||1. ABRAHAM ORTELIUS
ABRAHAMI PATRIARCHAE PEREGRINATIO, ET VITA., 1586
Facsimile of hand-colored engraving, 35.1 x 45.3 cm
||Detail: the sacrifice of Isaac on Mount Moriah
This map is an acknowledged masterpiece of composition and engraving
by the great Flemish cartographer, Abraham Ortelius. It illustrates the
Biblical story of Abraham the Patriarch as recorded in Genesis.
The decorative border contains twenty-two medallions portraying scenes
from the life of Abraham, such as the sacrifice of Isaac. The central
portion is in the form of a tapestry containing two maps. The small
inset map at upper left traces Abraham's wanderings from Ur in the
Euphrates Valley to the Promised Land of Canaan; several cities are
named, the most prominent of which is Salem, the future Jerusalem. The
larger map depicts the ancient tribal divisions of the Land of Canaan as
described in Genesis; the largest city (as judged by its symbolic
representation) is named "Salem, et Ierusalem."
||2. EMANUEL BOWEN
English, ca. 1720-1767
A PLAN of the CITY of JERUSALEM . . .
From: A Complete Atlas or Distinct View of the Known World
Engraving, 40.2 x 40.4 cm
In about 1004 BC King David conquered the
small Jebusite city of Jerusalem, fortified it, renamed it The City of
David, and established it as the capital of the first united Jewish
kingdom [Samuel 2:5, 4-12]. This map from an eighteenth-century English
atlas presents a crude schematic plan of Jerusalem based largely on an
imaginative interpretation of Old Testament descriptions and early
historical records. It is oriented to the west, and the City of David is
prominently depicted in a fanciful circular form on Mount Zion in the
southwest portion of the old walled city. This location was originally
described by the first-century historian Josephus and appears on most
early maps. Recent archaeological studies have, however, determined that
David's city was actually located on a southeastern ridge, south of the
Temple Mount. The city wall, towers, gates, and many other historical
and religious landmarks are identified and portrayed in their supposed
or "traditional" locations, many of which are now known to be erroneous.
This map, with all its faults, probably satisfied viewers who were
curious about the ancient city of Jerusalem; they had no way of
verifying its authenticity nor any reason to doubt it.
||3. THOMAS FULLER
IERUSALEM qualis (ut plurimum) extitit ætate Solomonis
From: A PISGAH-SIGHT OF PALESTINE ...
Engraving, hand colored, 27.6 x 35.9 cm
King David was succeeded by his son Solomon, whose reign (ca. 961-922
BC) was marked by great prosperity. As the
political, economic, and religious center of a flourishing kingdom,
Jerusalem grew considerably in size and population. Solomon built many
public edifices, the most celebrated of which was the House of the Lord,
the First Temple, whose construction is described in great detail in the
Bible [1 Kings 6].
This is an imaginary plan of King Solomon's Jerusalem, oriented to
the north. It presents an anachronistic depiction of Solomon's Temple,
portraying it as an ecclesiastical shrine with medieval and Renaissance
elements. Other Biblical sites are positioned according to tradition and
portrayed according to the artist's conception. Streets are arranged in
an unrealistic geometric pattern, with linear rows of houses. Even
though this plan purports to represent Jerusalem in the time of Solomon,
the Crucifixion is depicted in the upper left corner.
||4. HARTMANN SCHEDEL
From: Liber cronicarum . . .
Woodcut, 19.0 x 22.3 cm
This is the first printed imaginary view of Jerusalem, depicted as a
circular walled city dominated by Solomon's Temple. Six of the city
gates are named, including David's Gate, also called Gate of the Pisans,
after the twelfth-century crusaders from the city of Pisa.
This illustration is one of more than 1,800 woodcuts in Liber
cronicarum, commonly known in English as the Nuremberg Chronicle, a
history of the world from Creation to the time of the volume's
publication (1493). It is the most celebrated illustrated book,
and, after the Gutenberg Bible, the most important printed book
of the fifteenth century. The woodcuts were made in the workshop of
Michael Wohlgemut during the apprenticeship of Albrecht Dürer, and it is
speculated that Dürer may have participated in their production.
||5. CHRISTIAN VAN ADRICHOM
JERVSALEM et suburbia eius, sicut tempore Christi floruit . .
From: Jerusalem . . . et suburbanorum . . . brevis descriptio
Engraving, hand colored, 52.0 x 74.9 cm
||Detail: the fourteen Stations of the Cross along the via
||Detail: Solomon's Temple
This imaginary plan of Jerusalem and its environs is oriented to the
east. It uses a bird's-eye view containing numerous vignettes to create
a detailed portrayal of physical features and their associated historic
events. Although it purports to represent Jerusalem and its suburbs at
the time of Christ, it depicts and identifies 270 sites from both Old
and New Testaments. Most important, it delineates for the first time the
fourteen Stations of the Cross as they are generally accepted today. The
author was a priest and surveyor whose exhaustive studies of the Bible,
the writings of Josephus, and early pilgrim narratives enabled him to
produce some of the most influential Holy Land maps of the sixteenth
century without ever having visited the region. This attractive and
highly informative map was widely disseminated and remained the
authoritative guide to Jerusalem until the archaeological revelations of
the nineteenth century.
||6. HARTMANN SCHEDEL
From: Liber cronicarum . . .
