
3. Peshru that is the "House of Judgement where God gives
4. his judgement in the midst of many peoples and by name brings us up to judgement
5. And in the midst of them he saves us and by sulphurous fire he judges us. (begin 2:12) Woe
6. to the one who builds a city in blood and founds a town by evil. (end 2:12) (begin 2"13) Is it not
7. Behold of YHWH of Hosts that the peoples should toil in a great deal of fiery trials part of 2:13)
8. and the population tire themselves out with a great deal of trivia. (end 2:13)
9. Pesher of the word about the flying of the liar who leads many astray
10. to the daughters of the city of vanity and by blood and to raise up a city by a lie.
11. For the sake of (self) glory they lead many to serve vanity and for their own profit
12. in b..shey lies to possess ills to empty so that they will be led
13. to the judgement of fire which they blaspheme and shame the "Chosen One" of God
14. (begin 2:14) Because the earth shall be filled with knowing the Glory of YHWH as the waters
15. cover the s(ea.) (end 2:14) ..... Pesher about the word....
16. and their return .............
17. ........................

1. the liar. And afterward they roll to themselves evil as waters
2. of the seas heaped up. (begin 2:15) Woe to the one causing his neighbor to drink joining your bottle
3. to him and even making him drunk in order to look on their nakedness. (end 2:15)
4. Peshru about the "Wicked Priest" who
5. pursues after the "Moreh Tsedek" to swallow him up in rage
6. his hot (rage). Tenderness is to come to pass and in the last season (end time) a comforting
7. day, The young lions shall appear to them to swallow them
8. and for their stumbling. In the day of fasting of the Sabbath of their comfort. (begin 2:16) You are filled up
9. with shame instead of glory; you are drunken, even you, and are uncircumcised
10. and the cup of YHWH's right hand is turned on you and utter disgrace
11. upon your glory. (end 2:16)
12. Peshru about the "Priest" who is more proud of his shame than of his glory
13. Because he is not circumcised with the circumcision of his heart and he goes on his way
14. for the sake of his profit so that the telling of the fastings will cover them.
15. ...........................
16. ............ to swallow us l(.....) .....

1. shall cause terror because of human blood and violence of the land, city and those who dwell in it. (part of 2:17)
2. Pesher of the thing about the "Wicked Priest" to take the spoils to himself
3. as recompense which completes his lust because the moon is his
4. singular witness and their beasts are the fools of Judah doing the
5. the Torah with which God will judge us in the end.
6. wherefore he says: (begin part of 2:17) from blood
7. city and violence of the land, Peshru: The city is Jerusalem
8. in which the "Wicked Priest does abominations and defiles
9. the Holy Temple of God. And he does violence to the earth (part of 2:17) that is to the cities of Judah who
10. lusting plunder wealth. (begin 2:18) What does an idol profit the maker of it who fashioned it
11. a molten image that the one fashioning the work trusts in it
12. to make mute gods. (end 2:18) Pesher concerning the word about all
13. of the idols of the Gentiles which they have made for themselves to serve
14. to them, and they will not deliver them in the day of Judgement. (begin 2:19)

15. (to the one saying t)o a tree wake up ...... to a silent (st)one

1. Be silent before him all the earth (2:20)
2. Peshru about all the nations
3. which serve stone and wood ...
4. in the judgement God will banish all the servants of idols
5. and the evil ones from the earth.



Norman Golb
"The 'city' stands, according to the interpreter, for Jerusalem, 'where the Wicked Priest performed his abominations, defiling the sanctuary of the Lord', and the phrase 'the violence of the land' refers to 'the cities of Judah (where) he stole the wealth of the Poor'. The doers of the Torah, we are informed, will ultimately be saved 'by virtue of their toil and their belief in the Teacher of Righteousness' (8.1). While the final-generation priests of Jerusalem will gather lucre 'from the booty of the nations', in the 'end of days it will be given over the Kittim' (9.4) - and 'on the day of judgment the Lord will destroy all worshippers of graven images and the wicked from the earth' (13.2). The theme of righteousness of the poor and wickedness of those amassing lucre has resonances...within the Manual of Discipline [Community Rule]." (Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?, (1995) p. 85-86)

James Tabor
"Here we find a period of "about 40 years" tied to the demise of the Teacher. There is a fragment from Cave 4 (4Q171) that refers to the same period: "A little while and the wicked shall be no more; I will look towards his place but he shall not be there" (Psa 37:10). Interpreted, this concerns all the wicked. At the end of the forty years they shall be blotted out and not an man shall be found on earth." Here things get a bit prophetically complicated, unless one is steeped in the chronological schemes of the book of Daniel (and Ezekiel)-- particularly the "70 weeks" prophecy of Daniel 9. It essentially sets forth a 490 year period, which the DSS community understood neatly as Ten Jubilees, 49 years each. We then find references in various fragments (11QMelch; 4Q390) that attempt to fit the history of the community within this time scheme. The Teacher himself is to arise, as one would expect, "in the first week of the Jubilee that follows the nine Jubilees" (11QMelch), or just over 40 years from the End.