Woodcut, hand colored, 25.3 x 53.1 cm
||Detail: Solomon's Temple in flames
||Detail: Church of the Holy Sepulchre
This panoramic view looking westward from the Mount of Olives
presents an imaginative composite of the six destructions of Jerusalem
described in the associated text of the Nuremberg Chronicle. Solomon's
Temple is in flames in the left foreground, and toppled buildings are
scattered throughout the city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre,
relatively unscathed, is at the upper center. Calvary is depicted as a
separate domed structure at the top right center.
II. Jerusalem and Mapmaking
Mark ye well her ramparts . . . [Psalms 48:14]
Jerusalem occupies an important position in the history of
cartography. The Bible tells us that the city was first mapped in
response to a divine command to the Prophet Ezekiel: "Thou also, son of
man, take thee a tile and lay it before thee, and portray upon it the
city, even Jerusalem" [Ezekiel 4:1]. The Book of Ezekiel also provided
meticulously detailed descriptions that formed the basis of later plans
and views of Solomon's Temple (see object 29). Furthermore, the late
Medieval practice of placing Jerusalem at the center of world maps arose
from a literal interpretation of Ezekiel 5:5: "This city of Jerusalem I
have set in the midst of nations, with other countries round about her"
(see objects 25-28).
Jerusalem is prominently depicted on many landmarks of early
mapmaking, three of which are included in this exhibition. The city
appears as "Aelia Capitolina" on a fourth-century Roman road map of the
world (object 8). The oldest surviving detailed map (reproduced in
object 9), contains a large birds-eye view of "The Holy City of
Jerusalem." A centrally placed image of the walled city of Jerusalem
dominates the first modern printed map (object 10).
||8. ABRAHAM ORTELIUS
TABVLA ITINERARIA . . .
Engraving, 39.8 x 51.8 cm (One of four sheets)
||Detail: Holy Land and Nile Delta, showing the road from
Jerusalem to Eilat
This is the first printed version of a twelfth- or early
thirteenth-century manuscript copied from a now-lost Roman road map
compiled in the fourth century. Commonly called the "Peutinger Table,"
it is the best surviving specimen of Roman cartography and is named
after Konrad Peutinger, the sixteenth-century German scholar who
preserved it. The manuscript was in the form of a vellum scroll
approximately thirteen inches high and more than twenty-two feet long.
This is one of four sheets of the engraved version, each sheet
containing two parallel map segments; if all of the segments were
joined, they would form an elongated map approximately eight inches high
and more than thirteen feet long.
The map depicts the Roman Empire from Britain to India. As with its
modern counterparts, strip road maps and subway diagrams, geographic
accuracy is sacrificed to expediency. Topographic features are
compressed and distorted, and both orientation and scale are variable.
However, roads, cities, distances between landmarks, temples, forts, and
spas are depicted with sufficient accuracy to serve the needs of
military and civilian travelers. The detail of the lower segment depicts
the Holy Land with the Nile Delta at the left. Jerusalem is represented
as two buildings located just above the Mount of Olives ("Mons Oliueti")
and the Dead Sea ("Lac. Aspaltidis"). An inscription notes that the city
was formerly called Hierusalem and is now Helya [Aelia] Capitolina.
This remarkable map, in its various forms, has had a useful life of
more than fifteen hundred years. It is believed to have continued in use
after the fall of the Roman Empire, serving medieval and Renaissance
travelers, including pilgrims to the Holy Land. Most recently, it is
said to have played a significant role during the Israeli War of
Independence in 1948. The Israeli chief of operations, Yigael Yadin, was
a professional archaeologist who knew that part of the ancient Roman
road from Jerusalem to Eilat still existed under the sand of the Negev
Desert. Using this route, an Israeli armored column scored a major
victory by staging a surprise attack and capturing the strategic city of
MADABA MOSAIC MAP OF PALESTINE
Madaba, Jordan, ca. AD 565
Color reproduction, Jerusalem detail, 22.0 x 31.5 cm
The earliest surviving map of Palestine is a large colored mosaic on
the floor of a sixth-century Byzantine church in Madaba, Jordan.
Although several sections of the map have been destroyed, the depiction
of Jerusalem, seen here, is largely intact. It is presented in a
bird's-eye view from the west, with sufficient detail to allow
identification of most of the landmarks as they existed in the late
sixth century. The wall of the city exhibits several towers and at least
three gates, the largest of which, today's Damascus Gate, is at the
northern (left) extremity. Immediately within the gate is a plaza
containing a column that is believed to have served as a reference
marker for surveys during the Byzantine period. The colonnaded avenue
extending across the center of the city is the main thoroughfare or
Cardo (Latin for "axis"). Following the practice of the time,
important structures are enlarged, often crowding out buildings of
lesser importance. Churches are distinguished by their red roofs. The
Church of the Holy Sepulchre is at the lower center, and to its right
are David's Gate and Tower. At the top right, the Golden Gate leads to
the Temple Mount.
||10. LUCAS BRANDIS
German, fl. ca. 1460-1480
[Cedar et tabernacla eius Aras wecha unde baldach in Job]
From: Rudimentum Novitiorum
Woodcut (two blocks), hand colored, 39.2 x 57.7 cm
This 1475 map of the Holy Land is regarded as the first modern
printed map because it is not derived from a classical source (Ptolemy),
nor is it in the circular schematic format characteristic of medieval
maps. However, it retains two attributes of earlier maps: it is
"oriented" with east at the top, and Jerusalem is at the center. The
geographic information is taken largely from a now lost manuscript map
made two centuries earlier by a Dominican pilgrim, Burchard of Mt. Sion.
In this bird's-eye view, topographic features are portrayed with
reasonable accuracy, and cities and regions are depicted as stylized
hills. Jerusalem is dominant, represented as a circular walled city
overlooked by the Mount of Olives, with Bethlehem nearby on the right.
Egypt and Gaza are in the lower right corner; the port of Jaffa is at
the bottom center; the walled city of Acre ("Accon") is to the left of
Jerusalem; and Damascus is at the upper left border. Crudely illustrated
Biblical scenes include Egyptians drowning in the Red Sea (lower right),
Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law on Mount Sinai (upper right
corner), spires of the submerged cities of Sodom and Gomorrah protruding
from the Dead Sea (upper right), the Baptism of Jesus (upper center),
and the Crucifixion (below Jerusalem). Compass directions are indicated
by eight "wind-blowers" at the edges of the map.
III. Jerusalem the Holy
For out of Zion shall go forth the Law, and the word of the
Lord from Jerusalem. [Isaiah 2:3]
On a crude altar in Jerusalem, Abraham, Patriarch of three great
monotheistic religions, undertook to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac, in
accordance with God's command. When an angel of the Lord interceded,
Abraham substituted a burnt offering, a ram, for his son [Genesis
22:13]. This Biblical event, a fundamental part of Jewish, Christian,
and Islamic traditions, was the first of many to be associated with
Jerusalem (see object 1). The site of Abraham's near-sacrifice of Isaac
was Mount Moriah, later chosen by King David for his altar and by King
Solomon for his Temple. The platform on which Solomon built his Temple
encompassed Mount Moriah and has come to be called the Temple Mount.
This structure was enlarged when the Second Temple was rebuilt by Herod
(37 BC), abandoned after the destruction of the
Second Temple (AD 70), and restored when the Dome
of the Rock was built (AD 691).
For Jews, the significance of Jerusalem is evident in the books of
Prophets and Psalms. Jerusalem is named more than 750 times in the
Bible, and Zion is mentioned 180 times. Zion, the pre-Israelite fortress
of Jebusite Jerusalem [2 Samuel 5:7; 1 Chronicles 11:5] has become
synonymous with Jerusalem and the Jewish nation as a whole. The holiest
Jewish site is the Western Wall of the Temple Mount, formerly called the
For Christians, Jerusalem is the scene of key events in the life of
Jesus, especially the Crucifixion and the Resurrection. The Mount of
Olives, the Garden of Gethsemane, the Via Dolorosa, and the Church of
the Holy Sepulchre are among the holiest sites in Christendom.
For Muslims, Jerusalem is the site of the Prophet Muhammad's
ascension to heaven from the rock es-Sakhra, after a miraculous
night journey from Mecca on his legendary horse el-Burek. The
hoof print of el-Burek is said to be visible on the rock, now
enclosed within the Dome of the Rock. This magnificent mosque and the
nearby Mosque of el-Aqsa are the principal remaining shrines on the
Temple Mount, known in Arabic as el-Haram esh-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary).
This is the third most important holy site in Islam, after the Kaaba in
Mecca and the Prophet's tomb in Medina.
||11. CHAPEL OF OUR LADY OF THE CEDARS OF MOUNT LEBANON
BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF HOLY JERUSALEM
West Roxbury, Mass., ca. 1900
Colored Lithograph, 43.7 x 67.4 cm
This colorful print depicts the traditional view of Jerusalem from
the Mount of Olives, with Jesus weeping over the city. It was produced
by an American Syro-Maronite church belonging to a Roman Catholic sect
based in Lebanon, and was apparently designed as a souvenir for
pilgrims. Christian, Islamic, and Jewish holy sites are shown.
||12. BENEDICTUS ARIAS MONTANUS (BENITO ARIAS MONTANO)
MONTIS DOMINI TOTIVSQ. SACRI TEMPLI EXEMPLUM . . .
From: Biblia Sacra, Hebraice, Chaldaice, Graece, & Latine . .
Engraving, 37.3 x 47.4 cm
||Detail: the sanctum sanctorum
This imaginary view of King Solomon's Temple appeared in the
"Polyglot Bible," the text of which was in four languages: Hebrew,
Greek, Syriac, and Latin. Based on vague Biblical descriptions [1 Kings
6,7; 2 Chron. 3,4; Ezekiel 41], the structure is portrayed as
rectangular in shape with a series of courtyards and an innermost Temple
proper. Overall, the depiction is more grandiose than the Bible
suggests. The artist follows the custom of his time, portraying the
architecture in a familiar Italian Renaissance style.
El Haram Esh Sharif
Survey of Palestine, 1944
Reduced photocopy (original 98.4 x 68.6 cm.)
Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress
This is a large scale plan of el-Haram esh-Sharif, Arabic for Noble
Sanctuary or Noble Enclosure, known in English as the Temple Mount.
Place names are given in English and Arabic. Ground plans of the two
principal Islamic shrines are depicted, the octagonal Dome of the Rock
at left center and the rectangular El-Masjid el-Aqsa at the bottom left.