In the DSS commentary on Habakkuk (1QpHab) we find that the community has obviously lived through this past this 40 years "countdown" period with the Teacher long gone and the apocalyptic expectations of the arrival of the Kingdom of God anything but fulfilled. The Romans have by now invaded the country and propped up the puppet priests that the community despised as utterly corrupt (Hyrcanus II). Col I interprets the cry of the prophet Habakkuk of "How long?" as referring to the "beginning of the final generation." (Dead Messiahs)

Ronald L. Troxel
"As VanderKam notes, the author of the pesher operates from the premise that the words of the prophets concern his own era, which he understands to be the end of human existence as dominated by evil and evil-doers.  In fact, he finds this in the interpretation of the first two verses of Habakkuk:  "[The interpretation of this concerns the beg]inning of the [final] generation [äwhich will c]ome upon them." (1.2-3)  He reiterates this assumption in commenting on the first two verses of chapter 2:  "And God told Habakkuk to write what was going to happen to the last generation." (7.1)  And so a fundamental assumption of the author is that the words have to do with events of the final days, which are his days.

Even more striking, however, are the words connected to the assertion we read from 7.1:  "but he did not let him know the end of the age.  And as for what he says, "So that the one who reads it /may run/" [Hab 2.2], its interpretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God has disclosed all the mysteries of the words of his servants, the prophets."  While God revealed through Habakkuk what would happen to the last generation, he did not comprehend the entire unfolding of his words.  Only to the Teacher of Righteousness has God disclosed "all the mysteries of the words of his servants, the prophets."  We have seen previously this language about divine mysteries known only to the Teacher of Righteousness, as well as references to the Teacher interpreting the prophets.  Here, however, we find an even stronger statement about what this entails.  It's not just that the Teacher has skills in literary interpretation; rather, he has been given insight into the true meaning of the prophet's words, which concern the end of the age.

Even more striking, the Teacher of Righteousness was so central to community life that adherence to his teaching was the litmus test that determined whether one was among the elect.  At the head of column 8 stands an interpretation of Habakkuk 2.4b.  The end of that verse, although not preserved in the scroll, reads, "the righteous shall live by their faithful-ness."  The pesher's comment on this is, fortunately, preserved:  "Its interpretation concerns all observing the law in the house of Judah, whom God will free from punishment on account of their deeds and their loyalty to the Teacher of Righteousness."  While one might at first think that "all observing the Law in the House of Judah" would include numerous people throughout the nation, that group is subsequently restricted to those who maintain "their loyalty to the Teacher of Righteousness."

Not surprisingly, then, the commentator speaks disparagingly of a group that seems to have parted ways with the Teacher.  This emerges in his commentary on Habakkuk 1.5, only the end of which survives in the scroll:  "[Be astonished! Be astounded!  For a work is being done in your days that you would not belief if] you reported it.  [The interpretation of the word concerns] the traitors with the Man of Lies, since they do not [believe in the words of the] Teacher of Righteousness from the mouth of God; (and it concerns) the traito[rs of the] new [covenant] since they did not believe in the covenant of God [and dishonored] his holy name." (2.1-5)  Notice that even though the language of "traitors" is used for those who did not believe the Teacher, there is no hint that this was a group that was once part of the community of the Teacher.  Nevertheless, there is a sense of estrangement that permeates this text:  these are people who have been unfaithful to what they should have held fast.

The immediately succeeding lines suggest that the dispute between the groups included the Teacher's expositions of the events about to befall Israel:  "Likewise:  the interpretation of the word [concerns the trai]tors in the last days.  They shall be violators of [the coven]ant who will not believe when they hear all that is going [to happen to] the final generation, from the mouth of the Priest whom God has placed wi[thin the Community,] to foretell the fulfillment of all the words of his servants, the prophets, [by] means of whom God has declared all that is going to happen to his people, [Israel]." (2.5-10)  Obviously, this group of "traitors" didn't buy the apocalyptic predictions of the Teacher." (source: MMT)

"In the Pesher aleph is also added to the word for Romans but between a double yod in the word for Romans who are here called The Kittiym In the Pesher the Hebrew form for the word "Romans" is "Ha-kittiym" or . Seven examples of the Pesher use of the word "The Romans" or "ha-kitt'iym" can be seen on Page IIa, 4th line from bottom 2nd word; and 2nd line from bottom 1st word, and on Page III line 4, 3rd word and line 9, next to last word; and Page IV, line 5, 4th word and line 10, last word; and on Page VI line 1, 1st word; and on Page IX, line 7, 2nd word."

"On page IIb at the end of the 5th line there is an interesting comment which may be describing text itself as the words "le-'acharith aleph" may be translated "the last (or final) aleph." The next word on the next line (ha-yamiym) however indicates the Pesher is about the "end time." References to the "end time" are noted several time in the Pesher. On the page just mentioned in the paragraph above the words are "le-'acharith ha-yamiym" (to the last days). Mention of "the last (or final) priests of Jerusalem" can be found on Page IX, last 2 words in line 4 and the first in 5. And "the final end" (ha-qets ha-'acharon) is found on Page VII line 12 4th and 5th words. Other references to the "end time" can be seen Page V: line 7; and on page VII; Lines 2, and 7 and 12, and on page IX; line 5 and on Page XI: on line 6. "End time," therefore is one of the most important religious topics for the Pesher scribe." (source: Habakkuk Directory)

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Date: 18 Jul 2011
Time: 14:08:49

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Priesthood or those purporting to be such are like other men and can be corrupted. Many ancient writings come across a a control mechanism, which maintained hierarchy. Man respects hierarchy,but as has been recounted the flesh is weak. Believe there has been on earth he who could see into the souls of men and reveal all. The plain message of repentance, prayer and belief in the blessedness of God, gets distorted by man's thirst for power and dominance over others.
At the close of day after ministering to the sick, poor, poor in spirit and those thirsting after righteousness,the disciples sat around would have looked into eyes, which were those of the Lord of Creation.

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