The map's decorative border design is taken from sixteenth-century tiles
in the Dome of the Rock.
||14. FELIX BONFILS
The Western ("Wailing") Wall, ca. 1875
Collodion print, 22.2 x 26.3 cm
Judaism's holiest shrine, commonly thought to be a remnant of King
Solomon's Temple, is actually part of a later Temple Mount. The
surviving wall was built in the first century BC
by Herod the Great when he enlarged the Temple Mount, burying the
original structures in the process. Nevertheless, the Western Wall
retains its holy status because of its symbolic connection with
Judaism's original House of the Lord and its sanctification by centuries
of fervent prayer.
||15. C. AND G. ZANGAK [BROTHERS]
Greek, fl. 1870s
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, ca.1875
Collodion print, 22.3 x 28.3 cm
According to Christian tradition, Emperor Constantine built the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the site where his mother, Empress
Helena, discovered the true cross and the tomb of Jesus in
AD 326. Over the centuries the structure has been
partly destroyed and rebuilt on several occasions. The present church
plan is largely the result of extensive reconstruction by the Crusaders
in 1149. However, the base of the original Constantinian rotunda and
part of the entrance are still preserved.
||16. FELIX BONFILS
The Dome of the Rock, ca. 1875
Collodion print, 18.5 x 26.3 cm
The Dome of the Rock, also known as the Mosque of Omar and in Arabic
as Qubbat es-Sakhra, was built by caliph Abd el-Malik near the end of
the seventh century AD Because of its traditional
association with the Prophet Muhammad's ascent to heaven, it has been,
through most of its existence, one of Islam's holiest shrines. In the
twelfth century, however, it was converted into a Christian church by
the Crusaders, who renamed it Templum Domini and placed a golden cross
over its dome. After Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187, he
rededicated the Dome of the Rock as a mosque. The structure has
undergone many repairs and decorative additions through the centuries,
but its basic design has remained substantially unchanged and it stands
as one of the greatest achievements of Islamic architecture.
IV. Jerusalem the Beautiful
Ten measures of beauty descended to the world; nine were taken
by Jerusalem and one by the rest of the world. [Babylonian
Talmud: Kidushin 49b]
"Perched on its eternal hills," wrote Mark Twain in Innocents
Abroad (1867), "white and domed and solid, massed together and
hooped with high gray walls, the venerable city gleamed in the sun." "So
Small!" he remarked, ". . . why, it was no larger than an American
village of four thousand inhabitants . . ." He mused further: "The
thoughts Jerusalem suggests are full of poetry, sublimity and more than
all, dignity." Having entered the gates and wandered through the
streets, he observed, ". . . Jerusalem is mournful and dreary and
lifeless. I would not desire to live here." But after visiting the Holy
places, he left Jerusalem and concluded that ". . . all that will be
left will be pleasant memories of Jerusalem . . . a memory which money
could not buy from us."
As Mark Twain's sentiments indicate, Jerusalem has occupied a special
place in the hearts and minds of many peoples through the ages. Without
its strong religious associations, this small and remote city would have
held little attraction for travelers, authors, or artists. Powerful
spiritual yearnings served as a magnet for religious pilgrims who
provided the earliest portrayals of the city. Religious inspiration,
always a potent influence in art, probably accounts for the fact that
Jerusalem has been portrayed more often than virtually any other city.
Jerusalem's status as a paragon of beauty is celebrated in King
Solomon's Song of Songs: "Thou art beautiful, O my love . . .
comely as Jerusalem" [6:4].
Few artists undertook the long and hazardous journey to Jerusalem
during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Most resorted instead to
descriptions in Holy Scriptures, historical accounts, and travelers'
narratives, supplemented by their own imaginations. The resulting
portrayals were, with a few notable exceptions, mixtures of second hand
observations and inspired fantasy.
The most popular view of Jerusalem is from the Mount of Olives,
overlooking the city from the east and providing an unobstructed view of
the Temple Mount and other holy sites. In his book Those Holy Fields,
the Reverend Samuel Manning wrote: "This is the view over which Jesus
wept, when he beheld its beauty."
||17. GARO NALBANDIAN
Published by Palphot Ltd., late twentieth century
Color photograph, 27.0 x 98.0 cm
The Mount of Olives is a natural observation point that has for
centuries been favored by artists and pilgrims, and more recently by
tourists and photographers. In this modern color photograph the
appearance of the Temple Mount and the old walled city is not much
different from that seen on old drawings and paintings (see object 18).
The horizon, however, is altered considerably by tall buildings of the
||18. CORNELIS DE BRUYN
From: Reizen van . . . door Klein Asia . . . en Palestina
Facsimile engraving, 28.2 x 125.3 cm
De Bruyn was one of the most accomplished artists to visit the Holy
Land before the nineteenth century. He came as a traveling artist rather
than a pilgrim and his depictions are historically valuable because of
their accuracy. This view was sketched during the period of Ottoman rule
when foreigners were regarded with suspicion and the making of "graven
images" was prohibited. De Bruyn avoided detection by pretending to be
picnicking with two Franciscan Fathers who stood guard while he made his
||19. PIERRE R. AVELINE
IERUSALEM Comme elle est a présent
Paris, ca. 1700
Engraving, hand colored, 34.1 x 51.7 cm
Although it is from the same vantage point and was published at about
the same time as de Bruyn's view (object 18), this engraving presents a
significantly different image of Jerusalem. Whereas de Bruyn's is a
first-hand eyewitness drawing, Aveline's is an imaginary image based on
an earlier imaginary rendering, itself derived from a fifteenth-century
pilgrim's sketch. Points of interest are numbered and identified in
accordance with Christian tradition. Illustrations such as this, though
outdated and inaccurate, conformed with descriptions of the city's
beauty and fulfilled the needs of armchair pilgrims.
||20. DAVID ROBERTS
JERUSALEM du cote du Nord
From: The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt and Nubia
F. Stroobant, Brussels, ca. 1845
Lithograph, 27.0 x 39.0 cm
Some of the most celebrated on-site drawings of the Holy Land were
made by the Scottish artist David Roberts in 1838 and 1839. His view of
Jerusalem from the north provides a majestic vista of the city with its
domes and minarets, and the surrounding hills and valleys.
V. Jerusalem: The Pilgrim City
Walk about Zion, and go round about it . . . [Psalms
In a sense, Abraham's journey to the Promised Land was the first
religious pilgrimage. Among the places he visited was Salem, the future
site of Jerusalem. With the bringing of the Holy Ark to Jerusalem by
King David and the erection there of the Temple of the Lord by King
Solomon, Jerusalem became the focus of Jewish pilgrims seeking to comply
with the Biblical injunction: "Three times in a year shall all thy males
appear before the Lord thy God in the place which He shall choose"
[Deuteronomy 16:16]. Through the centuries, Jews dispersed throughout
the world have engaged in pilgrimages to their Holy City.
Christian pilgrimage received a considerable stimulus in the fourth
century AD when Empress Helena, mother of Emperor
Constantine, identified the traditional sites associated with the life
and death of Jesus. The sites themselves and the magnificent churches
and shrines erected over them have attracted Christian pilgrims in large
numbers since that time, as have the holy sites from the Old Testament.
One of the Five Pillars of the Islamic faith is the hajj, an
obligatory pilgrimage to Mecca. Nevertheless, Jerusalem is known in
Arabic as el-Quds ("the holy one"), and the city is home to some of the
most important Islamic shrines. Foremost among them is the Dome of the
Rock, the magnificent mosque sheltering the rock from which Muhammad is
believed to have ascended to heaven. The Temple Mount upon which it
stands, along with the great Mosque of el-Aqsa, is reverently called
el-Haram esh-Sharif, "The Noble Sanctuary."
Early pilgrimages from Europe to Jerusalem were long and difficult
journeys. The flow of pilgrims was influenced by many circumstances
including travel facilities, wars, epidemics, and political, religious,
and economic conditions. Accounts of these journeys are rich sources of
information regarding historical events, geography, fauna and flora, and
various cultures, religious practices, customs, and languages. Pilgrims'
itineraries and maps were sometimes distorted by inaccurate observation,
hearsay, deliberate exaggeration or fabrication, or religious
preconceptions. They nevertheless provide valuable insights into the
history and topography of Jerusalem and surrounding regions. Because of
Muslim and Jewish prohibitions against "graven images," the majority of
maps were by Christian pilgrims.
||21. BERNHARD VON BREYDENBACH
German, ca. 1440-1497
German, fl. ca. 1460-1490
Untitled map of Palestine and view of Jerusalem
From: PEREGRINATIO IN TERRAM SANCTAM
Woodcut, 27.4 x 128.4 cm
||Detail: Jerusalem, in center of image, oriented to the west
This is the earliest printed map of the Holy Land based on
contemporary eyewitness sources. It appeared in the first illustrated
travel guide to the Holy Land, written by Bernhard von Breydenbach, a
Deacon of the Mainz Cathedral. Breydenbach's account is based on his
pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1483, accompanied by Erhard Reuwich, an
accomplished Dutch artist who made on-site sketches for later use as
Oriented to the East, the map presents a panoramic depiction
of the region extending from Damascus and Tripolis in the north to the
Red Sea and Alexandria in the south. Many biblical sites are portrayed,
together with other features of interest to travelers and pilgrims, such
as the Pyramids of Egypt and locations where indulgences could be
obtained. At the lower left, pilgrims are disembarking from a ship at
the harbor of Jaffa.
Inserted into the central portion of the map is a large and detailed
view of Jerusalem oriented to the west, as seen from the Mount of
Olives. This view differs from the rest of the map in both scale and
perspective, and should be viewed separately. Although this map was made
at a time when Jerusalem was under Islamic rule, the holy sites are
designated by their Christian names. The Dome of the Rock ("Templum
Salomonis") is seen at the center, with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
("Templum gloriosum Domini Sepulchri") above and to the right; a hospice
for pilgrims stands between the two shrines. These and many other sites
are depicted with unusual accuracy stemming from firsthand observation,
in contrast to the more common renditions based on vague scriptural
descriptions or pure imagination. Accordingly, the map was
extraordinarily useful to pilgrims and was widely copied.
||22. CLAES JANSZ VISSCHER
DIE HEYLIGE EN WYTVERMAERDE STADT IERUSALEM, EERST GENAEMT
From a Dutch Bible
Engraving, hand colored, 30.2 x 40.8 cm
||Detail: Calvary, with Visscher's graphic pun on his name, at
The practice of illustrating Bibles with maps began early in the
sixteenth century. By the seventeenth century, Bibles typically
contained maps illustrating five traditional subjects: the
Patriarchs; the Exodus; the Twelve Tribes of Israel in the Promised
Land; Christ and the Gospels; and, the Wanderings of Saint Paul. Some
mapmakers, such as the eminent Visscher family of Amsterdam, added a
plan of Jerusalem. This is the first such plan, an imaginary bird's-eye
view of the ancient walled city with east at the top. The Second Temple,
Mount Zion, and Herod's Palace are among 40 sites identified. A vignette
at the lower right depicts the anointment of King Solomon, and another
at the lower left portrays the Crucifixion. The fisherman in the lower
left corner represents a visual signature of the mapmaker, whose Dutch
name "Visscher" is equivalent to the English "Fisher."
||23. D. HAINES
American, fl. 1815-1833
A New Map of the LAND OF PROMISE AND THE HOLY CITY OF
Lithograph, hand colored, 58.5 x 146.5 cm
Although this map was made more than 300 years after that of von
Breydenbach (object 21), they have much in common. Both are panoramic
maps of the Holy Land from Damascus to Alexandria, oriented to the east,
with inset views of Jerusalem and depictions of many Biblical sites. The
Haines map, however, is considerably more detailed. It presents an
encyclopedic portrayal of the geography and events of the Old and New
Testaments, with graphic scenes and extensive explanatory texts. At the
top center there is a large plan of Jerusalem, clearly derived from
Visscher's (object 22). In the lower left corner there is view of
Jerusalem from the east, with Jesus approaching the city on Palm Sunday.
This map exemplifies the power of a well designed map to transmit
information by using a combination of images and words; by itself, it
could serve as a comprehensive guide for the pilgrim or Bible student.
PANORAMA OF JERUSALEM ON THE DAY OF THE CRUCIFIXION
Historical Pub[lishin]g. Co. Litho., Philadelphia, 1890
Colored lithograph, 22.5 x 309.5 cm
||Detail: The Crucifixion
This dramatic scene is taken from The Cyclorama, an enormous
three-dimensional panorama of Jerusalem on the day of the Crucifixion.
It was created in Munich between 1878 and 1882, and has been on view
since 1895 in Ste-Anne-de-Beaupre, near the city of Quebec in Canada.
The tableau is of monumental size, measuring 46 feet in height and 361
feet in circumference. The lifelike character of the display creates the
illusion of being a spectator at the historic event, a quality that is
captured in the illustration.
VI. Jerusalem: The Center of the World
This city of Jerusalem I have set in the midst of nations,
with other countries round about her. [Ezekiel 5:5]
Since Jerusalem was located near the middle of the known world of
antiquity, it naturally occupied a central position on early world maps.
During the Middle Ages, strong religious influences caused some
mapmakers to deliberately place Jerusalem at the exact center or "navel"
of the world, in accordance with Biblical descriptions. This format was
not widely adopted until the thirteenth century, following the Crusades
and the consequent popular identification of Jerusalem as a primary
spiritual center. With the advent of the Renaissance, new discoveries
and improved geographic concepts changed the extent and shape of the
known world and rendered Jerusalem-centered maps obsolete.
||25. HEINRICH BÜNTING
Die gantze Welt in ein Kleberblat ...
From: Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae ...
Woodcut, 25.8 x 36.5 cm
||Detail: The New World, at lower-left
This curious map appeared in a late sixteenth-century rendition of
the Bible in the form of an illustrated travel book. It reflects
outmoded medieval theologic-geographic concepts, placing Jerusalem at
the center of the world and at the intersection of three continents.
The format of the map is an imaginative adaptation of the cloverleaf
design taken from the coat of arms of Hannover, the author's native
city. In a mixture of fantasy and geography, the continents of the Old
World are compressed into the three petals, and England and Scandinavia
(Denmark and Sweden) are portrayed as islands in the northern ocean. The
Red Sea separates Asia from Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea fills the
angle between Africa and Europe. A glimpse of the New World is seen at
the lower left. The all-encompassing ocean is embellished with a
mermaid, a Triton, several sea monsters, and a ship.
||26. MAKER UNCERTAIN; POSSIBLY GERVASE OF TILBURY
English ca. 1160-1235
Untitled world map ["the Ebstorf map"]
Ebstorf, Germany, ca. 1235
Modern reproduction: Terra Sancta Arts Ltd., Tel-Aviv, Israel
This is a reduced and retouched reproduction of the largest known
medieval world map, made at or for the Benedictine abbey of Ebstorf in
about 1235. The original, measuring almost 12 feet in diameter, was
destroyed in an air-raid on Hannover, Germany, during World War II. It
was a classic mappamundi, a type of medieval world map or
map-painting whose chief purpose was to teach Christian history to the
faithful. Such maps attempted to summarize and locate major events in
religious and secular history and convey a wide variety of spiritual,
ethical, and scholarly information including natural history, myth, and
legend. They served as visual encyclopedias within a Christian framework
set against a geographic backdrop; geographic accuracy was, accordingly,
of secondary importance. The author's home territory was often
disproportionately enlarged, and the size of other regions was dependent
on their historical or religious importance and the amount of
information to be inscribed on them. These maps were commonly circular
in shape with east at the top, although other geometric forms and
orientations were used. As noted earlier, Jerusalem was placed at the
center of these large mappaemundi of the late Middle Ages.
The religious purpose of the Ebstorf map is clearly evident: the
world is depicted as the body of Christ. Christ's head is at the top
(east) adjacent to Paradise. His arms embrace the world and its people;
even the monstrous races of Africa are gathered in and saved by His left
hand. Jerusalem is at the navel of the world, and is depicted as a
square walled city enclosing an image of the risen Christ.
A disproportionately large Middle East occupies the central portion
of the map, with Asia above (east), Africa to the right (south), and
Europe at the lower left (northwest). Places and episodes from the Old
and New Testaments are prominently depicted. In addition, contemporary
geographic features including roads and scenic areas are portrayed,
indicating that the map was designed to meet secular as well as
religious needs of travelers.
||27. RICHARD OF HALDINGHAM [RICHARD de BELLO]
English, fl. ca. 1260-1305
Descriptio Orosii de ornesta mundi sicut interius ostenditur
Lincoln, England, ca. 1290
Original manuscript on vellum, 165 x 135 cm
Printed reproduction by Wychwood Editions, Oxfordshire, England
Osher Library Collection
This is a reproduction of the Hereford map, so-called because it has
served as an altarpiece in Hereford Cathedral for the past seven hundred
years. It is the largest (5.4 x 4.4 feet) and most detailed of the
surviving mappaemundi. Made about 50 years after the Ebstorf map,
it is similar in concept though smaller than its now-destroyed
precursor. Like the Ebstorf map, the Hereford map is circular in shape
with east at the top and the walled city of Jerusalem at the center.
Asia is at the top, Africa to the right, and Europe at the lower left;
an apparent scribal error has transposed the names of Africa and Europe.
The principal cities of Europe are depicted, along with the major trade
and pilgrim routes.
The Holy Land is greatly enlarged, occupying about one-sixth of the
world's surface. Numerous Biblical sites and events are depicted, many
of them also seen on the Ebstorf map; they include the Exodus, the
wanderings of the Israelites, Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law on
Mount Sinai, the Tower of Babel, Noah's ark on Mount Ararat, the stable
at Bethlehem, and the Crucifixion. At the very top, Christ sits in
judgement, and angels conduct the saved to heaven and the sinners to
Monstrous races -- dog-headed men, headless men with facial features
on their chests, men with single legs or four legs, and other strange
humanoid beings -- are portrayed along the southern border of Africa.
Described by such classical writers as Herodotus and Pliny, these
bizarre creatures were entrenched in medieval lore as descendents of
Adam and Noah and thus deserving of salvation.
In the lower left corner Augustus Caesar is seen issuing an edict
calling for a survey or registration of the entire world. This has been
interpreted as referring to the census that caused Mary and Joseph to
travel to Bethlehem. However, a border inscription refers to a world
survey initiated by Julius Caesar shortly before his death. The scene of
the three surveyors receiving the decree from Augustus is consistent
with the recorded history of that monumental project, since it was
largely completed during the reign of Augustus.
||28. ANDREAS WALSPERGER
Austrian, fl. 1448
Untitled circular world map
Constance (Konstanz), Germany, 1448
Facsimile of manuscript on vellum; map diameter 42.5 cm
Original in Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome
This map represents a transitional type between medieval and
Renaissance maps. It is circular in form, but is oriented to the south
rather than the east. More important, there is more emphasis on
geographic accuracy and less on transmission of historical and religious
information. An inscription at the bottom explains that the map was
drawn according to Ptolemy's scientific principles, using a uniform
scale and a framework of longitude and latitude. One consequence of this
approach is that the map is not centered on Jerusalem, but on a nearby
point in the interior of Asia Minor.
Additional features of interest are the depiction of earthly Paradise
as a large walled city at the eastern edge of Asia, the use of red color
to indicate Christian cities and black for Islamic cities, and an
inscription over the southern tip of Africa suggesting that monstrous
races reside in the antarctic region.
VII. Jerusalem: From Town to Metropolis
Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad for her, all ye that love
her! Join in her jubilation, all ye that mourn for her. ... For thus
saith the Lord: Behold, I will extend prosperity to her like a
river, and the glory of the nations like a flowing stream ... Ye
shall find comfort in Jerusalem ... [Isaiah 66:10,12,13]
From its earliest settlement some 5,500 years ago, Jerusalem's
history has been marked by periods of prosperity and rapid growth
interrupted by calamities and near-obliteration; it has survived 25
conquests and 17 destructions. Three thousand years ago the City of
David had about 2,000 inhabitants living in an area of 10 to 12 acres.
The city's population and area more than doubled during the reign of
King Solomon (ca. 961-922 BC), and reached 25,000
and 125 acres, respectively, before the destruction of 586
BC. By the time of the Roman destruction of the
city in AD 70, its area had grown to about 425
acres and its population had peaked at about 60,000, a level not
exceeded for more than 1,800 years. Jerusalem's most explosive growth
occurred in the past two centuries, from a population of less than 9,000
in 1800, to 60,000 in 1905, 164,000 in 1946, 267,000 in 1967, and
580,000 today. Its area now exceeds 45 square miles.
Jerusalem has undergone many changes during its control by a series
of governments -- from ancient Israelite, Babylonian, and Roman, to
Byzantine, Arab, Ottoman, and British. Repeated destruction and
reconstruction have left distinctive imprints. Some of these are
apparent in surviving monuments, shrines, and buildings of varying ages
and architectural styles; others have been discovered and preserved by
archaeological excavation. As Jerusalem has grown into a modern
metropolis, it has had to meet the challenge of preserving its rich
heritage while meeting the needs of its citizens.
||29. JUAN BAUTISTA VILLALPANDO
VERA HIEROSOLYMAE VETERIS IMAGO A IOANNE BAPTISTA VILLALPANDO
From: Explanationes in Ezechielis et apparatus urbis ac
Engraving, 63.8 x 75.4 cm
||Detail: Solomon's Temple
||Detail: The City of David
Villalpando was a Jesuit architect and scholar whose imaginary map of
ancient Jerusalem was based on Biblical accounts. In the belief that
Solomon's Temple was the symbol of the heavenly Jerusalem to come,
Villalpando created a detailed pictorial reconstruction and plan of the
Temple patterned after the prophet Ezekiel's visionary description. A
miniature version of his plan appears at the bottom center of the map.
Several other Biblical sites are depicted within the city, including a
circular City of David (upper left). Roman encampments and Biblical
monuments are seen outside the walls.
Villalpando's scholarship was widely respected and his conceptions of
Solomon's Temple and ancient Jerusalem were accepted and copied for more
than a century.
||30. JUAN BAUTISTA VILLALPANDO
BESCHRYVING van het Oude JERUZALEM volgens VILLALPANDUS
From: Augustin Antoine Calmet, Het Algemaen groot historisch
. . . Word-boek van den gantschen H. Bybel
Engraving, hand colored, 30.5 x 44.5 cm
This reduced version of the preceding map appeared in a Dutch text
more than a century after the original. Little has been changed except
for the smaller size and translation of names from Latin to Dutch.
||31. JUAN BAUTISTA VILLALPANDO
Probably from a Dutch Bible, ca. 1730
Engraving, hand colored, 30.3 x 46.2 cm
||Detail: Plan of Solomon's Temple
||Detail: Elevation of Solomon's Temple
In this late version of the Villalpando map, the streets of Jerusalem
have been built up and 60 sites have been numbered and identified.
Paneled border illustrations portray King Solomon, the high priest, the
Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, and altars and furnishings of the
Temple. At the top center, Solomon's Temple is portrayed as a classical
revival palace of grandiose and visionary proportions, in contrast to
Villalpando's simpler portrayal at the bottom center of the map.
||32. ADOLF ELTZNER
German, fl. ca. 1850-1855
A BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF ANCIENT JERUSALEM . . .
From: Gleason's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion
Wood engraving, 31.3 x 50.4 cm
||Detail: Solomon's Temple
This bird's-eye view presents an imaginative pictorial reconstruction
of Biblical Jerusalem. The exact time period is not fixed; traditional
sites and scenes from both Old and New Testaments are portrayed.
Solomon's Temple, depicted in the style popularized by Villalpando,
dominates the city. A large number of religious and historical sites are
delineated, and a detailed legend identifies them by number, noting
those that are pre-Christian or apocryphal. This illustration is one of
many produced in response to a high level of interest in Jerusalem
during the mid-nineteenth century. The artist, known for his city views,
portrayed the architecture and overall appearance in a style more
characteristic of a modern city than a Biblical town.
||33. FRANCISCUS HALMA
De Stadt JERUSALEM als zy hedendaeghs bevonden wordt
Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 1717
Engraving, 20.0 x 32.9 cm
This traditional bird's-eye view of Jerusalem from the east is based
on an on-site drawing made in 1578. It presents an accurate picture of
the city as it appeared after the walls were rebuilt by Suleiman the
Magnificent (1520-1566), the same walls that surround the Old City
today. Numbered legends at the bottom identify 45 holy sites and
||34. CHARLES W. WILSON
TRELAWNEY W. SAUNDERS
JERUSALEM ANCIENT & MODERN 
From: William Smith, Atlas of Ancient Geography, Biblical and
Lithograph, hand colored, 43.5 x 57.5 cm
||Detail: The ancient and medieval cities of Jerusalem
||Detail: Mount Moriah
||Detail: Upper City
The first scientifically accurate map of Jerusalem was made by Sir
Charles W. Wilson of the British Royal Engineers, who conducted the
Ordnance Survey in 1864-65. This is a reduced version of Wilson's map,
with superimposed delineations of the ancient sites (in red); the City
of David, Mount Moriah, the Upper and Lower Cities, and Bezetha are
identified. The ancient (first and second) walls are shown in red, and
the third (Suleiman's) wall in black. The few existing modern buildings
outside the walls are shown, along with several cisterns for storing
rainwater, an important resource in a water-short city. Wilson's map
marks an important milestone in the exploration and mapping of
Jerusalem, and still serves as the basis for reliable maps of the city.
||35. F. J. SALMON
JERUSALEM The Old City
The Survey of Israel
Tel Aviv, 1936/75
Printed tourist map, 69.9 x 58.4 cm
This is a twentieth-century counterpart of the early pilgrim maps and
guides already seen. It is a tourist map of the Old City and its
environs, originally produced during the British Mandate in 1936, and
updated by the Survey of Israel (Ministry of Labour, State of Israel) in
1975. The walls and gates, holy sites, residential quarters, and other
places of interest are shown and indexed.
||36. WIM VAN LEER (PUBLISHER)
Colored lithograph, 50.0 x 98.0 cm
This is a modern bird's-eye view of the entire city of Jerusalem. Its
extraordinary detail conveys the vibrant and dynamic character of the
unified city during the surge of development that followed the Six Day
War (1967), symbolized by the construction crane at work (indicated by
the arrow). A national park surrounds the Old City wall, and municipal
parks are scattered throughout the city. Public buildings including the
Knesset (Parliament), the Israel Museum, and the Hebrew University are
located in a complex of parks west of the city center (at left).